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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

INDEX

A

Addiction

clinical studies, 47-48

craving, 52, 53, 54

epidemiological studies, 47-48, 54, 57-58

gateway theory, 5, 62-65, 67-68

mental illness, 61

tolerance, 11, 48, 49, 50, 52-53, 78

withdrawal, 11, 41, 48, 49, 51-54

see also Dependence

Adolescents, 51-52, 54, 65, 66

attitudes, 66-67

dependence, 56

gateway theory, 63

peer pressure, 54, 55, 63

Africa, 15

African Americans, 56

glaucoma, 125

Age factors, 11

AIDS, 86

cellular biology of, 90

clinical trials, 74

elderly persons, 45, 74, 95, 125

gateway theory, 63

glaucoma, 124-125

prevalence of marijuana use, 54, 56, 73

side effects of medication, general, 19-21

smoking of marijuana by patients, 90, 93, 161, 185

see also Adolescents;

Children

AIDS, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 19-20, 43, 44-45, 86-94, 160, 164, 176-177, 185

age factors, 86

clinical studies, 75, 84, 87-94, 134, 135, 178-179

Marinol, 88, 89-90, 91, 92, 134, 135, 145

AIDS wasting, 8, 87-88, 101, 150, 166, 185

clinical studies, 84, 89-90, 93, 171

Marinol, 27, 144, 145, 147

patients' views, 19-21

smoking of marijuana, 90, 93, 161, 185

THC, 108, 109, 111-113

Alaska, 4, 164

Alcohol use, 39, 56, 58, 60, 61

gateway theory, 62-63, 64

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

Alternative medicine, general, 11

historical perspectives, 13-14, 24

Alzheimer's disease, 121-122, 145, 150

American Medical Association, 17, 158, 178-179, 180

Amotivational syndrome, 60-61, 178-179

Anandamide, 29, 35, 141

Animal studies, 13, 53, 150

cannabinoids, general, 43-44

carcinogenic effects of smoking marijuana, 42-43

dystonia, 117

historical perspectives, 15-16

Huntington's disease, 117

immune system, 35, 44

muscle spasticity/multiple sclerosis, 35, 107, 110, 112

pain palliation, 33, 51, 79

psychomotor behavior, 31

in regulatory process, 134, 136

reproductive system, 45-46

smoking of marijuana, 42-43, 51

tolerance, 50-51

withdrawal, 52

Anorexia,

see Appetite;

Wasting syndrome

Antioxidants, 31, 151

Anxiety, 11, 24, 58, 61, 62, 96, 113, 174, 183

clinical trials, 74, 84, 87, 91, 92, 93, 109, 119, 143

THC, 108, 109, 111-113

tobacco smokers, 41

withdrawal, 52

Appetite, 174

Alzheimer's disease, 122, 145

cancer and, 101-102

clinical studies, 75, 93, 176

megestrol acetate, 89, 101-102

patients' views, 20, 23, 96

withdrawal, 51

see also AIDS wasting

Arizona, 4, 164

Attitudes

adolescents, 66-67

amotivational syndrome, 60-61, 178-179

illegality of marijuana, 24-25, 42

parental, 55

patients, 19-25, 87, 95-96, 100, 103-104, 108-109, 164

peer pressure, 54, 55, 63

physicians, 21

public opinion, 24-25, 42, 62, 149

users of marijuana, general, 19, 54;

see also “patients” supra

B

Bakalar, James, 19, 74-75

Birth weight, 38, 46

Black persons,

see African Americans

Brain, 59-60, 96-97, 115-116, 118

Alzheimer's disease, 121-122

cannabinoid receptors, 28, 31, 32, 51, 77-78, 83, 98, 107, 109, 117-118, 131-132, 152, 176, 181

Marinol, 143

serotonin, 29, 88, 98, 100

cognitive functions, general, 47, 59-60, 92, 119, 143;

see also Psychological effects;

“memory” infra

craving, 53, 54

epilepsy, 120-121, 134

headaches, 19, 22, 23, 77, 83, 164

pain, general, 77-78

memory, 31, 32-33, 50, 51, 59, 61, 84, 119, 121-122, 152, 176

multiple sclerosis, 107

muscle spasticity, 107

reward system, 53

Britain,

see United Kingdom

Bronchi, 40-41

Buyers' clubs,

see Cannabis buyers' clubs

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

C

Cachexia,

see AIDS wasting;

Appetite;

Wasting syndrome

California, 4, 19, 65, 66-67, 86, 93, 95, 147, 164-169

Canada, 6, 113, 116, 171-172

Cancer, 91, 95-105, 164

animal studies, 42-43

appetite of patients, 101-102

clinical studies, 42, 81, 82, 84, 98-102, 134, 164, 171

National Cancer Institute, 136, 144

pain palliation, 81, 82, 95-96, 98

prostate cancer, 42, 101

smoking of marijuana as cause, 38, 41-43, 47, 67, 153-154, 183

smoking of marijuana as palliative, 95-96, 98

smoking of tobacco as cause, 41

THC, 81, 82, 91, 96, 98-102

treatment of, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 164;

see also Chemotherapy

wasting syndrome, 101-102, 171

Cannabidiol, 27, 31, 151

epilepsy, 121

Huntington's disease, 117

Cannabinoids, general, 8-9, 10, 25-31, 103, 142, 174, 175, 181-183

animal studies, 43-44

cellular processes, 27-36, 131;

see also Receptors and receptor binding

clinical trials, 43-44, 175, 178-179

glaucoma, 124, 127, 128

immune system, 28, 34-35, 43, 44, 176

nervous system, 28, 29, 30, 31-34, 119-120, 121, 122

novel medications, 148-153

pain, 79, 83-84, 176, 181-182

reproductive system, 44, 45-46

side effects, 24, 25, 28, 67

see also Drug delivery;

Marinol;

THC

Cannabis buyers' clubs, xii,

Carcinogens, 41, 183

Cardiovascular system, 44, 45, 47, 127-128

hypertension, 11, 48, 102

withdrawal, 52

Case studies (single-patient trials), 74, 93, 95, 107, 109, 177

Cellular biology, 13, 17, 25, 27-36, 42, 43-45, 131

AIDS wasting, 90

glaucoma, 124

multiple sclerosis, 107

smoking effects, 40-41, 42-45

THC, 28, 29, 30, 181

see also Genetics;

Immune system;

Receptors and receptor binding

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 88

Cesamet,

see Nabilone

Chemotherapy, 8, 95-101, 102

clinical studies, 75, 97-101, 164

Marinol, 27, 88, 144, 145, 147

patients' views, 19, 21-22

Children

clinical trials, 47

gateway theory, 63

peer pressure, 54, 55, 63

see also Adolescents

China, 14, 17

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 41

Clinical studies, 6, 13, 24, 25, 73-128 (passim),

addiction, 47-48

age factors, 74

AIDS, 75, 84, 87-94, 134, 135, 178-179

AIDS wasting, 84, 89-90, 93, 171

Alzheimer's disease, 122

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

anxiety, 74, 84, 87, 91, 92, 93, 109, 119, 143

appetite, 75, 93, 176

barriers to, 24-25, 42, 73, 169-171

cancer, chemotherapy, 75, 97-101, 164

cancer, marijuana as cause, 42

cancer, other, 81, 82, 84, 134, 171

cannabinoids, general, 43-44, 175, 178-179

children, cognitive function, 47, 74

cognitive effects, 47, 60

dependence, 56, 134

dosage factors, 84, 135

dystonia, 116-117

epilepsy, 121, 134, 178-179

federal government, general, 24-25

Food and Drug Administration, 134, 143-144, 152, 179

funding, 24-25, 73, 93, 134, 143-144, 171

glaucoma, 24, 127, 135, 171

Marinol, 88, 89-90, 91, 122, 143-145

muscle spasticity/multiple sclerosis, 24, 83, 107, 108-113, 119, 171, 178-179, 183-184

nausea, 24, 33-34, 73-74, 75, 87-88, 93, 97, 104, 164, 176, 178-179

neuropathy, general, 24, 83, 107, 108-113, 115, 117, 119-122, 178-179

pain, 24, 36, 75, 79-85, 93, 102-104, 171, 176, 178-179, 184

placebo effects, 74, 108-109

psychological effects, 24

regulatory process, 24-25, 42, 73, 134-138, 141, 169-171

respiratory effects, 39, 40

single-patient trials, 74, 93, 95, 107, 109, 177

smoking of marijuana, 39, 40, 42, 80, 83, 85, 90, 93, 161, 171, 178-179, 180, 183

smoking of tobacco, 40

state sponsorship, 19, 24-25, 73, 160, 163-164

THC, 74, 75, 79-83, 88, 89-90, 91, 98-101, 108-113, 117, 119, 122, 127, 128, 143-145, 151;

see also “Marinol” supra

tolerance, 50

Tourette's syndrome, 119

vomiting, 33-34, 87-88, 97-101, 104, 176, 178-179

wasting, 24, 178-179;

see also “AIDS wasting” supra

withdrawal, 51-52

Cocaine, 5, 8, 39, 53, 61, 64, 140

Codeine, 17, 65, 79, 82-83, 141, 158

Cognitive effects, 59-60, 92, 119, 143

children of marijuana smokers, 47

clinical trials, 47, 60

see also Memory;

Psychological effects

Colorado, 4

Compassionate Use Program, 4, 23, 124, 160, 164, 170

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act, 158

Controlled Substances Act, 18-19, 65, 138-139, 140-141, 149, 151, 158-159, 163, 169, 184

Cost factors,

see Economic factors

Craving, 52, 53, 54

CT-3, 150

D

Delivery modes,

see Drug delivery

Department of Health and Human Services, 54, 139, 169, 170

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 88

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

National Cancer Institute, 136, 144

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 160, 170-171

National Institutes of Health, general, 134, 160, 169, 170, 171, 178-179

Public Health Service, 160

see also Food and Drug Administration

Dependence, 11, 47-48, 49, 54-58, 91, 140, 141

clinical studies, 56, 134

drug delivery methods and, 146-147

gateway theory, 64

see also Addiction;

Craving;

Tolerance;

Withdrawal

Depression, 59, 87, 91

Alzheimer's disease, 122

gateway theory, antidepressants, 64

patients' views, 19, 20

withdrawal, 52

Dermal delivery of drugs, 146

Dexanabinol,

see HU-211

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,

Diarrhea, 14, 16, 20

Diet,

see Appetite

District of Columbia, 4, 164, 166

Dosage factors, 11, 12, 31, 34, 51, 53, 58-59, 176

clinical studies, 84, 135

overdoses, 50

see also Tolerance

Dronabinol,

see Marinol

Drug delivery, 11-12, 146-147, 148, 161, 162, 169, 174, 179

dependence and, 146-147

dermal, 146

inhalation, 11, 12, 92-93, 101, 103, 113, 127, 137, 143, 146, 153-154, 157, 176, 179, 183-184;

see also Smoking of marijuana;

Tobacco

injection, 51, 80-81, 116, 143

oral, 11, 12, 92, 146, 176;

see also Marinol;

THC

Drug Enforcement Administration, 133, 139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 154, 159

Dysphoria, 24, 59, 67

see also Anxiety;

Depression;

Paranoia

Dystonias, 116-117

E

Economic factors

cannabinoid-based drug development, 131, 133-155

health insurance, 147

Marinol, 134-135, 137, 140-141, 142-148, 149, 150, 152

Orphan Drug Act, 138, 144, 149

patents, 149, 151, 152, 154

see also Funding

Elderly persons, 45, 74, 95, 125

Emotional factors,

see Psychological effects

Epidemiological Catchment Area Program, 57-58

Epidemiological studies, xii

addiction, 47-48, 54, 57-58

amotivational syndrome, 61

gateway theory, 63-64

reproductive effects, 46

smoking, effects of, 39

Epilepsy, 120-121, 134

clinical trials, 121, 134, 178-179

Euphoria, 50, 53, 58, 59, 84, 91, 176

Europe, 15, 17, 116, 154

France, 150

Netherlands, 65, 66, 151, 152, 154

United Kingdom, 10, 143, 150, 151, 178-179, 180, 183-184

Eye diseases,

see Glaucoma

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

F

Federal government, 4, 156-157

clinical studies, 24-25

Drug Enforcement Administration, 133, 139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 154, 159

see also Department of Health and Human Services;

Food and Drug Administration;

Funding;

Legal issues and legislation

Fertility, 46

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 4, 133, 134-138, 140, 152, 153-153, 169

clinical trials, 134, 143-144, 152, 179

Investigational new drug applications (INDs), 134, 136, 138, 144, 146, 153, 171

Marinol, 8, 88, 142, 143-146, 159, 176

New drug applications (NDAs), 135-137, 153

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 134

Foreign countries,

see International perspectives;

specific countries

France, 150

Funding

clinical studies, 24-25, 73, 93, 134, 143-144, 171

Orphan Drug Act, 138, 144, 149

G

Gateway theory, 5, 62-65, 67-68

Gender factors

dependence, 55-56

epilepsy, 121

see also Pregnancy

Genetics, 43, 56-57

see also Cellular biology;

Immune system;

Receptors and receptor binding

Glaucoma, 3, 4, 7, 23, 124-128, 135, 159-160

African Americans, 125

age factors, 124-125

clinical trials, 24, 127, 135, 171

Great Britain,

see United Kingdom

Grinspoon, Lester, 19, 74-75

H

Hallucinations, 59, 61, 118

Headaches, 19, 22, 23, 77, 83, 164

Health insurance, 147, 149

Herbal medicine, general,

see Alternative medicine, general

Heroin, 5, 8, 17, 28, 50, 51, 64, 140

Historical perspectives, 6-7, 9-10, 13-19, 60, 131-132

alternative medicine, general, 13-14, 24

drug delivery, 11-12

glaucoma, 124, 128

legalization, 65-67

Marinol, 144-147

pain relievers, 15, 16, 17-18, 151-152

see also Legal issues and legislation

HIV,

see AIDS

HU-211, 128, 150, 151

Huntington's disease, 32, 116, 117-118, 138

Hypertension, 11, 48, 102

I

Immune system, 178-179

animal studies, 35, 44

cannabinoids, general, 28, 34-35, 43, 44, 176

inflammation, 35, 149, 150

multiple sclerosis, 107

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

smoking of marijuana, 35, 44-45, 92

THC, 34, 44

see also AIDS;

Infections

India, 14, 16

INDs,

see Investigational new drug applications

Infections, 35, 43, 44

history of marijuana, 14

see also AIDS;

Immune system

Inflammation, 35, 149, 150

Inhalation, drug delivery, 11, 12, 92-93, 101, 103, 113, 127, 137, 143, 146, 153-154, 157, 176, 179, 183-184

see also Smoking of marijuana;

Tobacco

Injection, drug delivery, 51, 80-81, 116, 143

Insurance,

see Health insurance

Intellectual property,

see Patents

International perspectives, 86

Canada, 6, 113, 116, 171-172

Europe, general, 15, 17, 116, 154

France, 150

gateway theory, 65

historical, 14-16, 65, 66

legalization, 66

multiple sclerosis, 113

Netherlands, 65, 66, 151, 152, 154

United Kingdom, 10, 143, 150, 151, 178-179, 180, 183-184

United Nations Single

Convention on Narcotic

Drugs, 169-170

World Health Organization, 178-179

Internet, state legislation, 163

Investigational new drug applications (INDs), 134, 136, 138, 153, 171

Marinol, 144, 146

L

Legal issues and legislation, 8, 17, 48, 62, 65, 68, 131, 156-172

Cannabis buyers' clubs, xii,

Compassionate Use Program, 4, 23, 124, 160, 164, 170

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act, 158

Controlled Substances Act, 18-19, 65, 138-139, 140-141, 149, 151, 158-159, 163, 169, 184

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 134

gateway theory, 64

litigation, 4, 137, 159-160, 161-163, 165, 166, 168

Marijuana Tax Act, 17, 158

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Legislation (NORML) , 19, 142, 158-159, 163

Netherlands, 65, 66, 154, 180

Orphan Drug Act, 138, 144, 149

religious prohibitions, 15

research barriers, 24-25, 42, 73, 169-171

state legislation, xi,

state litigation, 4, 137, 159-160, 161-163, 165, 166, 168

state referenda, 19, 66-67, 95, 131, 164-165, 169

see also Regulatory issues

Levonantradol, 80-81, 98, 100

Litigation, 4, 137, 159-160, 161-163, 165, 166, 168

LSD, 8, 19, 140

Lungs, 38-39, 41-42, 43, 44-45, 67

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

M

Maine, 4

Malnutrition,

see Appetite;

Wasting syndrome

Marihuana: The Forbidden Medicine,

Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base,

Marijuana Policy Project, 163, 165-166

Marijuana Tax Act, 17, 157-158

Marinol (dronabinol), 8, 12, 27, 91, 92, 157, 176

AIDS patients, 88, 89-90, 91, 92, 134, 135, 145

AIDS wasting, 27, 144, 145, 147

Alzheimer's disease, 122

chemotherapy and, 27, 88, 144, 145, 147

clinical studies, 88, 89-90, 91, 122, 143-145

economics of, 134-135, 137, 140-141, 142-148, 149, 150, 152

Food and Drug Administration, 8, 88, 142, 143-146, 159, 176

historical perspectives, 144-147

multiple sclerosis, 146

nausea and vomiting, 27, 88, 89-90, 144, 145, 147

patients' views, 21

regulatory issues, 134-135, 137, 140-141, 142-148, 149, 150, 152, 159

Mass media, 6

Megestrol acetate, 89, 101-102

Memory, 31, 32-33, 50, 51, 59, 61, 84, 119, 152, 176

Alzheimer's disease, 121-122

Men,

see Gender factors

Mental illness, 61, 64

see also Psychological effects

Methadone, 53, 140

Methodology

basic research, 13

other research, 7

study at hand, xi-xii,

see also Animal studies;

Case studies (single-patient trials);

Clinical studies

Migraine,

see Headaches

Monitoring the Future, 65

Mood effects, 50, 54, 59, 91-92, 102, 112, 145

see also Anxiety;

Depression;

Dysphoria;

Euphoria;

Sedation

Mortality, 43

Motivation, amotivational

syndrome, 60-61, 178-179

Movement disorders,

see Psychomotor performance;

Spasticity

Multiple sclerosis, 3, 4, 10, 86, 106, 107-113, 150

animal studies, 35, 107, 110, 112

clinical studies, 24, 83, 107, 108-113, 119, 171, 178-179, 183-184

Marinol, 146

pain, 106, 107-108, 112

patients' views, 19, 23

THC, 108, 109, 111-113

Muscle spasticity,

see Spasticity

N

Nabilone, 98, 100, 109, 111, 112-113, 142-143, 180

National Cancer Institute, 136, 144

National Comorbidity Survey, 57-58

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 160, 170-171

National Institutes of Health, 134, 160, 169, 170, 171, 178-179

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Legislation (NORML) , 19, 142, 158-159, 163

Nausea, 25, 78

neurology, cellular processes, 31, 32, 33-34, 96, 97

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

palliation, 10, 62, 78, 87, 96, 174, 177, 182, 185

clinical studies, 24, 33-34, 73-74, 75, 87-88, 93, 97, 104, 164, 176, 178-179

Marinol, 27, 88, 89-90, 144, 145, 147

patients' views, 19-20, 21-23, 87

THC, 33-34, 82, 88, 98-101, 102

withdrawal, 52

see also Appetite;

Vomiting

Netherlands, 65, 66, 154, 180, 183

Neurology and neurological disorders, 7, 20, 31-34, 115-122, 149, 150, 151

Alzheimer's disease, 121-122, 145, 150

antioxidants, 31, 151

cannabinoids, general, 28, 29, 30, 31-34, 119-120, 121, 122

clinical trials, 24, 83, 107, 108-113, 115, 117, 119-122, 178-179

epilepsy, 120-121, 134, 178-179

Huntington's disease, 32, 116, 117-118, 138

memory, 31, 32-33, 50, 51, 59, 61, 84, 119, 121-122, 152, 176

nausea and vomiting, 31, 32, 33-34, 96, 97

neurotransmitters and receptors, 28, 29, 30, 118-119

antioxidants, 31, 151

serotonin, 29, 88, 98, 100

Parkinson's disease, 32, 116, 118, 138, 150

seizures, 4, 120-121

spinal cord, 4, 31, 33, 75, 84, 106, 107, 112, 150, 178-179

Tourette's syndrome, 116, 118-119

see also Brain;

Cognitive effects;

Multiple sclerosis;

Pain;

Psychomotor performance

Nevada, 4-5, 164

New drug applications (NDAs), 135-137, 153

Nicotine, 36, 41, 48, 53, 54, 63, 146

see also Tobacco

NORML,

see National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Legislation

Norway, 66

Nutrition,

see Appetite;

Wasting syndrome

O

Office of National Drug Control Policy, xi,

Opiates, 17-18, 28, 33, 36, 78, 84, 184

codeine, 17, 65, 79, 82-83, 141, 158

gateway theory, 64, 65

heroin, 5, 8, 17, 28, 50, 51, 64, 140

Oral drug delivery, 11, 12, 92, 146, 176;

see also Marinol;

THC

Oregon, 4, 5, 164, 166

Orphan Drug Act, 138, 144, 149

P

PAHs,

see Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Pain, 4, 10, 11, 25, 77-85, 90-91, 96, 150, 174, 176, 177

animal studies, 33, 51, 79

brain, 77-78

cancer, 81, 82, 95-96, 98

cannabinoids, general, 79, 83-84, 176, 181-182

cellular processes, 28, 31, 33, 51

clinical studies, 24, 36, 75, 79-85, 93, 102-104, 171, 176, 178-179, 184

gateway theory, 64, 65

headaches, 19, 22, 23, 77, 83, 164

historical perspectives, 15, 16, 17-18, 151-152

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

inflammation, 35

Marinol, 143

multiple sclerosis, 106, 107-108, 112

opiates, 17-18

patients' views, 19-20, 22, 23, 95-96

smoking of marijuana, 22, 23, 80, 83, 85, 91, 161, 177

spinal cord injuries, 106, 107, 112

surgical, 17, 78-79, 80-81, 84

THC, 79-83, 91, 181

see also Nausea

Paranoia, 24, 59

Parkinson's disease, 32, 116, 118, 138, 150

Patents, 149, 151, 152, 154

Peer pressure, 54, 55, 63

Placebo effect, 74, 108-109

Political and social factors, 7, 38, 62-67, 156

dependence, 49, 54

legalization of use, xi,

Marijuana Policy Project, 163, 165-166

market forces, 149

mass media, 6

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Legislation (NORML) , 19, 142, 158-159, 163

peer pressure, 54, 55, 63

public opinion, 24-25, 42, 62, 149

religion, perceptions of marijuana, 14, 15, 16

see also Legal issues and legislation

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 41-42

Pregnancy, 38, 43, 44, 46, 47, 67, 74

birth weight, 38, 46

Prostate cancer, 42, 101

Psychological effects, 3, 5, 38, 50, 54, 58-62, 89, 91, 100, 113, 127, 143, 174

amotivational syndrome, 60-61, 178-179

dysphoria, 24, 59, 67;

see also Anxiety;

Depression

euphoria, 50, 53, 58, 59, 84, 91, 176

gateway theory, 64, 65

hallucinations, 59, 61, 118

marijuana psychosis, 61

mood effects, 50, 54, 59, 91-92, 102, 112, 145;

see also Anxiety;

Depression;

Dysphoria;

Euphoria

paranoia, 24, 59

placebo effects, 74, 108-109

psychiatric disorders, general, 56, 61, 64, 67

schizophrenia, 61, 178-179

sedation, 58, 78, 81, 82, 84, 112, 116, 174, 176

withdrawal, 11, 41, 48, 49, 51-54

Psychomotor performance, 31-32, 51, 59, 60, 62, 67, 107, 115-120, 176

dystonias, 116-117

Huntington's disease, 32, 116, 117-118, 138

Parkinson's disease, 32, 116, 118, 138, 150

Tourette's syndrome, 116, 118-119

see also Multiple sclerosis;

Spasticity

Public Health Service, 160

Public opinion, 24-25, 42, 62, 149

R

Race/ethnicity, 56

glaucoma, 124-125

Receptors and receptor binding, 27-34, 36, 51, 77-78, 83, 98, 107, 109, 117-118, 131-132, 152, 176, 181

Marinol, 143

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

neurotransmitters and receptors, 28, 29, 30, 118-119

antioxidants, 31, 151

serotonin, 29, 88, 98, 100

Regulatory issues, 68, 134-154

animal studies, 134, 136

clinical trials, 24-25, 42, 73, 134-138, 141, 169-171

Investigational new drug applications (FDA), 134, 136, 138, 144, 146, 153, 171

Marinol, 134-135, 137, 140-141, 142-148, 149, 150, 152, 159

New drug applications (FDA), 135-137, 153

research barriers, 24-25, 42, 73, 169-171

side effects, 143, 149

THC, 139-140, 142, 151;

see also “Marinol” supra

see also Drug Enforcement Administration;

Food and Drug Administration;

Legal issues and legislation;

Standards

Religious factors, 14, 15, 16

Reproductive system effects, 44, 45-46

birth weight, 38, 46

pregnancy, 38, 43, 44, 46, 47, 67, 74

prostate cancer, 42, 101

THC, 45-46

Research methodology,

see Methodology

Respiratory system, 42, 47, 174, 183

bronchi, 40-41

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 41

clinical studies, 39, 40

lungs, 38-39, 41-42, 43, 44-45, 67

see also Smoking of marijuana;

Tobacco

S

Schizophrenia, 61, 178-179

Sedation, 58, 78, 81, 82, 84, 112, 116, 174, 176

Seizures, 4, 120-121

Serotonin, 29, 88, 98, 100

Side effects, general, 10, 11, 24, 117, 118, 120, 184

age factors, 19-21

AIDS medication, 19-21

cannabinoids, general, 24, 25, 28, 67

regulatory issues, 143, 149

smoking, immediate adverse reactions, 24, 43, 92, 164

THC, 59, 60, 81-82, 92, 101, 143

see also Anxiety;

Chemotherapy;

Memory;

Nausea;

Psychological effects;

Sedation;

Vomiting

Sleep, 14, 51, 104, 106, 108, 112, 113, 143

Smoking of marijuana, xii,

adverse reactions, immediate, 24, 43, 92, 164

age factors, patients, 90, 93, 161, 185

AIDS patients, 90, 93, 161, 185

animal studies, 42-43, 51

cancer, as cause of, 38, 41-43, 47, 67, 153-154, 183

cancer patients, palliation, 95-96, 98

cellular effects, 40-41, 42-45

children of smokers, cognitive effects, 47

clinical studies, 39, 40, 42, 80, 83, 85, 90, 93, 161, 171, 178-179, 180, 183

economic factors, 147-148

epidemiological studies, 39

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

federal law allowing, 4, 23, 124, 160, 164, 170

gateway theory, 62-63

immune system effects, 35, 44-45, 92

movement disorders, 119

multiple sclerosis, 108

pain palliation, 22,

patients' views, 20-23, 24, 103-104

during pregnancy, 38, 43, 44, 46, 47, 67, 74

tobacco smokers who smoke marijuana, 39

tolerance, 50

vomiting, antiemetic effects, 98, 100-101, 103

Smoking of tobacco,

see Tobacco

Social factors,

see Political and social factors

Spasticity, 106-113, 138, 164, 182

animal studies, 35, 107, 110, 112

clinical studies, 24, 83, 107, 108-113, 119, 171, 178-179, 183-184

historical perspectives, 17

patients' views, 19

THC, 108, 109, 111-113

see also Multiple sclerosis

Spinal cord, 4, 31, 33, 75, 84, 106, 107, 112, 150, 178-179

pain, 106, 107, 112

Standards,

see Regulatory issues

State-level action

clinical studies, 19, 24-25, 73, 160, 163-164

legislation, xi,

litigation, 4, 137, 159-160, 161-163, 165, 166, 168

referenda, 19, 66-67, 95, 131, 164-165, 169

see also District of Columbia;

specific states

Substance abuse,

see Addiction;

Dependence

Surgical procedures

glaucoma, 127

pain, 17, 78-79, 80-81, 84, 184

T

Taxation, 17, 157-158

Tetrahydrocannabinol,

see Marinol;

THC

THC, 8, 10, 27, 47, 53, 59, 60, 67, 151, 152, 174, 180, 183-184

AIDS wasting, 89, 91, 96

Alzheimer's disease, 122

anxiety, 74, 75, 81-82, 91, 109, 113

cancer patients, 81, 82, 91, 96, 98-102

cellular processes, 28, 29, 30, 181

chemistry of, 26, 27, 28

clinical studies, 74, 75, 79-83, 88, 89-90, 91, 98-101, 108-113, 117, 119, 122, 127, 128, 143-145, 151

Marinol, 88, 89-90, 91, 122, 143-145

dystonia, 117

glaucoma, 127, 128

Huntington's disease, 118

immune system, 34, 44

multiple sclerosis/muscle spasticity, 108, 109, 111-113

nabilone, 98, 100, 109, 111, 112-113, 142-143, 180

nausea and vomiting control, 33-34, 82, 88, 98-101, 102

pain, 79-83, 91, 181

regulatory controls, 139-140, 142, 151

Marinol, 134-135, 137, 140-141, 142-148, 149, 150, 152, 159

reproductive system, 45-46

side effects, general, 59, 60, 81-82, 92, 101, 143

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
×

tolerance, 48, 50-51

withdrawal, 51-52

see also Drug delivery;

Marinol

Tobacco, 38-39, 40-41, 42, 45, 47, 58, 183

Tolerance, 11, 48, 49, 50, 52-53, 78

Tourette's syndrome, 116, 118-119

U

Unimet Pharmaceuticals, 122, 137, 142-147 ,(passim) 150, 159

United Kingdom, 10, 143, 150, 151, 178-179, 180, 183-184

United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 169-170

United States Pharmacopoeia,

V

Vomiting, 8, 27, 96-101, 103, 174, 182, 185

clinical studies, 33-34, 87-88, 97-101, 104, 176, 178-179

history of marijuana, 14, 15-16

Marinol, 27, 88, 89-90, 144, 145, 147

neurological processes, 31, 32, 33-34, 96, 97

patients' views, 20, 21, 87, 96

smoking, antiemetic effects, 98, 100-101, 103

THC, 33-34, 82, 88, 98-101, 102

see also Nausea

W

Washington, D.C.,

see District of Columbia

Washington State, 4, 164, 165

Wasting syndrome

cancer patients, 101-102, 171

clinical trials, 24, 178-179

see also AIDS wasting;

Appetite

Withdrawal, 11, 48, 49, 51-54

tobacco smokers, 41, 48

Women,

see Gender factors;

Pregnancy;

Reproductive system effects

World Health Organization, 178-179

World Wide Web,

see Internet

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9586.
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Marijuana As Medicine?: The Science Beyond the Controversy Get This Book
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Some people suffer from chronic, debilitating disorders for which no conventional treatment brings relief. Can marijuana ease their symptoms? Would it be breaking the law to turn to marijuana as a medication?

There are few sources of objective, scientifically sound advice for people in this situation. Most books about marijuana and medicine attempt to promote the views of advocates or opponents. To fill the gap between these extremes, authors Alison Mack and Janet Joy have extracted critical findings from a recent Institute of Medicine study on this important issue, interpreting them for a general audience.

Marijuana As Medicine? provides patients--as well as the people who care for them--with a foundation for making decisions about their own health care. This empowering volume examines several key points, including:

  • Whether marijuana can relieve a variety of symptoms, including pain, muscle spasticity, nausea, and appetite loss.
  • The dangers of smoking marijuana, as well as the effects of its active chemical components on the immune system and on psychological health.
  • The potential use of marijuana-based medications on symptoms of AIDS, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and several other specific disorders, in comparison with existing treatments.

Marijuana As Medicine? introduces readers to the active compounds in marijuana. These include the principal ingredient in Marinol, a legal medication. The authors also discuss the prospects for developing other drugs derived from marijuana's active ingredients.

In addition to providing an up-to-date review of the science behind the medical marijuana debate, Mack and Joy also answer common questions about the legal status of marijuana, explaining the conflict between state and federal law regarding its medical use.

Intended primarily as an aid to patients and caregivers, this book objectively presents critical information so that it can be used to make responsible health care decisions. Marijuana As Medicine? will also be a valuable resource for policymakers, health care providers, patient counselors, medical faculty and students--in short, anyone who wants to learn more about this important issue.

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