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O\~L REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OR SCIE~- TIFIC PROBLEMS OF ~K MIGRATION CO~IIIEE PERSONNEL THE I~III^L COMMITTEE : R. A. Perked CA~ Raymond Dodge,J.L.~erri~m,F.R.LDDe,~ Van Kleeck,Clark Kessler. THE CO~F=E~CE GROUPS : F~ E.G.B~~g,C.C.Brl~=m, R _ nd Badge E. L.Tho~dik~ R. Ha. ye; C. B. Sport S. J. Bolmes, Raymond Pearl, Clark ~lssler, F. R. Lillie; A, Edith at. Watt, Robert I. Crane, B. P. Fold C. B. Haskins, J. Franklin Jackson, Charles E. Merriam, William F. Oghurn, Robert E. Ark, George Soule, Wiry Van Fleecy. SCOT: ^~C OB ~d Cro~~ Reuben Ottenberg, Ha; Karl Landsteiner, A. F. Cam THE BERET CO~ITIEE 1922-23: R. at. Perky, a; Raymond Dodges ~ C. Serum, F. R. LlUle, Wiry Van Kleeck, Clark Wissler. -~4: R. a. Perked Ala; Raymond Dodge, A. E. Jenks, F. R. ~Die, I c. ~erclam, Y~ ~ Bleed, Clark Wlssler. It-: R. at. Yerkes, a; ~dvlg Dekto~, J. C. Gerald, Canard a. Metcalf, W. C. ~hchelt Wiry Vat Kleeck, Clark Wlssler, R. S. Woodworth. 1925-26: Clark Kessler, Ha; Edith a. Abbott Isis Bowm~, Raymond Dodge, B. a. Mugger, J. C. Gerald, W. C. Mitchell, C. a. Stratton, V. C. Vaughn, R. a. Yerkes. It-: Clerk ~lssler, And; Idly a. Abbott, Tsalah Bowman, L. J. Cola Rand gage, Ludvlg Bektoen, A. V. Kidder, J. C. Gerald, W. C. Tell, R. a. Yerkes. HISTORICAL S1ATE~ENI In 1922 the National Research C ^ ncH authorized the appolntmentof ~ com mitten on sclentlAc problems of human migr~lon, and, subse- quently, the ~lvldon of Anthro ~ ogy and Psychology appointed the InId~ conun~tee? The instructions to this com mittee were to study ~ Yerkes, Robert at., The Work of the Committee on SdentlAc Problems of Human ~gratl~, 11 Beseech Council (Reprint Id Circular Serbs of ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IN ( ~ ~ ~)
2 Scientific Problems of Human Migration: Wissler the needs of research with respect to migration, particularly as it relates to the United States, and, if advisable, to formulate a statement of the most timely and promising investigations needing encouragement and to lay this list of recommendations before the Division to which the committee was directly responsible. After a review of the situation as respects migration studies, the initial committee recommended the calling of a general conference under the auspices of the National Research Council. Such a conference was authorized and held in the National Research Council building and attended by more than twenty persons, representing practically every serious line of migration inquiry, scien- tific or practical. At that conference each person present was called upon to recommend lines of attack and to substantiate his claims to their urgency. Full minutes of this conference were prepared and after- wards carefully reviewed by the initial committee. The consensus of opinion in the conference indicated that need ex- isted for special kinds of research ire the field of migration and that special provision for the stimulation of such investigations was de- sirable. Accordingly, the initial committee decided to formulate a gen- eral program and to segregate its objectives under three main heads: sociological, biological, and psychological. To each of these more specialized fields further consideration was given by three subcommittee conference groups, the recommendations of which are presented in brief outline. SUB-COMMITTEE ON PSYCHOLOGY. The sub-committee on psychology reported that, in approaching the problem of mental measurements in re- lation to migrations, the central need was for improved and new methods of analysis arid mental measurements. " The present methods at best are inadequate. In certain important directions, methods of measure- the study of ethnic or individual mental traits or differences, investiga- ment are wholly lacking. Important phases of anthropological research, tion of the behavior of such traits and inheritance of their stability and significance, wait upon progress in methodology." Four types of such inquiry were believed essential: (a) internation- alized mental measurements; (b) the measurement of primitive human response; (c) the analysis of personality; (d) motor ability. A detailed explanatory statement was submitted under each head, summarized in the following: (a) Internationalized Octal measurements. Further analysis of men- tal traits, (inclusive of behavior), and the development of methods of measuring their principal varieties and aspects. The proposed methods as nearly as possible should be applicable irrespective of race, language,
Scientific Problems of Human Migration: Wissler 3 custom, sex and age; they should yield comparable results as among races and individuals. Given methods such as have been described, com- parison of individuals and ethnic or other groups would be possible and the selection of immigrants could be greatly improved. (b) Measurement of primitive hen response. Methods for the measurement of primitive human responses and their changes in the life history of the individual are needed for the understanding of more complex forms of behavior. Sound tests of intelligence, temperament, and character, can be elaborated only when we know the nature and modifiability of the relatively simple factors out of which they are built up, i. e., the reflexes, elementary habits and feeling reactions, and the primitive patterns of their inhibition, reinforcement, and complication. The work is primarily psycho-physiological and it should speedily in- crease the value of psychological technique for physiology and other branches of biology. (c) ~ ysis of personality. Analysis of human personality, includ- ing temperament and character, and endeavor to devise methods of measuring or rating their essential traits or components. This division of the methodological field, as contrasted with (b) above, deals with complex assemblages of traits. It is the opinion of the con- ference that instead of working from the simple to the complex it would probably be more fruitful to initiate work simultaneously at both ex- tremes. For in the case of "intelligence" a complex assemblage of functions still incompletely analyzed and little understood-certain crude <'tests " have yielded practically helpful results and have pointed the way for the development of more refined and reliable methods. So it may turn out that human personality, and more particularly tempera- ment and character, are amenable to certain crude and inaccurate yet practically useful methods of analysis and rating. (d) Motor ability. The analysis of manual or mechanical ability, skill or craftsmanship and the preparation of methods of measuring their essential constituents. Although intimate knowledge of motor ability or gift is necessary for wise educational treatment of the indi- vidual and for safe vocational guidance, little progress has been made in this sphere of methodology. The first step, logically and practically, toward more information, is the development of methods of observation and measurement. At present, lack of intelligence or low order of intelligence, is commonly assumed to imply the presence of more than ordinary mechanical ability. This is not necessarily correct; the oppo- site may be true. In the study of ethnic characteristics and attempts to evaluate them, reliable descriptions of motor capacity and skill are
4 Scientific Pro bleats of Human Migration: Wissler likely to prove as important as are similar descriptions of intelligence, temperament and character. Finally, the sub-committee recommended that in each of these four principal divisions of psychological methodology provision be made for systematic work at some well-equipped laboratory and under the direc- tion of an experienced and competent investigator. The committee estimated the minimum aid needed for such researches as $30,000 per year for a period of three years. Also, specific recommendations were made as to three or more outstanding investigators under each. SUB-COMMITTEE ON THE SOCIAL SCIENCES. Representatives of the social sciences were invited to the preliminary general conference and at a later meeting of the committee, it was recommended that a sub- committee of the social sciences be appointed to make recommendations in that field, giving particular attention to possible cooperation with existing committees and institutions actively engaged in migration studies. This committee recommended a special conference, which was sub- sequently held in Washington, to which came representatives from the Social Science Research Council, the American Economics Association, the American Sociological Society, the American Political Science Asso- ciation, and the American Historical Association. Previous to this con- ference two projects had been suggested, one to comprise a study of individual immigrants, following them up for a period of years; the other a study of an immigrant group or community. The conference suggested that eight lines of inquiry be considered: I. Analysis of census data concerning the occupational and geo- graphical distribution of foreign born. 2. The effect of migration upon the standard of living. 3. Negro migration in the United States. 4. Relations between employers and employees in industry as affected by immigration. 5. Human migration in relation to the successful functioning of demo- cratic government. 6. Study of type communities in the United States. 7. Statistical study of labor shortage and surplus. 8. Sunrey of sources of information available in Europe. It was felt that such preliminary considerations would develop more intensive studies and that such investigations would therefore be ad- ~rantageous in the development of a final program of research. The conference was of the opinion that the proposed joint study of a selected community or group by sociologists, psychologists, and biologists, was
Scientific Problems of Human Migration: Wissler 5 not advisable at this time. It was also emphasized that the question, why do people migrate, was' fundamental, and that any attack upon this question would develop a number of important problems. SUB COMMITTEE ON Biology. Instructions to this sub-committee were to give special attention to the problem of race intermixture, such as results from migration. It was the opinion of this committee that problems in race intermixture cannot be studied alone, but are involved in the entire complex of population problems, geographic, economic, racial, social, psychological, and medical. It was felt that the questions raised by students of migration are not peculiar to that phenomenon alone, but are part of human biology in general, and hence any inquiry under this head must proceed upon general lines. A number of lines of investigation were suggested: I. The definition and elaboration of race norms. a. The measurement of environmental influences. 3. Improvements in methods of tabulation of birth and death statistics. As the fundamental problem in race mixture is essentially genetics, investigation cannot be limited to the study of race crosses. The ultimate problem involved is the inheritance of basic biological characters, mental and temperamental, as! well as physical; and attention must of necessity be given to social environment. 5. Differential birth rate. It was suggested that this subject would be cared for by existing agencies. 6. Study of Negro-White crosses. 7. Study of crosses between various European stocks in America. Special attention should be given to fertility, life expectation, the vital index of birth rate, death rate, etc. It was the opinion of the sub-committee that additional inquiry along all of these lines is desirable, but they recommended consideration of two specific lines of inquiry: (a) That a special study of technique for measuring mental and temperamental characters be developed, suitable for the study of heredity. (b) That steps tee taken to secure the cooperation of the U. S. Census Bureau and of other bodies in securing more adequate registration of births and deaths, and that in this connection, the study of hospital records in Baltimore, now in progress, be encouraged. The specific recommendation of the subcommittee was that for a period of five years projects under two heads be supported, as follows: (a) Effects of race crossing upon birth rate, health, expectation of life, etc. Also changes in these respects, due to environment. (b) Physical heredity as manifest in race intermixture and as modified by adjustment to new environments.