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Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Reference List

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 1998. Assessing EMF in the workplace: A guide for industrial hygienists. Publication 9853. ACGIH. Cincinnati, OH.


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Blackman, C. F., S. G. Benane and D. E. House. 1993. Evidence for direct effect of magnetic fields on neurite outgrowth. FASEB Journal 7:801–806.

Blank, M. and L. Soo. Frequency dependence of cytochrome oxidase activity in magnetic fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. In Press.

Blank, M. and L. Soo. 1998. Enhancement of cytochrome oxidase activity in 60 Hz magnetic fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 45:253–259.

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Byus, C. V., S. E. Peiper and W. R. Adey. 1987. The effects of low-energy 60-Hz environmental electromagnetic fields upon the growth-related enzyme orinthine decarboxylase. Carcinogenesis 8:1385–1389.


Czerska, E., J. Cassamento, C. Davis, E. Elson, J. Ning, M. Swicord and H. Al-Barazi. 1992. Comparison of the Effect of ELF on c-MYC Oncogene Transformation in Normal and Transformed Human Cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 649:340–342.


DHHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 1992. Vital statistics of the U.S. Vol. II Mortality Part A. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control. Hyattsville, MD.

DOE (Department of Energy). 1993. The national electric and magnetic fields research and communication program: Draft strategic plan. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C.

DOE, NIEHS (Department of Energy, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1994a. Implementation plan for health effects research and risk communication. DOE/EE-0038. U. S. Department of Energy. Washington, D. C.

Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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DOE (Department of Energy). 1994b. Implementation Plan for Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration. DOE/EE-0036. U. S. Department of Energy. Washington, D. C.

DOE (Department of Energy). 1994c. Research agenda and communication plan, EMF-RAPID program. DOE/EE-0021. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C.

DOE, NIEHS (Department of Energy, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1994d. Implementation plan for communication. DOE/EE-0037. U. S. Department of Energy. Washington, D. C.

DOE, NIEHS (Department of Energy, National Institute of Environmental Health Studies). 1995. Questions and answers about electric and magnetic fields associated with the use of electric power. DOE/EE-0040. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.

EM Factors. 1996. Assessment of human exposure to magnetic fields produced by domestic appliances. EM Factors: Richland, WA.

Enertech Consultants. 1996. Environmental field surveys. Enertech Consultants: Lee, MA.

Enertech Consultants. 1998a. Survey of personal magnetic field exposure: Phase I pilot study and design of phase II. Enertech Consultants: Lee, MA.

Enertech Consultants. 1998b. Survey of personal magnetic field exposure: Phase II, 1,000-person survey. Enertech Consultants: Lee, MA.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1990. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields. EPA/600/6-90/005B. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C.

ERMI (Electric Research and Management, Inc.). 1997. EMF RAPID program engineering projects: development of recommendations for guidelines for field source measurement. ERMI. State College, PA.


Fitzsimmons, R. J., D. D. Strong, S. Mohan and D. J. Baylink. 1992. Low-amplitude, low-frequency electric field-stimulated bone cell proliferation may in part be mediated by increased IGF-II release. Journal of Cellular Physiology 150:84–89.

Florig, H. Keith. 1995. Risk dimensions of the EMF problem. Resources for the Future: Washington, DC.


Goodman, R., L.-X. Wei, J. C. Xu and A. Shirley-Henderson. 1989. Exposure of human cells to low-frequency electromagnetic fields results in quantitative changes in transcripts. Biochemical Biophysical Acta 1009:216–220.

Goodman, R. and A. Shirley-Henderson. 1990. Exposure of cells to extremely low-

Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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frequency electromagnetic fields: relationship to malignancy? Cancer Cells 2:355–359.

Goodman, R., R. J. Burmann, L.-X. Wei and A. Shirley-Henderson. 1992. Exposure of human cells to electromagnetic fields: effect of time and field strength on transcript levels. Electromagnetobiology 11:19–28.

Goodman, R. and M. Blank. 1998. Magnetic field stress induces expression of hsp70. Cell Stress Chaperones 3:79–88.

Graham, C., M. R. Cook, M. Riffle, M. Gerkovich and H. D. Cohen. 1996. Nocturnal melatonin levels in human volunteers exposed to intermittent 60-Hz magnetic fields . Bioelectromagnetics 17:263–273.

Han, H. L., L. H. Lin, M. Head, M. Blank, and R. Goodman. Application of Magnetic Field-Induced Hsp70 for Pre-Surgical Cytoprotection. Journal of Cell Biochemistry. In press.

Hogue, P. S. 1995. Characterization of exposures to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the office environment. Master of Science Thesis. University of Washington: Seattle, WA.


ICNIRP (International Commission for Non-ionizing Radiation Protection). 1990. Interim guidelines on limits to exposure to 50/60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Health Physics 58:113–122.

ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). 1998. Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 Ghz). Health Physics 74:494–522.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). 1997. IEEE standard safety levels with respect to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 3 KHz to 300 GHz. C95.1-1991. IEEE. New York, NY.

IIT (IIT Research Institute). 1997. Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies. Volume I. IIT Research Institute. Chicago, IL.

IRPA/INIRC (International Non-ionizing Radiation Committee of the International Radiation Protection Association). 1990. Interim guidelines on limits of exposure to 50/60 Hz elecric and magnetic fields . Health Physics 58:113–121.


Jin, J., H. Lin, J. Olper, S. Mauer, M. Blank and R. Goodman. 1997. Biological and technical variables in Myc expression in HL60 cells exposed to 60 Hz electromagnetic fields. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 44:111–120.


Kato, M., K. Honma, T. Shigemitsu and Y. Shiga. 1994. Recovery of nocturnal melatonin concentration takes place within one week following cessation of 50 Hz cirularly polarized magnetic field exposure for six weeks. Bioelectromagnetics 15:489–492.

Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Lai, H. 1996. Spatial learning deficit in the rat after exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 17:494–496.

Lai, H. and M. Carino. 60 Hz magnetic fields and central cholinergic activity: Effects of exposure intensity and duration. Bioelectromagnetics. In press.

Lai, H. and N. P. Singh. 1997. Acute exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic field increases DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells. Bioelectromagnetics 18:156–165.

Lai, H. and M. Carino. 1998. Intracerebroventricular injection of mu- and delta-opiate receptor antagonists block 60 Hz magnetic field-induced decreases in cholinergic activity in the frontal cortex and hipocampus of the rat. Bioelectromagnetics 19:432–437.

Lednev, V. V. 1991. Possible mechanism for the influence of weak magnetic fields on biological systems. Bioelectromagnetics 12:71–75.

Lee, J. H. and K. J. McLeod. Morphologic responses of osteoblast-like cells in monolayer culture to ELF electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics. In press.

Lin, H., R. Goodman and A. Shirley-Henderson. 1994. Specific region of the c-Myc promotor is responsive to electric and magnetic fields. Journal of Cellular Biology 54:281–288.

Lin, H. and R. Goodman. 1995. Electric and magnetic noise blocks the 60 Hz magnetic field enhancement of steady state c-Myc transcript levels in human leukemia cells. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 36:33–37.

Lin, H., L. Han, M. Blank, M. Head and R. Goodman. 1998a. Magnetic field activation of protein-DNA binding. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 70:297–303.

Lin, H., M. Head, M. Blank, L. Han, M. Jin and R. Goodman. 1998b. Myc-mediated transactivation of HSP70 expression following exposure to magnetic fields. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 69:181–188.

Lindstrom, E., P. Lindstrom, A. Berglund, E. Lundgren and K. H. Mild. 1993. Intracellular calcium oscillations induced in a T-Cell line by a weak 50 Hz magnetic field. Journal of Cellular Physiology 156:395–398.

Lindstrom, E., I. L. Korzh-Sleptsova, A. Berglund, E. Lundgren and K. H. Mild. 1995a. CD40 phosphatase in Jurkat cells is necessary for response to applied ELF magnetic fields. FEBS Letters 370:118–122.

Lindstrom, E., I. L. Korzh-Sleptsova, A. Berglund, E. Lundgren and K. H. Mild. 1995b. Low frequency MFs increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels in the Jurkat cell line. FEBS Letters 359:151–154.

Litovitz, T. A., D. Krause and J. M. Mullins. 1991. Effect of coherence time of the applied magnetic field on ornithine decarboxylase activity. Biochemical Biophysical

Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Research Communication 178:862–865.

Litovitz, T. A., D. Krause, C. J. Montrose and J. M. Mullins. 1995. Temporarily incoherent magnetic fields mitigate the response of biological systems to temporally coherent magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 15:399–409.

Litovitz, T. A., M. Penaiel, D. Krause, D. Zhang and J. M. Mullins. 1997. The role of temporal sensing in bioelectromagnetic effects. Bioelectromagnetics 18:388–395.

Loescher, W., M. Mevissen, W. Lehmacher and A. Stamm. 1993. Tumor promotion in a breast cancer model by exposure to a weak alternating magnetic field. Cancer Letters 71:75–81.

Loescher, W., M. Mevissen, W. Lehmacher and A. Stamm. 1994a. Effects of weak alternating magnetic fields on nocturnal melatonin production and mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Oncology 51:288–295.

Loescher, W. and M. Mevissen. 1994b. Animal studies on the role of 50/60-Hz magnetic fields in carcinogenesis. Life Science 54(21):1531–43.

Magnetic Measurements. 1998. Recommendations for guidelines for environment-specific magnetic-field measurements. Magnetic Measurements: Kentfield, CA.

McLeod, K. J., H. J. Donahue, P. E. Levin, M. A. Fontaine and C. T. Rubin. 1993. Electric fields modulate bone cell function in a density-dependent manner. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 8:977–984.

Mevissen, M., A. Stamm, S. Buntenkotter, R. Zwingelberg, U. Wahnschaffe and W. Loescher. 1993. Effects of magnetic fields on mammary tumor development induced by 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a) anthracene in rats. Bioelectromagnetics 14:131–143.


NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1997. EMF science review symposium: Breakout group reports for theoretical mechanisms and in vitro research findings. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/emfrapid/html/Symposium1.html. NIEHS.

NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1998a. Assessment of health effects from exposure to power-line frequency electric and magnetic fields. Publication No. 98-3981. NIEHS. Research Triangle Park, NC.

NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1998b. EMF science review symposium: Breakout group reports for epidemiological research findings. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/emfrapid/html/Symposium2.html. NIEHS.

NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1998c. EMF science review symposium: Breakout group reports for clinical and in vivo laboratory findings. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/emfrapid/html/Symposium3.html. NIEHS.

NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1998d. EMF

Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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engineering review symposium: Status and summary of EMF engineering research . http://www.niehs.nih.gov/emfrapid/html/Symposium4.html. NIEHS.

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1998. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields: I. Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude, II. Field characteristics from waveform measurements. NIOSH. Washington, DC.

NRC (National Research Council). 1995. EMF research activities completed under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Interim Report). National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.

NRC (National Research Council). 1997. Possible health effects of exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields. National Academy Press. Washington, D. C.

NRPB (National Radiological Protection Board). 1992. Electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer. Documents of the National Radiological Protection Board 3: 1–138.

NRPB (National Radiological Protection Board). 1994. Electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer. Documents of the National Radiological Protection Board 5:77–81.

NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1998a. NTP Technical Report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (Whole-body exposure studies). NIH Publication No. 98-3978. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Toxicology Program. Research Triangle Park, NC.

NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1998b. NTP Technical Report on the studies of magnetic field promotion (DMBA initiation) in Sprague-Dawley rats (Gavage/Wholebody exposure studies) . NIH Publication No. 98-3979. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Toxicology Program. Research Triangle Park, NC.

ORAU (Oak Ridge Associated Universities). 1992. Health effects of low frequency electric and magnetic fields. The Committee in Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination. Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

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Peach, H. G., W. J. Bonwick, and T. Wyse. 1992. Report of the panel on electromagnetic fields and health. The Victorian Government: Melbourne, Australia.

Phillips, J. L., W. Haggren, W. J. Thomas, T. Ishida-Jones and W. R. Adey. 1992. Magnetic field-induced changes in specific gene transcription. Biochemical Biophysical Acta 1132:140–144.

Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Phillips, J. L., W. Haggren, W. J. Thomas, T. Ishida-Jones and W. R. Adey. 1993. Effect of 72 Hz pulsed magnetic field exposure on Ras p21 expression in CCRF-CEM cells. Cancer Biochemical Biophysical 13:187–193.

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Rubin, J., K. J. McLeod, L. Titus, M. S. Nanes, B. D. Catherwood and C. T. Rubin. 1996. Formation of osteoclast-like cells is suppressed by low-frequency, low-intensity electric fields. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 15:7–15.


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Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Page 89
Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Page 90
Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Page 94
Suggested Citation:"Reference List." National Research Council. 1999. Research on Power-Frequency Fields Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9587.
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Since the 1970s, concerns about health hazards associated with electric and magnetic fields from power lines and from workplace, school, and household use of electricity have led to many studies and continued controversy about whether adverse health effects occur. In the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486), Congress authorized a focused national research program to study the possible health effects of exposure to low-intensity, 60-hertz electric and magnetic fields. In response to this legislation and at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Research Council established a committee under the Board on Radiation Effects Research (BRER) in the Commission on Life Sciences (CLS) to aid in its review of the power-frequency magnetic field research activities completed under the Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination (EMF-RAPID) program that was authorized by the Energy Policy Act. The Research Council's Committee to Review the Research Activities Completed Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was asked to review the EMF-RAPID program implemented by DOE and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and research strategies suggested by other federal and nonfederal groups.

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