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CHAPTER FIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE FUTU RE OF THE ACADEMIC ENDEAVOR IN THE LIFE SCIENCES The substance of the case for societal support of the research endeavor in the life sciences is presented throughout this report. No natural constraints to this endeavor are evident other than the supply of qualified investigators. If the people of the United States, and indeed all mankind, are to be ade- quately nourished in the future, if we are to pursue with utmost vigor the attempt to understand the nature of life, the nature of man, the diseases to which he is subject, and the environment in which he dwells so that, one day, this knowledge may be utilized to alleviate the human condition, to minimize suffering, and to extend the useful and enjoyable life-span, then the research endeavor in the life sciences must be supported in a manner and on a scale commensurate with our national aspirations in these regards. Both individual investigators and department chairmen were queried with respect to current constraints to research progress. The responses obtained from 10,083 individual scientists engaged in all research areas and employed in all classes of academic and nonacademic institutions were almost monotonously uniform. These are summarized in Tables 49 and 50. Funds, space, and research staff were considered to be serious problems by more than half the scientists who responded. 332