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References Albright, H. M. 1971. Administration of Historic National Park and Monument Association. Origins of National Park Service Sites. Philadelphia: Eastern Allen, D. R., and M. N. Mayuga. 1970. The mechanics of compaction and rebound, Wilmington Oil Field, Long Beach, California, U.S.A. Pp. 410-423 in Land Subsidence: Proceed- ings of the Tokyo Symposium, September 1969, Vol. II. ~ ~ International Association of Scientific Gentbrugge, Belgium: Hydrology. Anonymous. 1 923. Am. 28~31:186. Moving a church of 3200 tons. Sci. Au, S. 1974. Vegetation and Ecological Processes on Shackleford Bank, North Carolina. Scientific Monograph No. 6. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. 86 pp. Baker, R. 1981. Letter from Robert Baker, Regional Dir- ector, Southeast Region to Brigadier General James R. Ellis, Commander, U.S. Army Engineers Division, South Atlantic, July 1 5, 1 98 1. Benton, S. 1981. Preliminary Coastal Resources Commis- sion and Office of Coastal Management Position on Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. Memorandum to Melba Strickland, NRCD, Office of Regulatory Relations, March 5, 1981. Benton, S. 1982. Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Protection. Memorandum to the North Carolina Coastal Resources Com- mission, August IS, 1982. Blackwelder, B. W., I. G. MacIntyre, and O. H. Pilkey. 1982. Geology of continental shelf, Onslow Bay, North Caro 125
Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Geol. Bull. 66:44-56. Boyce, S. G. 1954. Monogr. 24:29-67. Braatz, B. V., and D. G. Aubrey. l 9X7. Recent relative sea-level change in eastern North America. Pp. 29-46 in D. Nummedal, O. H. Pilkey, and J. D. Howard, eds. Sea Level Fluctuation and Coastal Evolution. Special Publication 41. Tulsa, Okla.: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Miner- alogists, Broome, S. W., E. D. Seneca, and W. W. Woodhouse, Ir. 1982. Building and Stabilizing Coastal Dunes with Vegetation. Publication 82-05. Raleigh, N.C.: UNC Sea Grant Program. 19 pp. Bruun, P. 1962. Sea-level rise as a cause of shore ero- sion. J. Waterways and Harbors Div. ASCE SS(WW1~:117- 130. California Coastal Commission, et al., appellants v. Granite Rock Company. l9X7. Law Week 55:4366-4375. Cape Hatteras National Seashore Act of 1937. 16. U.S.C., Section 459. U.S. Statutes at Large 50:669-671. Chesson, J. P. 1982. Resolution, August 27, 1982. North Carolina Coastal Resources Commission, J. Parker Chesson, Chairman. Coastal Area Management Act of 1974. General Statutes of North Carolina, Chapter 113A, Sections 100-128. Coastal Barrier Resources Act. 1982. 16 U.S.C., Sections 3501-3510. U.S. Statutes at Large 50:669-671. Coastal Zone Management Improvement Act of 1980. Public Law 96-464. U.S. Statutes at Large 94:2060-2070. Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972. 16 U.S.C., Sec- tions 1451 - 1464. U.S. Statutes at Large 86:1280- 1289. Curtis, J. O. 1979. Moving Historic Buildings. HCRS Publication No. 9. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Tech- nical Preservation Services Division. 50 pp. Dean, R. G., and E. M. Maurmeyer. 1983. Models for beach profile response. Pp. 151 - 165 in CRC Handbook of Coastal Processes and Erosion Control, P.D. Komar and J. R. Moore, Eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Dolan, R., and I. C. Ferm. 1968. Crescentic landforms along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Science 126 The salt spray community. Ecol.
127 References 1 59:627-629. Dolan, R., and B. Hayden. 1983. Patterns and prediction of shoreline change. Pp. 123-149 in CRC Handbook of Coastal Processes and Erosion, P. D. Komar and J. R. Moore, eds. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. Dolan, R., and H. Lins. 1986. The Outer Banks of North Carolina. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1 1 77-B. Prepared in cooperation with the National Park Service. _ Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 47 pp. Everts, C. H., J. P. Battley, and P. N. Gibson. 1983. Shoreline Movements Between Cape Henry, Virginia and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 1949- 1980. WES-CERC Technical Report 83-1. Vicksburg, Miss.: '~ ~ ^-~- '~~ ~^^- ``r^~^ ways Experiment Station. 111 pp. Everts, C. H. 1987. Continental shelf evolution in response to a rise in sea level. Pp. 49-57 in D. Nummedal, O. H. Pilkey, and J. D. Howard, eds. Sea Level Fluctuation and Coastal Evolution. Special Publication 41. Tulsa, Okla.: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. Federal Acquisition Regulations System. 1987. Federal Regulations, Title 48. Fischetti, D. C. 1986. Letter from David C. Fischetti, President, Move the Lighthouse Committee, to Donald P. Hodel, Secretary of the Interior, December 29, 1986. Fischetti, D. C. 1987. Letter from David C. Fischetti, President, Move the Lighthouse Committee, to F. Dominic Dottavio, Regional Chief Scientist, Southeast Region, National Park Service, June 1, 1987. Fischetti, D. C., O. H. Pilkey, Jr., D. M. Bush, and B. D. Wilson. 1987. Move It or Lose It: The Case for Relocation of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. the Dept. of Geology, Duke Study of Developed Shorelines. Lighthouse Committee. 83 pp. Flood Control Act of 1936. u .~. ^~ Ably Or w a~er Code of Contribution 87-1 1 from University, Program for the Cary, N.C.: Move the 33 U.S.C., Section 701a. U.S. Statutes at Large 49:1570-1597. Flourney, W., Jr. 1982. Letter from William Flourney Jr., North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Com- munity Development, to Jay Gogue, National Park Service, January 1S, 1982. Fulton-Bennett, K., and G. B. Griggs. 1987. Coastal Pro tection Structures and their effectiveness. Special publica
Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse 128 lion. Sacramento, Calif.: State of California Department of Boating and Waterways. 48 pp. Gerwick, B. C., Jr. 1986. Construction of Offshore Structures. New York: Wiley. 552 pp. Ginsburg, R. N., and H. A. Lowenstam. 1958. The influence of marine bottom communities on the depositional environment of sediments. J. Geol. 66:310-31 S. Godfrey, P. J., and M. M. Godfrey. 1976. Barrier Island Ecology of Cape Lookout National Seashore and Vicinity, North Carolina. National Park Service Scientific Monograph Series, no. 9. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 160 pp. Godfrey, P. J., S. P. Leatherman, and P. A. Buckley. 1978. Impact of off-road vehicles on coastal ecosystems, pp. 581 - 600. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Technical, Envi- ronmental, Socioeconomic and Regulatory Aspects of Coastal Zone Planning and Management, March 14-16, 1978, San Francisco, Calif. Gornitz, V., and S. Lebedeff. 1987. Global sea level changes during the last century. Pp. 3- 16 in D. Nummedal, O. H. Pilkey, and J. D. Howard, eds. Sea Level Fluctuation and Coastal Evolution. Special Publication 41. Tulsa, Okla.:Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. Gornitz, V., S. Lebedeff, and J. Hansen. 1982. Global sea level trend in the past century. Science 215:1611-1614. Guse, N. G., Jr. 1982. Letter from Neal G. Guse Jr., Acting Regional Director, Southeast Region, National Park Service, to Colonel Robert K. Hughes, Wilmington District Corps of Engineers, September 13, 1982. Hague, D. B., and R. Christie. 1975. Lighthouses: Their Architecture, History and Archaeology. Wales: Gomer Press. Hands, E. B. 1976. Observations of Barred Coastal Pro- files under the Influence of Rising Water Levels, Eastern Lake Michigan, 1967-1971. TR-76-1. Vicksburg,Miss.: Coastal Engineering Research Center. Hag, B. U., I. Hardenbol, and P. R. Vail. 1987.Chron ology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic.Science 235:1156- 1167. Hasbrouck Hunderman Architects and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates. 1986a. Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Comprehensive Preservation Program Report. Prepared for the National Park Service. Chicago, Ill.: Hasbrouck Hunderman Architects.
129 References Service. Chicago, Ill.: Hasbrouck Hunderman Architects. Hasbrouck Hunderman Architects with Wiss, Janney, Elst- ner Associates. 1 986b. Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Compre- hensive Structural Analysis Report. Prepared for the National Park Service. Chicago, Ill.: Hasbrouck Hunderman Architects. Heron, S. D., Jr., T. F. Herbert, G. A. Steele, III, cene sedimentation of a wave-dominated barrier-island shoreline: Cape Lookout, North Carolina. Mar. Geol. 60:413- 434. Historic Sites, Buildings, and Antiquities Act. 1935. 16 U.S.C. Sections 461-467. U.S. Statutes at Large 49:666-668. Hoffman, J. S., J. B. Wells, and J. G. Titus. 1986. Future global warming and sea level rise. In Iceland Coastal and River Symposium '85, G. Sigbjarnarson, ed. Reykjavik: National Energy Authority. Hoffman, J. S., D. Keyes, and J. G. Titus. 1983. Project- ing Future Sea Level Rise: Methodology, Estimates to the Year 2100, and Research Needs, 2nd Edition. Washington D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 121 pp. Holland, F. R., Jr. 1968. A History of the Cape Hatteras Light Station, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina. National Park Service, Division of History, Sept. 30, 1968 (Washington, D.C.) Hosier, P. E. 1973. The Effects of Oceanic Overwash on the Vegetation of Core and Shackleford Banks, North Caro- lina. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N.C. 230 PP. Hosier, P. E., and W. J. Cleary. 1977. Cyclic geomorphic patterns of washover on a barrier island in southeastern North Carolina. Environ. Geol. 2:23-31. Hoyt, J. H., and V. J. Henry, Jr. 1971. Origin of capes and shoals along the southeastern coast of the United States. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 82:59-66. Hughes, R. K. 1981. Letter from Robert K. Hughes, Department of the Army, Wilmington District, Corps of Engineers to Robert Baker, Regional Director, Southeast Region, National Park Service, December 16, 1981. Inman, D. L., and C. E. Nordstrom. 1971. On the tec- tonic and morphologic classification of coasts. J. Geol. 79: 1- 21. Moslow, W. M. Berelson, J. R. and K. R. Susman. 1984. Holo
Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse 130 Jenkins, S. A., and D. W. Skelly. 1987. Hydrodynamics of Artificial seaweed for Shoreline Protection. SIO Reference Series No. 87-16. La Jolla, Calif.: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Center for Coastal Studies. Kraft, J. C. 1971. Sedimentary facies patterns and geo- logic history of a Holocene marine transgression. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 82:2131-2158. Langfelder L. J., D. B. Stafford, and M. Amein. 1968. A Reconnaissance of Coastal Erosion in North Carolina. Pre- pared for the State of North Carolina, Department of Civil Engineering. Project ERD-238. Raleigh, N.C.: North Carolina State University. 127 pp. Leatherman, S. P. 1984. Coastal geomorphic responses to sea level rise: Galveston Bay, Texas. Pp. 151-178 in Green- house Effect and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge for This Gen- eration, M. C. Barth and J. G. Titus, eds. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Leatherman, S. P. 1985. Geomorphic effects of acceler- ated sea level rise on Ocean City, Maryland. Pp. 33-65 in Potential Impacts of Sea Level Rise on the Beach at Ocean City, Maryland. EPA 230 10-85-013. Washington, D.C.: Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Leatherman, S. P. 1987. Beach and shoreface response to sea-level rise: Ocean City, Maryland, U.S.A. Prog. Oceanog. 18:139- 149. Lee Wan and Associates, Inc. 1982. Cost Estimate for Segmental Relocation and Reconstruction of the Historical Lighthouse at Cape Hatteras, Buxton NC. Prepared for the National Park Service Southeast Region. Lisle, L. D. 1985. Foundation of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. Shore and Beach (April):29-31. Lunz, J. D., T. W. Zweigler, R. T. Huffman, R. J. Diaz, E. J. Clairain, and L. J. Hunt. 1978. Habitat Development Field Investigations, Windmill Point Marsh Development Site, James River, Virginia: Summary Report. Technical Report D-79-23. U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station. 116 pp. May, S. K., R. Dolan, and B. P. Hayden. 1983. Erosion of U.S. shorelines. EOS 64:551-552. Minehart, T. 1986. Duke professor: Seawall will doom lighthouse. Durham Morning Herald, August 17, p. Al. Moslow, T. F., and S. D. Heron, Ir. 1986. Cape Lookout
131 References cuspate foreland depositional systems. Pp. 397-413 in SEPM Field Guidebooks, Southeastern United States, D. A. Textoris, ed. Third Annual Midyear Meeting, Raleigh, N.C. Tulsa, Okla.: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. MTMA Associates. 1980. Study and Report: Cape Hat- teras Lighthouse. Prepared for the National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colo. Raleigh, N.C.: MTMA Associates. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Title I, Section 101. 42 U.S.C., Section 4331. U. S. Statutes at Large 83:852-854. National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (as amended). 42 U.S.C., Sections 4001-4128. National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980. 16 U.S.C. 470. U.S. Statutes at Large 94:2987-3006. National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. 16 U.S.C., Section 470. U.S. Statutes at Large 80:915-919. National Park Service Organic Act. 1916. 16 U.S.C., Sec- tion 1. U.S. Statutes at Large 39:535-536. Neumann, C. J., et al. 1978. Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871 - 1977. Washington, D.C.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Government Printing Office. Nixon, S. W. 1980. Between coastal marshes and coastal waters: a review of twenty years of speculation and research on the role of salt marshes in estuarine productivity and water chemistry. Pp. 437-525 in Estuarine and Wetland Processes, with Emphasis on Modeling, P. Hamilton, and K. B. Macdonald, eds. Marine Science 11. New York: Plenum Press. Nordstrom, K. F. 1987. Shoreline changes on developed coastal barriers. Pp. 65-79 in Cities on the Beach: Manage- ment Issues of Developed Coastal Barriers, R. H. Platt, S. G. Pelczarski, and B. K. R. Burbank eds. Research Paper No. 224. Chicago, Ill.: The University of Chicago, Department of Geography. North Carolina. 1973. Conservation of natural resources. Article XIV, Section 5 of Constitution of North Carolina. North Carolina. 1987. General policy guidelines for the coastal area. Administrative Code, Subchapter 7M, Sections .0100-.0801. North Carolina, Coastal Resources Commission. 1985. In
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Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse 134 PP. Prentis, E. A., and L. White. 1950. Underpinning: Its Practice and Applications, 2nd Edition. New York: Columbia University Press. 374 pp. Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties, Code of Federal Regulations. Title 36, Pt. 800. 1987 ed. Revelle, R. R. 1983. Probable future changes in sea level resulting from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pp. 433-448 in Changing Climate. Report of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Rhodes, S. T. 1985. Letter from S. Thomas Rhodes, North Carolina, Department of Natural Resources and Com- munity Development to Lieutenant Colonel L. Warren, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, September 9, 1985. Robin, G. deQ. 1986. Changing the sea level: Projecting the rise in sea level caused by warming of the atmosphere. Pp. 323-359 in The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Change, and Ecosystems, B. Bolin, B. R. Dons, I. Jager, and R. A. Warrick, eds. SCOPE 29. New York: Wiley. Rogers, J. L. 1987. Moving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. National Park Service, Washington, D. C. April 14. Memor- andum. Rogers, S., Ir. 1986. Artificial Seaweed for Shoreline Erosion Control. Working Papers 86-4. Raleigh, N.C.: North Carolina State University, UNC Sea Grant College Program. 18 pp. Rosen, P. S. 1978. A regional test of the Brunn rule on shoreline erosion. Mar. Geol. 26:1-2. Sande, T. A. 1984. Presenting the truth about the past. Cultural Resources Management Bull. 7~4~:1-3 Schroeder, P. M., R. Dolan, and B. P. Hayden. 1976. Vegetation changes associated with barrier dune construction on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Environ. Management 1:105-1 14. Schwartz, M. L. 1965. Laboratory study of sea-level rise as a cause of shore erosion. I. Geol. 73:528-534. Sheridan, R. E. 1974. Atlantic continental margin of North America. Pp. 391-407 in The Geology of Continental Margins, C. A. Burk and C. L. Drake, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Simpson, R. H., and M. B. Lawrence. 1971. Atlantic Hur
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