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APPENDIX A METHODOLOGY: SURVEY OF INDIVIDUAL LIFE SCIENTISTS POPULATION SELECTION Detailed information from over 12,000 of some 24,000 biologists identified as actively engaged in research and working within the United States of America or its possessions was obtained from July 20 through November 30, 1967. The questionnaire "Survey of Life Scientists" forwarded to each individual is reprinted here as Exhibit A-1. All individually identifiable biologists meeting the following four criteria were surveyed: Possessed a doctoral degree (Ph.D. or D.Sc.) or a health-professional degree, regardless of field of training or nature of degree. (The British MB.BS. was equated with the American M.D. degree.) Was employed full-time. Was a self-classified biologist, either by training or by research activity. Devoted 20 percent or more of the work week to research during 1966 or expected to do so in 1967. 471
472 THE LIFE SCIENCES The National Science Foundation National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel had the most complete listing of scientists, which in- cluded the desired population. Through cooperation of the Foundation and its National Register 23,388 individuals answering the 1966 Register Questionnaire were identified who clearly met the first two criteria and who were considered likely to meet the third and fourth criteria above for the following reasons: The first or second work activity had been identified as one of the following: Basic research Clinical research and investigation Applied research Management or administration of research or development Clinical practice One of the following categories (including all subcategories) of the Register's 1966 Specialties List had been identified as the area of greatest specialization: GROUP A Agronomy Anatomy Animal Husbandry Biochemistry Biophysics Biochemical C)ceanography Botany Ecology Entomology Agricultural and Food Chemistry Biometrics and Statistics Climatology Clinical Psychology Fish and Wildlife Forestry Genetics Horticulture Immunology Microbiology Nutrition Pathology Pharmacology Physiology GROUP B (Interdisciplinary) Plankton Plant Pathology Range Management Virology Zoology Other Biomedical Specialties Biology All Other (Biology) Experimental, Comparative, and Physiological Psychology Hydrology Paleontology Soil Specialties
APPENDIX A TABLE A- 1 Proportion of Scientists with Certain Interdisciplinary Specialties Included in the Life Sciences Survey MEETING SURVEY CRITERIA AREAS OF PRIMARY SPECIALIZATION NUMBER LISTED BY Number also Percentage NATIONAL Associated with of Total REGISTER AIBS orFASEB in Category TOTAL4,601841 18.3 Agricultural and Food Chemistry912210 23.0 Biometrics and Biostatistics15319 12.4 Climatology71S 7.0 Clinical Psychology45913 2.8 Experimental, Comparative, and Physiological Psychology1,892105 5.5 Hydrobiology1148 7.0 Paleontology3 8145 11.8 Soil Specialties619436 70.4 For scientists listing one of the interdisciplinary fields in Group B. inclu- sion in the survey further required that they had listed a member society of either the American Institute of Biological Sciences or the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology as their major professional society. Approximately 2,500 scientists reported Group B interdisciplinary specialties, however, only 843 individuals fulfilled the additional require- ment of society membership. Table A-1 shows the number of scientists reporting these subspecialties to the Register and the percentage meeting the additional criterion. Approximately 87 percent of the individual names finally included were provided by the National Register; and for these biologists the Register also provided the following data: Year of birth Sex Citizenship (U.S. or foreign only) Professional identification Type of principal employer Professional location (state only) Support of research from federal funds (yes, no, or unknown)
474 THE LIFE SCIENCES Additional biologists, if their names did not appear on the National Register list, were identified within the following groups and were included in the survey: Consultants (155) comprising the 22 panels of the Life Sciences Study. Department chairmen (preclinical and clinical) of the 87 functioning medical schools listed in the 1966-1967 Directory of the Association of American Medical Colleges. * All chairmen identified by the American Institute of Biological Sci- ences in its listing of "Life Science Departments." Chairmen of additional life science departments identified by the Office of Scientific Personnel of the National Research Council. The unduplicated membership, active and emeritus, of four clinical medical research societies: The American Society for Clinical Investigation Society for Gynecological Investigation Society for Pediatric Research Society of University Surgeons Inclusion of the membership of the four societies compensated for in- complete coverage of clinical investigators by the National Register. In all, approximately 2,500 additional individual society members were identified who potentially qualified as research biologists. No presurvey information was available concerning their work activity; survey returns subsequently revealed that a high proportion of members of these clinical medical societies were not actively engaged in research. The selection criteria excluded most paleontologists identified by the National Register; of the 381 individuals listing paleontology as their major specialization, only 45 were included in this survey. Systematic biologists, though not having to list society identification as a secondary requirement, also appear to be under-represented. Anthropologists, including physical anthropologists (1,172 scientists), were excluded. Table A-2 summarizes the number and source of names in the survey mailing, and Table A-3 summarizes the percentage return of completed questionnaires. ~ Directory of Administrative Sta§, Department Chairmen and Individual Members in Medical Schools of the United States and Canada, Association of American Medi- cal Colleges, Evanston, Illinois, 1967.
APPENDIX A 475 TABLE A-2 Composition of Mailing List, Individual Life Scientists SOURCES TOTAL VALID NAVIES a National Register Consultants Departmental Chairmen (Medical) Departmental Chairmen (Other) Clinical Research Society Members N UM BER OF LIFE SCIENTISTS 25,946 22,490 23 721 283 2,429 a Biologists not meeting all criteria for inclusion in the study were subtracted from the total mailing, as were all questionnaires returned because of incorrect addresses, etc. Tabular data in the body of this report include only those individuals providing all necessary information; therefore, the grand total of any indi- vidual table is somewhat less than the total respondents. Awkward place- ment of Question 19, which dealt with individuals' research areas, caused approximately 25 percent of the respondents to omit this question. Internal correlation of several parameters shows the omission to be random. Thus the percentages of life scientists working for the various types of major employer were similar for the total survey population and for the 8,139 biologists who also reported their research areas (Table Ago. Because TABLE A-3 Summary of Returns: Individual Life Scientists CATEGORY A. TOTAL VALID MAILING a B. Maximum Potential Researchers b C. TOTAL RETURNS a D. Life Scientists Meeting Research Criteria NUMBER OF LIFE SCIENTISTS 25,964 23,967 14,362 (55.4% of A) 12,383 (51.7% of B) a Biologists not meeting all criteria for inclusion in the study were subtracted from the total mailing, as were all questionnaires returned because of incorrect addresses, etc. b This number is the total valid mailing minus the known nonresearch biologists and represents a maximal figure since it is impossible to estimate what proportion of nonrespondents qualified as researchers.
THE LIFE SCIENCES TABLE A-4 Similarity of Distribution by Major Employer between Respondents to Question 18 and All Respondents PRINCIPAL EMPLOYER LIFE SCIENTISTS TOTAL SURVEY REPORTING CURRENT POPULATION RESEARCH AREA Number Percentage Number Percentage TOTAL12,364 100.08,139 100.0 Institution of Hi:,her Education8,288 67.05,476 67.3 Nonacademic Total4,076 33.02,663 32.7 Private Industry or Business1,186 9.6761 9.4 Federal Government1,713 13.91,149 14.1 Federal Contract Research Center135 1.181 1.0 State and Local Government3 09 2.5200 2.5 Nonprofit Organization462 3.7315 3.9 Independent Hospital or Clinic219 1.8133 1.6 Self-employment23 0.28 0.1 All Other29 0.216 0.2 only 19 people failed to report an employer, a total approximating 8,139 must be considered the reference base, representing 100 percent response, for all tabulations having "research area" as one category. Similar com- parison of the percentages trained in different fields (Table A-5), of geo- graphic location, and of type of doctoral degree earned also revealed no significant differences between the two groups.
APPENDIX A TABLE A-5 Similarity of Distribution by Field of Training between Respondents to Question 18 and All Respondents LIFE SCIENTISTS TOTAL SURVEY REPORTING CURRENT FIELD OF TRAINING POPULATION RESEARCH AREA OF DOCTORAL DEGREE Number Percentage Number Percentage TOTAL12,151100.08,005100.0 Agriculture Subtotal8557.05767.2 Agronomy3472.92272.8 Animal Husbandry1321.1931.2 Fish and Wildlife500.4360.4 Forestry880.7690.9 Horticulture1581.3981.2 Agriculture, Other800.7530.7 Biological Sciences8,26968.1S,54969.3 Anatomy1961.61301.6 Biochemistry1,83415.11,27115.9 Biophysics1601.31151.4 Cytology1090.9801.0 Embryology1050.9801.0 Microbiology1,0108.36568.2 Pathology, Animal770.6590.6 Pharmacology3743.12252.8 Physiology, Animal8056.65356.7 Botany3653.02302.9 Ecology and Hydrobiology234l.91592.0 Entomology4151.S2883.6 Genetics4080.62873.6 Nutrition2213.41531.9 Paleontology and Systematic Biology723.4SO0.6 Pathology, Plant3452.8227'.8 Physiology, Plant3532.92413.0 Zoology7736.45126.4 Biosciences, All Other4133.42583.2 Health-Professional Subtotal2,31519.11,39117.4 M.D.2,11817.41,27015.9 D.D.S.650.535i.4 D.V.M.1090.9741.0 Other a230.2120.1 Related Areas Subtotal 712 5.S 489 6.1 Chemistry 442 3.6 305 3.8 Physical Sciences b 114 0.9 77 1.0 Psychology 105 0.9 73 0.9 All Other Fields c 51 0.4 34 0.4 t' Includes D.O., D.P.H., D.Pharmand other health-professional degrees not specified. b Includes biometrics and biostatistics, computer science, earth sciences, engineering, mathematics, physics, and statistics. c Includes anthropology, other social sciences, and other related fields of training. 477
478 DATA ANALYSIS: DEFINITIONS AND TABULATION CONSTRAINTS Den ions The questionnaire insert, Exhibit A-2, defines the following: Life scientists/Life science field Postdoctoral appointee Continuing or senior research associate Research dollars to be reported Where applicable, definitions used in this study are essentially the same as those employed in the Academy's study of Postdoctoral Education.* Constraints Constraints on certain items tabulated for all respondents include the following: Principal employer: State, but not city, tabulated. Previous employer: Tabulated only if individual reported more than one employer since earning a doctorate. Education information: Requested and tabulated only at the baccalau- reate, doctoral, and postdoctoral levels. No information was obtained per- taining to the master's degree. Field of training of doctoral degree-special note: Field of training presented rho special tabulation difficulties for individuals reporting only a Ph.D. or D.Sc. degrees. The area of specialization reported for the most recent doctorate was used. However, for biologists reporting only a health-professional degree, e.g., M.D., D.D.S., D.V.M., it was considered inappropriate to assign an area of specialization at the doctoral level. There- fore, all such respondents, whether they indicated such an area of speciali- zation at this level or not, were classified by the name of their professional degree. For respondents who had both a health-professional degree and a Ph.D. or D.Sc. degree, the field of training of the latter type of degree was used irrespective of the order in which the degrees were earned. ~ TIze Invisible University: Postdoctoral Education in tize United States, Report of a Study Conducted under the Auspices of the National Research Council. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., 1969.
APPENDIX A The following information was tabulated only for academic life scientists: Name of principal employer: University names, types of school, and departmental titles were tabulated. Since approximately 650 distinct de- partmental names were reported, this parameter was unsuitable for further analysis. Salary source: Requested and tabulated as a percentage of the total salary. Number and type of personnel in their research groups were requested only of principal investigators. Source and amount of research funds were requested only of academic principal investigators. They were reported as dollars (direct costs) avail- able to principal investigators on June 1, 1967, 1966, and 1965. SUBCATEGORY LISTINGS REQUIRED TO ANSWER QUESTIONS ~ ~ AND ~ 9 The questionnaire insert, Exhibit A-2, contains the Redefined range of categories to be used by respondents in answering questions pertaining to the following factors: Field of training Research area Research materials Research organisms VALIDITY OF THE RESPONDENT POPULATION The professional location of the 23,388 biologists identified by the National Register was compared with the professional location of the 14,362 biol- ogists returning questionnaires (Table A-69. The percentage of each group working within a given state was essentially the same for those receiving questionnaires and those responding. Similar comparison, based on the type of doctoral degree ts) earned by individual life scientists, showed only slight differences (Table Ado. Thus, no readily detectable bias was evi- dent in the population responding to this survey. 479
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482 THE LIFE SCIENCES SURVEY OF LIFE SCIENTISTS This form will be held in confidence; subsequent published information will be statistical in nature, unidentifiable with individual organizations or respondents. In calendar 1966 did you spend 2070 or more of your time in research? Yes ~ No~ In 1967 do you expect to spend 207 or more of your time in research? Yes ~ NoU If the answer to EITHER question is "YES," complete the entire questionnaire. If the answer to BOTH questions is "NO," please complete ONLY ITEMS 1 through 13, SIGN and DATE your questionnaire on the last page, and return in enclosed envelope. Please type or print answers. GENERAL INFORMATION NAME Last 1. Age in Years 3. Place of Birth 4. Citizenship (check one) USA O Non-USA O (Specify Country) Temporary USA resident L Permanent USA resident CURRENT EMPLOYMENT 5. Check current status of employmen Full time O First 2. Sex M O FO Middle Initial Part time C~ Unemployed [A Retired O 6. Name of Principal Employing Institution/Organization. a. Circle type of subdivision and specify its exact title: Academic Department, Institute, Center, Laboratory, Division, Other Title b. If you hold a joint appointment, identify subunit 7. Your professional location City 8. How many years have you been with your present principal employer (whether or n~ your within the organization has changed)? yrs. 9. Title of Current Position-Please check only one item per class Academic Professor Adjunct Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Instructor _ Research Associate ("Senior" or continuing appointment) O Postdoctoral Appointee (whether "fellow," "trainee," "research associate," etc.) position Academic/Administrative = Department Chairman Dean Other (specify) Non-Academic Title ~ (Specify) 2 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used-~n individual survey.
APPENDIX A 483 1 10. Principal Employer-Type of Organization~heckallappropriateitems a. ~1 Academic Private O State O Municipal C1 Federal [A = Junior College Undergraduate College (4 yr. Liberal Arts College) University: School or College of = Arts and Sciences I ~ Nursing Agriculture Pharmacy Dentistry Public Health Engineering = Veterinary Medicine _ Forestry _ Other (specify) Graduate Studies _ Medicine INSTRUCTION: If you have checked any items in 10a proceed directly to item 12. b. O Private Industry/Business INSTRUCTION: If you check part I oh omit the rest of item 10 and complete item 1 1. c. ~ Federal Contract Research Center (Managed by Profit, Educational and Other Non-Profit Organiza- tions) d. :: Federal Government = Dept. Agriculture :g ~ ~ . Health, Education and Welfare Dept. Interior _ PHS except NIH AEC NIH = NASA = Other HEW _ NSF ~ ~ Dep: . Defense Smithsonian Institution O Civilian ~ Military _ VA ~ Air Force Other (specify) = Anny Navy _ Other DOD e. O State Government = Hospital O Wildlife,/ Forest _ Health Dept. and Laboratories ~ Other (specify) Agriculture Service f. O Municipal Government Hospital O Museum ~ Health Dept. and Laboratories ~ Other (specify) g. O Independent Ho$pital/Clinic O Self-Employed: Yes O No O h. ~ Non-Profit, Non-Government Research Institute/Foundation/Museum , i. O Self-Employed Otber Than in Independent Hospital/Clinic k. O Otber (specify) INSTRUCTION': If you have checked any items in parts l0c through lOk, proceed directly to item 13. 3 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
484 THE LIFE SCIENCES 11. Private Industry/Business (See separate sheet for more detailed instructions.) Check in column 1 the industrial product or service category listed at the left that is the most descriptive of the activity in your plant or estab- lishment. Check in column 2 the activity most closely related to the responsibility of your "research unit." Place one check only in each of columns 1 and 2. Do not fill in column 3. IndustrialCategory Major Activity Activity that by Major Product or Activity of Your Corresponds ~] Establishment Most Closely to ~: ~ '$ ~ ~ Your Research ~ ! ~ ! ~ _ Aerospace and ordnance Food and kindred products ~ ~ ~ ~ $ Drugs and medicine = Industrial chemicals ~ Am All other chemicals ~: Instruments and related products_ Lumber, wood, paper, and allied products Petroleum refining and extraction ~ $ Professional and scientific instruments ~ ilk ~ Hi Other manufacturing-if above categories do not ~ ~ ~ ~ * - | apply, see separate sheet of instructions and | write in appropriate category. ~ ~ ~ : 1 _ ~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~ ,,,,,, ~ I Non-manufactunng _ I Agriculture, forestry, end fisheries ~_; | Mining (including petroleum and natural gas) ~ | Commercial laboratory services ail_ I Medical and dental (analytic and diagnostic) | Research, development, end testing _4 | Other non-manufacturing activities and services. Describe | briefly in your own words the activity relevant to ~_~ I column 1 and/or 2 and check columns | INSTRUCTION: After completing this item. omit question 12 and proceed directly to item 13. ~ | 12. INSTRUCTION: Complete item 12 only if your principal employer in calendar 1966 was an academic | institution. | Give the approximate percentage of your professional salary that is derived from each source fisted below. | INCLUDE "summer salary," if any. EXCLUDE royalties. consulting fees. etc. If you arc in doubt about the | requested information, please consult the appropriate administrative officer. | C/e Institutional budget (EXCLUDE: Federal training grants and Federal institutional grants) | C/` Research grant /contract | Check ( x/ ) all appropriate categories I ~ Federal ~ Private Foundation | ~ Industry ~ Other I ~> ~ Table Conrin,`ed o'' Next Page t: 4 l EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
APPENDIX A 485 c,XO Federal training grants C,Sc Federal institutional grants C,70 Fellowships (Check all appropriate categories) ~ Federal __4 Industry _ 7c Other (INCLUDE private practice) 100 % Total Private Foundation Other 13. Estimated time distribution in Calendar 1966 on basis of your average total workweek hours for all professional activities. Or Research, including graduate research training Check ( >1 ) each appropriate item = Basic research Clinical research Applied research other than clinical research Yc Administration Tic Instruction, including teaching ward rounds, university extension work, etc. Vc Patient Care C%e Other (Consulting, editorial, professional society activities, production, testing, sales, promotion, etc. ) 1 O() C,7c Total LAST PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT NSTRUCIION: Complete only if employment was siter receiving a doctoral-level degree and if you were employed by an employer deferent from that specified in item 6. 14. Location of previous principal employer_ 15. Total years with previous principal employer (whether car not your position within that organ'mti= ~hanged): yrs. 16. Type of Organization of previous principal employer.Check (by) one Academic Private Industry/Business Self Employed Federal Contract Research Center Federal Government State Government ~ Municipal Government :21 Independent Hospital/Clinic Non-profit, Non-government Research Institute/ Foundation/Museums Other (specify) INSTRIiCIION: Complete Question 17 only if you were employed grits the last S years by an organization other than your present principal employer. 17. Responsibilities: Estimate time distribution from the average of your total workweek hours for all professional activities dunag the last year before you joined your present principal employer. 7c Research, including graduate research training Yc Administration % Instruction, including teaching ward rounds, university extension work, etc. c/c Patient care C/C Other (Consulting, editorial, professional society activities, production, testing, sales, promotion, etc.) 00 Yc Total s EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
486 THE LIFE SCIENCES EDUCATION INSTRUCTIONS for completion of Questions 1 8a, 1 8b, and 1 8c on facing page. 18a. BACCALAUREATE DEGREE: Check type of degree and specify the year awarded, country of institution and your field of training (See LIST I on separate CODE SHEET). 1 8b. DOCTORAL DEGREES: List all earned doctoral degrees, stardng with your most recent degree, and specify the year awarded and country of institution. Use LISTS I, If and III from separate CODE SHEET to complete other columns. 18c. POSTDOCTORAL APPOINTMENTS (FOR RESEARCH TRAINING, NOT EMPLOYMENT): If you have had a postdoctoral appointment (see separate sheet for DEFINITION of POSTDOCTORAL APPOINT- MENT) complete the bottom portion of the table, listing all such appointments you have held starting with the most recent. Use the separate CODE SHEET to specify the items requested in the last three columns of the table. From LIST I, "FIELD OF TRAINING": Select one number for the most appropriate field LIST II, "RESEARCH AREA": Select one lettered category for the most appropriate area LIST III, "RESEARCH MATERIALS/ORGANISMS": Select one or two lettered categories and one or two numbered categories HISTORY AND PROJECTION OF YOUR RESEARCH FIELD I NTEREST 19. From the separate CODE SHEET specify the items that best describe your PREVIOUS (1969). CURRENT (1967) and PROJECTED (1970) RESEARCH AREA (LIST II) and RESEARCH MATERIALS/ ORGANISMS (LIST III). Complete the information for "PROIECTED" only if you seriously arc contemplating a change. LIST II PREVIOUS ( 1962) CURRENT (1967) PROJECTED ( 1970) LIST III RESEARCH AREA RI;SI5;ARCH MATERIALS/ORGANISMS (Select one category) R10 - R39 (Select one or two numbered categories) ::10- ~s67 R_ R R_ 6 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
APPENDIX A 487 I z I : ES :S~ S ~ ~ an ~ Iffy ~ :11~ o ~ = o ~ o go 1 Z ~ X ~ o ~ : ~ o ~ am : O O I , ~ - 7 = o . 1 8~= a 0 ~ 1 1 ! . . _ _ , 1 I EXHIBI1^-1 Queshonnaire used in individual survey.
488 THE LIFE SCIENCES SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS and PUBLICATIONS 20. Meetings Attended in Calendar 1966 How many formal meetings of national professional societies and national-level symposia did you attend in Calendar 1966? How many international scientific meetings held in a foreign countsy did you attend in Calendar 1966? _ 21. Publications that Appeared in Calendar 1966 List for each type of publication shown below the number that appeared in Calendar 1966 on which you were either sole author or a coauthor. Number Appeared in Calendar 1966 Type of Publication Full-length reports (articles) of original research that appear in scientific journals of greater than local interest In-house publications/reports of original research Whole books/monographs Chapters in books Major review articles Abstracts of original research Other (book reviews, editorials, general interest articles, etc.) USE OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN RESEARCH 22. Are digital computers used in your personal research either by you or technical people directly responsible to you? Yes C: No O INSTRUCTION: If NO, proceed to item 28. If YES, please answer items 23 through 27. 23. Digital computers have been used in my research for __ years. 24. For each of the types of computers listed below I used approximately the following amounts of computer time in 1966: Hours of Type A: CDC 3600, 6400, 6600; IBM 709411, 360/65, 67, 75; Univac 1108; GE 645; or equivalent. _of Type B: B 5000: CDC 3200, 3300; IBM 7044, 7094, 360/44, 50; PDP 6; Univac 1107; SDS Sigma 7; GE 625, 635; or equivalent. Of Type C: CDC G20, 3100; IBM 7040, 709, 360/40; SDS 930, Sigma 5; Univac 490's; GE 200's; or equivalent. of TypeD: CDC 160A, 1700;IBM 1400's, 1620, 1130, 1800, 360/30; PDP 1, 4, 5, 7, 8; LINC; SDS 910, 920, Sigma 2; DDP 24, 124,116;orequivalent. 25. Was the computer you generally used in 1966 employed: (Check (a/) one) Primarily in your own research program? Primarily by life scientists, including your own group? By other than life science groups (e.g., university computation centers)? Don't know? I use computers for: (Check (a/) all appropriate items) = Data analysis Information storage and retrieval Data acquisition Other (specify) = 0p-line experimental control Simulation Theoretical analysis 8 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
APPENDIX A 489 1 _ I 27. Give the approximate percent of your computer use that is paid for by: To Funds from your otrn research grants and contracts ~0 Federal funds provided directly to your computation center in support of research in the life sciences TO Non-life sciences funds _ Tic Other 100 To Total Please check here if your source of computer funds is not known to you SPECIALIZED FACILITIES 28. Check (of) all appropriate items in Part A and complete Part B. Facility Was ~ Facility Is Facility Is A. Available. ~ Available. Unsealable I utilized it in ~ I plan to utilize but I would Item last 12 months it in next utili%c it if No. SPECIALIZED FACILITY ~12 months available 1 Field areas 2 Zoo/aquarium - 3 Taxonomic research collection 4 Organism-identification service 5 Tropical terrestrial station . 6 Tropical marine station 7 Marine station other than tropical 8 High-altitude laboratory . 9 Low-pressure chambers 10 High-pressure chambers_ 11 Programmed climate-controlled rooms ~. (phytotron, biotron, etc) -A 12 Computer center 13 Primate center 14 Other specialized animal colony ~-~ 15 Geml-*ee facility 16 Animal-surgery facility 17 Animal-quarantine facility 18 General animal-care facility 19 Cell- and tissue culture-facility ~ 20 High-intensity radioactive sources ~5 21 Center for large-scale production of DODD biological materials 22 Clinical research ward -A 23 Greenhouse 24 Ships greater then 18 ft. (length: ft.) 25 Electrically shielded room 26 Instrument design end,' or fabrication facility ~ B. Select up to 3 items from those you have checked in the right-hand column (Facility ls Unavailable but l would utilize it if available) and rank in order of greatest priority. Item No. Item No. Item No. 1st Priority 2nd Priority 3rd Priority 9 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
490 THE LIFE SCIENCES MAJOR INSTRUMENTS 29. Check (by) all appropriate items in Part A arid complete Part B. Instrument Instrument Is Instrument Is Instrument Is Was Available and Available Unavailable A Available. I plan to use it in but another but would be used I used it in the the next 12 months is needed if available Item last 12 months No. MAJOR INSTRUMENTS Acoustic 1 Acoustic-analysis equipment 2 Sonar 3 Ultrasonic probes and censoring systems . Centrifuges 4 Analytical ultracentrifuge 5 Preparative ultracentrifuge. _ - 6 Refrigerated centrifuge . Chromatography 7 Amino acid analyzer. 8 Gas chromatograph . 9 Programmed gradient pump Counters 10 Automatic particle counter 11 Scintillation counter.- l 2 Whole-body counter Microscopy 13 Electron microscope 14 Electron probe for microscopy 15 Fluorescence microscope 16 Metallograph 17 Microtome-cryostat 18 Phase-contrast microscope Spectrometers l 9 Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer 20 Mass spectrometer 21 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer Spectrop ho to m ete rs / -po la ri - meters/-fluorimeter 22 Circular dichroism analyzer 23 Infrared spectrophotometer .- 24 Microspectrophotometer 25 Spectrofluorimeter 26 Spectropolarimeter 27 Ultraviolet spectrophotometer 10 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
APPENDIX A 491 1 1 Instrument Instrument Is Instrument Is Instrument Is Was Available and Availshle Unavailable Available. I plan to use it in but another but would be used Item I used it in the the next 12 months is needed if available No. MAJOR INSTRUMENTS last 12 months _ _ X-ray 28 X-ray crystallographic analysis system 29 X-ray diagnostic system 30 X-ray source Miscellaneous 31 Apparatus for measuring fast chemical reactions 32 Artificial kidney 33 Cine and time-motion analysis equipment 34 Closed-circuit TV. 35 Electrophoresis apparatus (various types) 36 Intensive-care patient- monitoring system 37 Infrared CO" analyzer 38 Laser system 39 Large-scale fermenter 40 Light-scattering photometer_ 41 Microcalorimeter 42 Multi-channel oscilloscope 43 Multi-channel recorder 44 Osmometers 45 Small specialized computer system (CAT/LINC, etc.) 46 Stimulus programming and operant conditioning equipment 47 Telemetering system B. Select up to 3 items from those you have checked in the right-hand column (Instrument Is Unavailable but would be used if available) and rank in order of greatest priority. Item No. Item No. Item No. 1st Priority 2nd Priority 3rd Priority 11 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
492 THE LIFE SCIENCES FACTORS LIMITING YOUR CURRENT RESEARCH PROGRAM 30. If full development of your current research effort is very seriously hindered by one or more of the following considerations, check (I/) below all particularly significant factors. YES FACI OR Space: Inadequate for personal research Inadequate Specialized Facilities (of type in Question 28) Other (specify) Inadequate Budget fbr: Consumable supplies and minor equipment (items costing less than $2~000 apiece) Specialized equipment (items costing more than $2,000 apiece) Professional staff Supporting technicians Clerical/administrative personnel Student fellowships Postdoctoral/Investigator fellowships Computer time Travel Other (specify) Time limitations, because of: Heavy teaching schedule Service responsibilities (e.g., patient care) Administrative duties Budgeted and Funded Positions in the following categories were not filled for lack of available, qualified personnel: Professional staff Supporting technicians Clerical/administrative personnel Insufficient Personal Training in: Chemistry Statistics Mathematics Use of Computers Electronics/Engineering Physics Supporting Biological Sciences Constraints Concerning Choice of Research Problem and its direction arising from: Conditions of your employment Source of funds which support your research Other (specify) 12 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
APPENDIX A 493 YOUR PERSONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM: PERSONNEL, SPACE, AND LEVEL OF SUPPORT INSTRUCTION: Questions 31 and 32 are to be completed only if as of June 1, 1967 you were the papal investigator of a research program, regardless of source of your research support or type of your employing organization. 3 1. Personnel: Please list below in Part A the number of individuals (excluding yourself) engaged in your own personal research program during either (check one) the academic year Ig66-670 or the period July 1, 1966-June 30, 1967~0 A. Co-investigator(s) All other professional staff who give all their research time to your research program These consist of Visiting scientists _ Other professional staff Research /postdoctoral fellows or associates How many of these are: Post-Ph.D./D.Sc. Post-D.D.S. Post-M.D. Post-D.V.M. All non-professional staff (include only those who spend 50~ or more of their time working on your research program) Technicians/research assistants Clerical/secretarial staff _ Other All students _ Pre-B.A./B.S. Pre-Ph.D./D.Sc. Te rm in al-M . S . Other Pre-M.D. Pre-D.V.M. Additional students of all types for the summer period INSTRUCTION: Complete Part B if you directed the thesis research of Ph.D. candidates at any time between academic years 1964-65 and 1966-67. B. How many students received Ph.D. degrees with you as major professor during the academic years: 1964-65 1965-66 32. Space: 500 to 749 net sq. ft. 750 to 999 net sq. ft. 1000 to 1249 net sq. ft. 1966-67 _ What is the approximate indoor working laboratory space, including space used by any graduate students and postdoctoral appointees working with you, which you actively use for your own research program? EXCLUDE office space and common service areas ("departmental" instrument or animal rooms, etc.). Less than 500 net so. ft. -1250 to 1499 net sq. ft. 1500to 1749netsq.ft. 1750 to 1999 net sq. ft. 2,000 to 2,500 net sq. ft. ]Over 2,500 net ~ ;q. ~ i. 13 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
494 THE LIFE SCIENCES THE LAST TWO QUESTIONS BELOW APPLY ONLY IF AS OF JUNE 1, 1967 YOU WERE PRINCIPALLY EMPLOYED BY AN ACADEMIC INSTITUTION. ALL OTHER RESPONDENTS PLEASE SIGN AND DATE QUESTIONNAIRE. 33. On June 1, 1967 were you the pnncipd investigator of a research program? Yes ~ No : INSTRUCTION: If you answered YES to Question 33 above, complete item 34. 34. Level of Research Support and Supporting Organization: Complete all appropriate items in the table below in accordance with the instructions provided on the separate Definitions and Instructions Sheet. LEVEL OF RESEARCH SUPPORT Column A Column B Column C June 1,1967 June 1,1966 SUPPORTING Number of Direct Costs Direct Costs ORGANIZATION Grants/Contracts (seeinstructions) (see instructions) Your Present Institution X X X $ Dept. Agriculture $ AEC Dept. Defense Air Force Army Navy. Other DOD Agencies Dept. Health, Education & Welfare PHS (other than NIH) Other HEW Dept. Interior Column D June 1, 196S Direct Costs (see instructions) $ 5 s s 14 EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
APPENDIX A 495 NASA Other Federal (specify) $ State and Municipal Agencies $ Industry Private Foundations $ Voluntary Societies Other Institutions Other, if more than NO of total (specify) MAILING ADDRESS for COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE - ~ ~ ~. . ~.~.~ ~ S .~ 3, S $ Return your completed questionnaire promptly, using the enclosed self-addressed, stamped envelope: Committee on Research id the Life Sciences National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D. C. 20418 (S - snare) 15 Date EXHIBIT A-1 Questionnaire used in individual survey.
496 THE LIFE SCIENCES DEFINITIONS, INSTRUCTIONS and CODE LISTS DEFINITIONS LIFE SCIENTIST/LIFE SCIENCE FIELD: For the purpose of the present study by the Committee on Research in the Life Sciences and for this specific questionnaire, the term "LIFE SCIENTIST" is defined to mean any investigator who: (1) has been formally trained in a LIFE SCIENCE field (agricultural, botanical, zoological, biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical sciences), or (2) as the result of the nature of his research work, membership in professional societies, attendance at scientific meetings and self-identification on national surveys of professional manpower, considers himself to be a life scientist even though formally trained in a physical, behavioral, or social science (e.g., anthropology, psychology). POSTDOCI,ORAL APPOINTEE: Temporary (1-3 years) appointments that offer opportunity for continued education and experience in research usually, though not necessarily, under the supervision of a faculty member. INCLUDED are appointments to holders of professional (doctoral) degrees who are pursuing research toward second doctoral degrees, and appoint- ments in government and industrial laboratories which resemble in their character and objectives postdoctoral appointments in universities. EXCLUDED are service or teaching appointments or residencies in which research training is not the primary purpose, and members of faculties of other institutions on sabbatical leave. CONTINUING OR SENIOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATE: Permanent members of the departmental research staff who possess a Ph.D. (or equivalent) degree but who are neither formally nor primarily involved in student instruction. INSTRUCTIONS QUESTION 11: Private Industry,'Business The industrial category you check in column I as "most descriptive of the activities in your plant or establish- ment" should be selected in terms of the product or service, or groups of products or services, produced or sold by your establishment. In large establishments performing a variety of activities, selection of the major category may be difficult. Make the best selection you can based on your knowledge of the establishment's production, shipments, sales, or research activities. Disregard your company's operations at other locations in making this decision (except for the special case of laboratory establishments which will be discussed subsequently). The industries listed in the questionnaire are those believed to be employing appreciable numbers of life scientists. If your industrial category is not shown, please write in the appropriate broad category selected from the list that follows (or write in your own description), and check in column 1: Tobacco manufactures Textiles, apparel, and leather products Rubber products Stone, clay, and glass products Primary metal industries Fabricated metal products Machinery, except electrical Electrical equipment and supplies Transportation equipment Check in column 2 the industry category most closely related to your research unit's work. If necessary, write in a brief descriptive phrase indicative of this activity and check in column 2. The "research unit" in which you are working may be a division, or department, or some other organizational component within the plant or establishment where you are employed. Or it may be the entire establishment, if you are working in an unattached laboratory. EXHIBIT A-2 Explanatory insert for individual questionnaire.
APPENDIX A 497 If you arc employed in an establishment dcv01~ wholly to research, dcvclopmcnt, and testing or to provision of medical or dental diagnostic or otbgr sc~iccs, the following points should be considers: 1. 2. If 1hc mayor portion of 1hc laboratory's services arc sold commercially, 1hc appropria[c industrial category to ~ chow in column I should ~ Sac of the su~~i~ under the non~anu~ud~ hewing ~h hold whether the laboratory is a single unit cntcrprisc or belongs to a multiunit company engaged primarily in _~d~. 30mc laboratory cstablishmcnts will be non-commercial in the sonsc that they service primarily 01h@r units of 1hc parent company or arc cngaped in resca~h of Choral company intcrcst. Sac industry category (column 1 ) should be one of the catcgorics under the manufacturing heading, determined by the activity of 1hc plant, division, or subsidiary the laboratory sconce. If them is no sp~ciOc tic-in of this type, base 1hc classification on the major activity of the parent company. OLESI[ON 33: Level of Research Support and Supponing Organization In Column A plcasc give for each listed source of support 1hc number of research grants and contracts wave o" ~_-~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ An _ a ~ ~ _ ~ ~ _ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ In Column B for each dcsignatcd Supporting Organization give to the nearest 1he"-nd doing 1hc 1@1~! direct costs expends and obl~sl~ from these grants/contracts for the 1 2-month period preceding June 1, 1967. EXCLUDE the items noted below. In Columns C and D give the same type of deem C@~ dollar in~rmalion (expenditures "- obl=1le-) as _~0~^~ (Column D). _ _ ~C~ EXCLUDE: ( 1 ) All funds provided for ~dimc1 COSTS (2 ) Funds Add for: 1ralnlog grams direct fellowships construction of buildings support of confercoccs/symposia INCLUDE: ( 1 ) Salarlcs of all prowl personnel, Including >our own, supponcd from these funds. (2) Salaries of all research assistants, supposing technical and clerical/socretarial. and other personnel you employs, insofar as such salaries Marc charged against a =~=cb "CC@U"~. ( 3 ) Stipends for graduate students and other funds for graduate student scorch 1ralning (guy ~ ~ -~- my (4) Funds you received for: purchase of equipmcn1 renovation of your research area priming/publication of rescarcb results visillng scionlis1(s) library se~lces~purchase of books and journals (a ) Olhcr funds not spcclAcally excluded in the list above EXHIBI14-2 Explanatory insert for individual ~esdonnaire.
498 THE LIFE SCIENCES CODE LISTS Use We cued number office s nele mod aDDr Dr ate catePorv cat r ~- r - ~of Agricultural Sciences 1 00 Agronomy 101 Animal Husbandry 102 Fish and Wildlife 1 03 Forestry 1 04 Horticulture 105 Agriculture, Other Biological Sciences 200 Anatomy 201 Cytology 202 Embryology 203 Physiology. Animal 204 Physiology. Plant 205 Pathology, Plant (see #311 for Animal) 206 Pharmacology 207 Biochemistry 208 Biophysics 209 Biometrics, Biostatistics 210 Botany 2 12 Ecology 2 13 Entomology 214 Genetics 2 15 Hydrobiology 216 Microbiology 2 17 Nutrition 2 18 Paleontology 2 19 Systematics 220 Zoology 221 Bio-Science, Other Medical Sciences 300 Anesthesiology 301 Dermatology 302 Geriatrics 303 Internal Medicine 304 Endocrinology and Metabolism 305 Gastroenterology LIST Il: RESF,ARCH AREA Use the code number of the single most appropriate category R I Molecular Biology and Biochemistry R I Cellular Biology R 12-Developmental Biology R 13-Genetics R 14 Pharmacology R 15-Physiology R 1 Morphology R 17-Behavioral Biology R 18-Ecology R 19-Evolutionary and Systematic Biology R 2~Nutrition R 21-Disease Mechanisms 306 Immunology 307 Infectious diseases 308 Obstetrics and Gynecology 309 Ophthalmology 310 Otolaryngology 311 Pathology, Animal and Human 3 12 Hematology 313 Pediatrics and pediatric specialties 314 Physical medicine and rehabilitation 315 Public health and preventive medicine 3 16 Psychiatry 3 17 Neurology 318 Radiology and nuclear medicine 319 General surgery 320 Cardiovascular surgery 321 Neurological surgery 322 Orthopedic surgery 323 Plastic surgery 324 Thoracic surgery 325 Urology 326 Tropical medicine 327 Dentistry and dental specialties 328 Osteopathy 329 Veterinary medicine Related Areas 400 Anthropology 40 1 Chemistry 402 Earth Sciences 403 Engineering 404 Mathematics 405 Computer Science 406 Physics 407 Psychology 408 Social Sciences, Other 409 Statistics 410 Other Related Research Fields R Anthropology R 3 Chemistry R 32-Earth Sciences R 3 3-Economics R 34 Engineering R 35-Mathematics R 3~Physics Astronomy R 3 7-Psychology R 38-Sociology R 39-Other Related Field 1 ' ,1 EXHIBIT A-2 Explanatory insert for individual questionnaire.
APPENDIX A 499 LIST III: RESEARCH MATERIALS/ORGANISMS Please select up to two lettered categories and up to two numbers. Select the lettered categories which most appropriately identify your primary research materials of your research program. Select numbers which most appropriately identify those ORGANISMS you study or employ in your research. M10 Mathematicalmode'ls Ml 1 Atomicimolecular models M 1 2 Design 'fabrication of apparatus M 13 Development of analytical procedures,' methodology M14 Molecular systems M15 Cell fractions,z'structural components of cells M16 Disassociated animal or plant cells M17 Cell cultures M18 Tissue/tissue slice and organ/organ systems . ~. ~.~. ~ M19 Artificial organs ~limbs/'devices M20 Whole organisms M21 Populations of organisms M22 Ecosystem studies M23 Comparative studies within a single phylum or plant division M24 Comparative studies across two or more phyla or plant divisions M25 None of above ORGANISMS STUDIED or EMPLOYED l~None 25-Seed Plants 11~ccur in 3 or more phyla (If 2~ Forest Species you select this item do not select a second number.) 28-Porifera 12-Occur in 3 or more plant di- 29-Coelenterata visions (Do not select a see- 3~Platyhelminthes and number.) 13-Virus I ~ Bacteriophage 15- Animal 16- Plant 17-Bacteria 18-Actinomycetes. M y c o p l a s m a and other Bacteria-like Organ isms 19-Plankton Protozoa 21-Algae 22-Fungi 23-Non-Vascular Green Plants other than Algae Nonvascular Non-Flowering Plants 27- Horticultural and field crons 31-Nematoda 32-Rotifera 33-Bryozoa 34 Mollusca 35- Commercial 36- Other 37-Annelida 38-Arthropoda 39- Arachnida 4~ Crustacea 41- Insecta 42- Other 4 3-Ech in ode rmata 44 Tunicata 45-Vertebrata 46- Pisces 47- Commercial 48- Other 49- Amphibia 5~ Reptilia 51- Aves 52- Domestic 53- Wild 5 1 Mammalia 55- Common Lab. Rodents 56- Other Rodents 57- Carnivores 58- Domestic 59_ Wild 6() 61- 62- 63- Ungulates Domestic 64 65- 66- Wild Small primates (incl. rhesus monkeys) Large primates (exclude man) Man Other Mammals 67-Other Phylum/Division EXHIBIT A-2 Explanatory insert for individual questionnaire.