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MICROBIAL PROCESSES Promising Technologies for Developing Countries Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation Board on Science and Technology for International Development Commission on International Relations National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1979
This report has been prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations, Na- tional Research Council, for the Office of Science and Technology, Bureau for Technical Assistance, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., under Contract No. AID/csd-2584, Task Order No. 1. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of E~;neering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible fO~he report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to proce- dures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medi- cine. Library of Congress Catalog Number 79-91534
Panel on Microbial Processes J. ROGER PO RTER, Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Chairman ROBERT F. ACKER, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. ARTHUR W. ANDERSON, Department of Microbiology, Oregon State Uni- versity, Conallis, Oregon WINTHROP D. BELLAMY, Department of Food Science, Comell University, Ithaca, New York WAYNE M. BROOKS, Department of Entomology, University of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina MARVIN P. BRYANT, Department of Dairy Science, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois LEE A. BULLA, JR., U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory, Federal Research, North Central Region, Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Manhattan, Kansas J O E C . B U RT O N. N. IT RA G IN, Milwaukee, Wisconsin STAFFAN DELIN, Berkeley, California RICHARD D. DONOVICK, American Type Culture Collection, Stocky, Maryland EUGENE L. DULANEY, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, Rahway, New Jersey LLOYD R. FREDERICK (formerly, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa), Senior Microbiologist, Office of Agriculture, Tropical Soil and Water Management Division, Development Support Bureau, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. JAMES W. GERDEMANN, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois CLARENCE G. GOLUEKE, Cal Recovery Systems Incorporated, Richmond, California RICHARD S. HANSON, Department of Bacteriology, University of Wiscon- sin, Madison, Wisconsin CLIFFORD W. HESSELTINE, Northern Regional Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois GLADYS L. HOBB Y (formerly, Chief, Specie Research Laboratory [Infec- tious Diseases], U. S. Veterans Administration, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York), Editor-in-Chief, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania RILEY D. HOUSEWRIGHT, Committee on To~colo~, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. CARLO M. IGNOFFO, Biological Control of Insects Research Laboratory, Entomology Resources Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Research Park, Columbia, Missouri . . .
T. KENT KIRK, U.S. Forest Products Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agri- culture, Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin ALLEN I. LASKIN, EXXON Research and Engineering Comply, Linden, New Jersey JOHN H. LITCHFIELD, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio DONALD H. MARX, Forestry Science Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agri- culture, Forest Service, Athens, Georgia WILLIAM I. OSWALD, Professor of Sanitary Engineering and Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California BURTON M. POGELL, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri DAVID PRAMER, Associate Vice President for Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey D O N A LD W . R O B E R T S. Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York OLDRICH K. SEBEK, Infectious Diseases Research, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan KEITH H. STEINKRAUS, Department of Food Science and Technology, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York DONALD K. WALTER, Urban Waste Technology, U.S. Department of En- ergy, Washington, D.C. DEANE F. WEBER, Cell Culture and Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland BERNARD A. WEINER, Northem Regional Research Center, U.S. Depart- ment of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois WILLIAM E. WOODWARD, Program in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas OSKAR R. ZABORSKY, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. NAS Steering Committee J. ROGER PO RTER, Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa ROBERT F. ACKER, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. RILEY D. HOUSEWRIGHT, Committee on Toxicology, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Study Staff B. K. WESLEY COPELAND, Board on Science and Technology for Inter- nat~onal Development, Commission on International Relations, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 1V
M. G. C. McDONALD DOW, Board on Science and Technology for Inter- national Development, Commission on International Relations, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C. E. GRIFFIN SHAY, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Contributors MARTIN ALEXANDER, Department of Soil Science, Comell University, Ithaca, New York LARR Y L. AND ER SO N. Department of Mining ~ Fuels Engineering, Uni- vexsity of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah DURWARD BATEMAN, President, Plant Pathology Society, Cornell Univer- sity, Ithaca, New York L. JOE BERRY, Department of Microbiology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas JOHN J. BOLAND, Department of Geography and Environmental Engineer- ing, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland HENRY R. BUNGAY, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineer- ing, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York ROBERT H. BU RRIS, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin R. R. CO LW ELL, Director, Sea Grant Program, University of Maryland, Col- lege Park, Maryland R. JAMES COOK, Regional Cereal Disease Research Laboratory, USDA, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington THO M A S M. COO K, Department of Microbiology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland D O N L. C R AW F O R D, Department of Bacteriology & Biochemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho CONSTANT C. DEEWICHE, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, California RAYMOND N. DOETSCH, Department of Microbiology, University of Mary- land, College Park, Maryland LOUIS A. FALCON, Department of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley, California RICHARD A. FINKELSTEIN, Department of Microbiology, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas E. M. FOSTER, Director, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin HARLYN O. HALVORSON, Director, Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts v
R O B E R T P. H A N S O N. Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wis- consin, Madison, Wisconsin CARL-GORAN HEDEN, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden DAVID HENDLIN, Senior Director, Developmental Microbiology, Merck Sharp & Dohme Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey H. HEUKELEKIAN, New York, New York WILLIAM N. HUBBARD, JR., President, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan ARTHUR E. HUMPHREY, Dean, College of Engineering and Applied Sci- ence, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania J. W. PI. LA RIVIERE, International Institute for Hydraulic and Environ- mental Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands R A YM O N D C. LO E H R. Director, Environmental Studies Program, Riley- Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York CLAYTON W. McCOY, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univer- sity of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida WALSH McDERMOTT, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey ROSS E. McKINNEY, N. T. Veatch Professor of Environmental Health, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas ROBERT A. MAH, Division of Environmental & Nutritional Studies, Univer- sity of California School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California STAN M. MARTIN, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada EMIL M. MRAK, Chancellor Emeritus, University of California, Davis, Cali- fornia DANIEL J. O'NEIL, Engineering Experiment Station, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia H. PEPPIER, Mite Fish Bay, Wisconsin ELWYN T. REESE, Food Sciences Laboratory, U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command, Natick, Massachusetts MARTIN H . R OGOFF, Senior Staff Scientist, Hazard Evaluation Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. JAMES P. SAN ANTONIO, Science and Education Administration U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland WILLIAM D. SAWYER, Chairman, Department of Microbiology and Im- munology, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana RICHARD SOPER, Acting Research Leader, Insect Pathology Research Insti- tute, Boyce Thompson Institute, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ithaca, New York KENNETH V. THIMANN, T~ann Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, California GEORGE T. TSAO, Laboratory of Renewable Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana V1
D. M. UPDEGRAFF, Chemistry and Geochemistry Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado ABEL WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland B. C. WOLVERTON, National Space Technology Laboratories, NSTL Sta- tion, Mississippi LU NG-CH ~ W U. Campbell Institute for Agricultural Research, Napoleon, Ohio . . All
Roger Porter, who directed the organization and preparation of this report, died on May 24, 1979. Dr. Porter will be remembered for his unflagging dedication to the use of science for the benefit of mankind and for his warm and gracious manner in pursuing this purpose.
Preface The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, through the Commission on International Relations and its Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID), has investigated scientific and technological advances that may be applicable to the less- developed regions of the world. BOSTID'S Advisor Committee on Tech- nology Innovation (ACTI) has reviewed a number of technologies in the United States and elsewhere to assess their potential for contributing to the economic and social well-being of those in developing countries. It is in this context that this study of microbiological processes was carried out. An ad hoc panel of ACTI convened in August 1977 to select a group of microbial processes with promise for wider use in the developing world. To make the selection process more manageable, a steering committee of the panel chose ten subject areas they felt were most important to developing countries. In each subject area, specialists from the panel were asked to analyze the responses from a questionnaire sent to approximately 25,000 biological scientists and engineers. Each subpanel selected a small number of examples of microbial processes that met either of the following criteria: · The process can be beneficially employed in developing countries or · The process has sufficient potential for developing countries to merit research and development for future use. Because of the unique conditions in each country where the processes may be used, no attempt has been made to quantify economic feasibility. Depend- ing on indigenous needs and resources, a process appropriate for one country may be inappropriate for another. Assistance in reaching technical or economic conclusions concerning the various processes may be solicited from the individuals and institutions cited throughout the report. 1X
x PREFACE For the convenience of the reader, each process is presented in a separate chapter, giving the following information: . Methodology · Potential value of the process Special needs and limitations Research and development requisites Suggested readings Sources for obtaining microorganisms. In addition, the Introduction provides a nontechnical summary of the processes described in each chapter and characterizes the organisms and their general physical and nutritional needs. The panel wishes to thank the many scientists who contributed informa- tion. Special appreciation is expressed to Marcia A. Duncan, research assis- tant; Mary Jane Engquist, staff assistant; and to Dorothy M. Woodbury and Cicely Henry, who served as administrative secretaries, for preparing draft documents for the meeting and for producing the final manuscript of this report; they have been most helpful. The panel also acknowledges the help of Diosdada DeLeva, Maryalice Risdon, and Wendy D. White for bibliographic editing and Harry Hatt, of the American Type Culture Collection, for stan- darduing the nomenclature of microorganisms. The final report was edited and prepared for publication by F. R. Ruskin, for whose assistance the panel is grateful.
Contents I NTRODUCTION RAW MATERIALS FOR MICROBIAL PROCESSES Typical Raw Materials Underutilized Raw Materials FOO D AN D AN I MA L F EE D Food Preservation Improving Nutritional Value Production of Meat-Like Flavors Koji Method of Producing Enzymes Indonesian Tempeh Single-Cell Protein Production 3 SOI L Ml CROBES IN PLANT HEALTH AND NUTR ITION Mineral Cycling by Soil Microorganisms Mycorrhizal Fungi Biological Control of Soil-Borne Pathogens 4 NITROGEN FIXATION Symbiotic Systems Asymbiotic Fixation MICROBIAL INSECT CONTROL AGENTS Development of Bioinsecticides Bacteria Viruses Protozoa ~ . Fungi 6 F U E L AN D EN E RG Y Ethanol Utilization of Cellulose Methane 1 10 11 15 18 19 24 28 30 32 37 47 48 51 55 59 61 71 80 80 84 89 94 98 107 108 111 111 X1
X11 Methanol Hydrogen Bacterial Leaching 7 WASTE TREATMENT AND UTI LIZATION Algal-Bacterial Systems Composting Anaerobic Lagoons Recycling Animal Waste by Aerobic Fermentation Recycling Animal Waste by Anaerobic Fermentation 8 CE LLU LOSE CONV E RSION Volvanella Species Lentinus edodes Pleurotus Species Thermoactinomyces Species Phanerochaete chrysosporium Trichoderrna reesei Other Species 9 ANTIBIOTICS AND VACCINES Antibiotics Vaccines 10 PURE CULTURES FOR MICROBIAL PROCESSES Major Pure Culture Collections World Data Center and Microbiological Resource Centers Preservation Methods Mixed Microbial Cultures Patenting of Processes Involving Microorganisms 1 1 FUTU R E PE RSPECTIVES I N Ml CROBIOLOGY REGULATIONS FOR PACKAGING AND SHIPPING VIABLE MICROB IAL CULTURES Board on Science and Technology for International Development Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation CONTENTS 116 117 119 124 125 131 133 136 138 142 143 144 148 149 151 152 153 158 160 169 177 178 178 180 184 184 186 191 193 195