National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture

Committee on the Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

and

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been prepared with funds provided by the US Department of Agriculture under grant number, 59-0700-5-119, Environmental Protection Agency under contract number 6W-1187-NANX, and the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The future role of pesticides in US agriculture / Committee on the Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references (p. ).

ISBN 0-309-06526-7 (case bound)

1. Pesticides--United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. III. Title.

SB950.2.A1 F88 2000

632'.95'0973--dc21

00-011245

Additional copies of this report are available from

National Academy Press
, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu

The illustration to the left, a corn earworm moth, Heliothis zea, was created by Alice Prickett of Urbana, Illinois, and was adapted for the image on the cover of this book.

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

COMMITTEE ON THE FUTURE ROLE OF PESTICIDES IN US AGRICULTURE

MAY BERENBAUM, Chair,

Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

MARK BRUSSEAU,

Department Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

JOSEPH DIPIETRO,

College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

ROBERT GOODMAN,

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

FRED GOULD,

Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

JEFFREY GUNSOLUS,

Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota

BRUCE HAMMOCK,

Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California

ROLF HARTUNG,

Environmental Toxicology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (Retired)

PAMELA MARRONE,

AgraQuest, Inc., Davis, California

BRUCE MAXWELL,

Department of Plant, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana

KENNETH RAFFA,

Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

JOHN RYALS,

Paradigm Genetics, Inc., Cary, North Carolina

DALE SHANER,

American Cyanamid, Princeton, New Jersey

*JAMES SEIBER,

Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Department of Environmental Resource Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada

DAVID ZILBERMAN,

Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley, California

Consultant

ERIK LICHTENBERG,

Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

Staff

Kim Waddell, Project Director

Mary Jane Letaw, Project Director (through September 11, 1999)

Heather Christiansen, Research Associate

Karen Imhof, Project Assistant

*Resigned December, 1998 after changing affiliation to USDA-ARS

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

HARLEY W. MOON, Chair,

Iowa State University

DAVID H. BAKER,

University of Illinois

*SANDRA S. BATIE

Department of Agricultural Economics Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan

MAY R. BERENBAUM,

University of Illinois

*ANTHONY S. EARL

Quarles & Brady Law Firm, Madison, Wisconsin

*ESSEX E. FINNEY, JR.

Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Mitchellville, Maryland (retired)

CORNELIA B. FLORA,

Iowa State University

ROBERT T. FRALEY,

Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri

ROBERT B. FRIDLEY,

University of California

W. R. (REG) GOMES,

University of California

PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN,

Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts

GEORGE R. HALLBERG,

The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts

*RICHARD R. HARWOOD

Crop and Soil Sciences Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

*T. KENT KIRK Chair,

Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

CALESTOUS JUMA,

Harvard University

GILBERT A. LEVEILLE,

McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Denville, New Jersey

WHITNEY MACMILLAN,

Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota (retired)

WILLIAM L. OGREN,

US Department of Agriculture (retired)

NANCY J. RACHMAN,

International Life Science Institute, Washington, D.C.

G. EDWARD SCHUH,

University of Minnesota

JOHN W. SUTTIE,

University of Wisconsin

THOMAS N. URBAN,

Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa

ROBERT P. WILSON,

Mississippi State University

JAMES J. ZUICHES,

Washington State University

Staff

Warren Muir, Executive Director

Myron F. Uman, Acting Executive Director (through May 1999)

David L. Meeker, Director (since March 2000)

Charlotte Kirk Baer, Associate Director

Shirley Thatcher, Administrative Assistant

*Through December 1999

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

GORDON ORIANS, Chair,

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

DONALD MATTISON, Vice Chair,

March of Dimes, White Plains, New York

DAVID ALLEN,

University of Texas, Austin, Texas

INGRID C. BURKE,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

WILLIAM L. CHAMEIDES,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia

JOHN DOULL,

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas

CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

JOHN GERHART,

University of California, Berkeley, California

J. PAUL GILMAN,

Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland

BRUCE D. HAMMOCK,

University of California, Davis, California

MARK HARWELL,

University of Miami, Miami, Florida

ROGENE HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CAROL HENRY,

Chemical Manufacturers Association, Arlington, Virginia

BARBARA HULKA,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

JAMES F. KITCHELL,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

DANIEL KREWSKI,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

JAMES A. MACMAHON,

Utah State University, Logan, Utah

MARIO J. MOLINA,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

CHARLES O'MELIA,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

WILLEM F. PASSCHIER,

Health Council of the Netherlands

KIRK SMITH,

University of California, Berkeley, California

MARGARET STRAND,

Oppenheimer Wolff Donnelly & Bayh, LLP, Washington, DC

TERRY F. YOSIE,

Chemical Manufacturers Association, Arlington, Virginia

Senior Staff

James J. Reisa, Director

David J. Policansky, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology

Carol A. Maczka, Senior Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Raymond A. Wassel, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

Kulbir Bakshi, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology

Lee R. Paulson, Program Director for Resource Management

Roberta M. Wedge, Program Director for Risk Analysis

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

MICHAEL T. CLEGG, Chair,

University of California, Riverside, California

PAUL BERG, Vice Chair,

Stanford University, Stanford, California

FREDERICK R. ANDERSON,

Cadwalader, Wickersham and Taft, Washington, D.C.

JOANNA BURGER,

Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey

JAMES E. CLEAVER,

University of California, San Francisco, California

DAVID S. EISENBERG,

University of California, Los Angeles, California

JOHN L. EMMERSON,

Fishers, Indiana

NEAL L. FIRST,

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

DAVID J. GALAS,

Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, California

DAVID V. GOEDDEL,

Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, California

ARTURO GOMEZ -POMPA,

University of California, Riverside, California

COREY S. GOODMAN,

University of California, Berkeley, California

JON W. GORDON,

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York

DAVID G. HOEL,

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina

BARBARA S. HULKA,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

CYNTHIA J. KENYON,

University of California, San Francisco, California

BRUCE R. LEVIN,

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

DAVID M. LIVINGSTON,

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts

DONALD R. MATTISON,

March of Dimes, White Plains, New York

ELLIOT M. MEYEROWITZ,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California

ROBERT T. PAINE,

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

RONALD R. SEDEROFF,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

ROBERT R. SOKAL,

State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York

CHARLES F. STEVENS,

The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California

SHIRLEY M. TILGHMAN,

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

RAYMOND L. WHITE,

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Staff

Warren R. Muir, Executive Director

Jacqueline K. Prince, Financial Officer

Barbara B. Smith, Administrative Associate

Laura T. Holliday, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

Preface

Predicting the future would appear to be an inherently unscientific process; there are few opportunities for constructing falsifiable hypotheses and testing them, short of waiting until the future actually becomes the present. Nonetheless, scientists are often called on to engage in the exercise; the ability to construct and project different futures can allow scientists to guide society in achieving a particular fate that it deems desirable. Relevant information gathered about the past and the present can be used as a basis for choosing intelligently among possible futures.

In January 1998, the National Research Council convened a committee of experts representing a broad range of disciplines to make an effort to predict the future of pesticide use in American agriculture. The effort was far from the first made by the National Research Council to evaluate aspects of pesticide use; the subject has been the focus of National Research Council attention for close to 5 decades, dating back to the earliest days of widespread adoption of synthetic organic pesticides (Appendix A). The format of evaluation has varied—some publications resulted from conferences or symposia and others, were the product of committee deliberations after extended study. Conclusions have also varied, sometimes dramatically. That they have varied is not surprising, given that, over the course of 5 decades technologies have changed, society's goals and values have changed, and even the biology of pest species has changed. In most cases, the publications have had a measurable impact and have influenced attitudes toward pesticides or pesticide use.

It is our hope that this report will influence attitudes and policies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

One prediction that can be made with some confidence, however, is that, irrespective of the impact of our committee's study and report, it will likely not be the last study commissioned by the National Research Council on the subject of pesticides. Whether there will be 5 more decades of debate or far fewer, depends on dimensions of society, technology, and biology that are impossible to predict even with the best analytical tools available today.

May R. Berenbaum

Chair

Committee on the Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

Acknowledgments

The committee was greatly assisted by many individuals and groups that generously shared facts and expertise during the information-gathering phase of this study. In particular, we thank the people who participated in the three public workshops held across the country to provide the committee with input on a wide variety of subjects:

MICHAEL ALAVANJA, Agricultural Health Study, National Cancer Institute

KATE AULTMAN, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

JOE BODDIFORD, Georgia Peanut Commission, Sylvania, Georgia

BARRY BRENNAN, US Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Pesticide Applicator Training

JENNY BROOME, University of California Davis, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program and Biological Integrated Farming Systems

MARGRIET CASWELL, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

RAY CARRUTHERS, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

PETER CAULKINS, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Policy

FORREST CHUMLEY, Dupont Agricultural Products

RON CISNEY, Olocco Ag Services, Santa Maria, California

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

HAROLD COBLE, US Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service

JIM CRANNY, US Apple Association

RUPA DAS, California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California

ERNIE DELFOSSE, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

HELENE DILLARD, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station

LARRY ELWORTH, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

ROBERT EPSTEIN, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Science and Technology Pesticide Data Program

LEONARD GIANESSI, National Center for Food and Agriculture Policy

BOB GILLIOM, US Geological Survey, Sacramento, California

DICK GUEST, US Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service Interregional-4 Program

JOHN G. HUFTALIN, Grower, Rochelle, Illinois

TOBI JONES, California Department of Pesticide Regulation

WOLFRAM KOELLER, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York

SAM LANG, Fairway Green, Raleigh, North Carolina

YOUNG LEE, US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

RAY MCALLISTER, American Crop Protection Association

MIKE MCKENRY, University of California Davis, Kearney Agricultural Experiment Station

CHARLES MELLINGER, Glades Crop Care, Jupiter, Florida

MIKE OWEN, Iowa State University, Ames

KATHLEEN MERRIGAN, Henry A. Wallace Institute, Washington, DC

MICHAEL O'MALLEY, University of California Davis, Employee Health Services

ELDON ORTMAN, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

STEVE PAVICH, Pavich Family Farms, Porterville, California

BOB PETERSON, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, Indiana

DAVID PIMENTEL, Cornell University, Department of Entomology, Ithaca, New York

GEORGE PONDER, Curtice Burns Foods, Montezuma, Georgia

MARY PURCELL, US Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program

BOB QUINN, Millenial Farm and Ranch, Big Sandy, Montana

NANCY RAGSDALE, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

SAM RIVES, US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service

WAYNE SANDERSON, National Institute of Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio

ANN SORENSEN, Center for Agriculture in the Environment, American Farmland Trust, Dekalb, Illinois

TOM SPARKS, Dow AgroSciences, Discovery Research, Indianapolis, Indiana

TONY THOMPSON, Willow Lake Farm, Windom, Minnesota

KEL WIEDER, US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, National Research Initiative Competitive Grants

MARK WHALON, Pesticide Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

DEAN ZULEGER, Hartland Farms, Hancock, Wisconsin

The following are also acknowledged for assisting the National Research Council staff during preparation of the report by providing updated information and statistics: Arnold Aspelin, senior economist, US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticides Programs; Eldon Ball, economist, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resource Economics Division; Jennifer Eppes, author of The Future of Biopesticides, Business Communications Company Inc.; Merritt Padgitt, agricultural conomist, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service; James Parochetti, US Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service; and Patrick Stewart, Department of Political Science, Arkansas State University.

The committee and staff wish to acknowledge with special recognition the contributions of Nancy Ragsdale of the Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. Her efforts catalyzed the interest in and subsequent support for this study from both the US Department of Agriculture and the National Research Council. The committee thanks her for unflagging support and patience with this report though its development.

The committee is grateful for the extraordinary efforts of the staff of the National Research Council Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources (BANR) in facilitating all stages of this study. Warren Muir, executive director of the Commission on Life Sciences and of BANR provided oversight and Charlotte Kirk Baer, acting as interim director and associate director of BANR, demonstrated an unremitting commitment to seeing this report through to completion. Mary Jane Letaw provided invaluable assistance as project director in early stages of the study, particularly in organizing the project and in arranging the workshops. Karen L.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

Imhof, project assistant, ably provided enthusiastic support through all stages of report preparation and completion, despite many competing demands on her time. Kim Waddell, project director during later stages of the study, is particularly worthy of recognition for his exceptional efforts at shepherding the report through the review process in a timely and consummately professional way. Heather Christiansen, research associate, provided timely updates and improvements to many of the figures and tables throughout the report. The committee is also appreciative of Norman Grossblatt for his editorial refinement of the report.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Sandra O. Archibald, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs; Daniel Barolo, Jellinek, Schwartz & Connolly, Inc.; Ellis B. V. Cowling, North Carolina State University; William Fry, Cornell University; Maureen Hinkle, National Audubon Society (retired); Robert Hollingworth, Michigan State University; George G. Kennedy, North Carolina State University; William L. Ogren, US Department of Agriculture (retired); Steven Radosevich, Oregon State University; Mark Robson, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute; Len Saari, DuPont Agricultural Products; Thomas Sparks, DowAgro Sciences; and John Stark, Washington State University.

Although the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author committee and the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
   

 Resistance to Pesticides,

 

55

   

 Human Health Impacts,

 

60

   

 Occupational Effects and Risks: an Overview,

 

60

   

 Manufacturing Risks,

 

61

   

 Packaging, Distribution, and Application Risks,

 

62

   

 Trends in Worker Safety Risk,

 

63

   

 Special Focus: Health Risks of Farm Workers and EPA Worker Protection Standards,

 

64

   

 Food Residues,

 

67

   

 Soil, Air, and Water Exposures,

 

70

   

 Ecological Problems: Impacts on Non-Target Organisms,

 

78

   

 Public Perception of Pesticides,

 

83

   

 References,

 

90

 3

 

ECONOMIC AND REGULATORY CHANGES AND THE FUTURE OF PEST MANAGEMENT

 

102

   

 Economic and Institutional Developments and Their Impacts on Pest Control,

 

102

   

 Globalization of World Food Markets,

 

103

   

 Industrialization of Agriculture and Food Processing,

 

105

   

 Decentralization and Privatization,

 

106

   

 Privatization of Extension Services and Consulting,

 

109

   

 Phaseout of Commodity Programs,

 

110

   

 Devolution,

 

111

   

 Emergence of the Knowledge Economy,

 

111

   

 The Organic-Food Market,

 

113

   

 Market Size,

 

113

   

 USDA National Organic Standards Program,

 

115

   

 Eco-Labelling,

 

115

   

 New Zealand,

 

116

   

 United States,

 

118

   

 Innovative Farming Systems to Reduce Pesticide Use,

 

119

   

 Biointegral Orchard Systems and Biointegral Farming Systems,

 

119

   

 Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program,

 

120

   

 Regulatory Changes,

 

120

   

 Environmental Regulation,

 

120

   

 Food Quality Protection Act,

 

123

   

 Decreasing Worker Exposure to Pesticides,

 

130

   

 The 1992 EPA Worker Protection Standards,

 

130

   

 Additional Means of Decreasing Worker Exposure to Pesticides,

 

133

   

 Legislated Reductions in Pesticide Use,

 

139

   

 References,

 

139

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

 4

 

TECHNOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHANGES AND THE FUTURE OF PEST MANAGEMENT

 

144

   

 Global Pesticide Market Trends,

 

144

   

 Chemical-Pesticide Markets,

 

144

   

 Biopesticide Market,

 

145

   

 The Industry,

 

146

   

 Agricultural-Chemical Companies,

 

146

   

 Biopesticide Companies,

 

156

   

 The Use of Microbial Pesticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Systems,

 

156

   

 Bacillus thuringiensis,

 

157

   

 Baculoviruses,

 

160

   

 Entomopathogenic Fungi,

 

163

   

 Microbial and Natural-Product Fungicides,

 

165

   

 Hypovirulence,

 

168

   

 Transgenic Crops,

 

168

   

 Genetic Engineering of Pests,

 

173

   

 Targets of Chemical Pesticides,

 

176

   

 Combinatorial Chemistry,

 

177

   

 Development and Commercialization of New Chemicals,

 

178

   

 Application Technology,

 

179

   

 Precision Agriculture,

 

182

   

 Remote Sensing and Pest Management,

 

183

   

 Increasing Knowledge of Pest Ecology,

 

184

   

 Decision-Support Systems for Pest Management,

 

185

   

 Ecological Changes Affecting Agriculture,

 

186

   

 Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming,

 

186

   

 Increased Ultraviolet-B Radiation,

 

189

   

 Increased Frequency of Biological Invasions,

 

190

   

 Loss of Biodiversity,

 

191

   

 Evolutionary Changes in Pests,

 

192

   

 References,

 

197

 5

 

EVALUATION OF PEST-CONTROL STRATEGIES

 

210

   

 Pesticide Use in Managed and Natural Ecosystems,

 

211

   

 Perennial Cropping Systems,

 

211

   

 Annual Cropping Systems,

 

212

   

 Stored-Products Systems,

 

219

   

 Animal-Production Systems,

 

221

   

 Urban Pest-Management Systems,

 

223

   

 Wildland Systems,

 

226

   

 Deciding Among Alternative Pest-Management Strategies in Determining the Utility of Chemical Products,

 

226

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

TABLES, FIGURES, AND BOXES

Tables

 1-1

 

EPA Regulatory Actions and Special Review Status of Selected Pesticides Used in Field-Crops Production, 1972–June 1995,

 

26

 1-2

 

USDA Agricultural Research Service Funding of Chemical-Pesticide Research, 1999,

 

29

 1-3

 

National Science Foundation Award Data Relevant to Pesticide Research,

 

30

 2-1

 

Pesticide Use in US Row Crops, Fruits, and Vegetables,

 

39

 2-2

 

Pounds of Pesticide Active Ingredient per Planted Acre in Major US Crops, 1990–1997,

 

42

 2-3

 

Acreage and Amounts of Pesticides Applied to Major US Crops, 1997,

 

46

 3-1

 

Application Technologies with Potential to Reduce Pesticide Risks,

 

135

 4-1

 

Global Chemical Pesticide Market (1997 Sales),

 

145

 4-2

 

US Chemical Pesticide Market by Category (1997 Sales),

 

146

 4-3

 

Global Biopesticide Market (in millions of dollars),

 

146

 4-4

 

Comparison of Technologies Pursued by the Pesticide Industry,

 

148

 4-5

 

Company Pesticide Programs,

 

150

 4-6

 

Sales of Transgenic Crops and Chemical Pesticides, 1995–1997,

 

152

 4-7

 

Reduced-Risk Pesticides Registered with US EPA since 1994,

 

155

 4-8

 

Number of Field Tests of Genetically Engineered Crops Containing Single or Multiple Genes,

 

172

 4-9

 

Number of Papers Published in 1996 that Report on Biologically Active Natural Substances,

 

192

 5-1

 

Pest Management Practices for Major Field Crops in Major Producing States, 1990–1997,

 

214

 5-2

 

Fruit and Vegetable Acreage Treated with Pesticides, Major Producing States, 1992–1997,

 

220

Figures

 1-1

 

Relationship between FIFRA-Approved Insecticides and FDA NADA-Approved Pesticides Used on Companion Animals and Livestock,

 

21

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

 2-1

 

Index of Farm Productivity in the United States, 1948–1996,

 

34

 2-2

 

Total Pesticides Application on Major US Crops, 1964–1997,

 

47

 2-3

 

Real Pesticide Expenditures in the United States, 1979–1997,

 

59

 2-4

 

Registration of Safer Chemicals,

 

71

 4-1

 

Pesticide Sales of Top Ten Agrochemical Companies, 1997,

 

147

 4-2

 

Cost to Develop and Time to Market of Various Products,

 

157

 4-3

 

Agricultural-Environmental Biotechnology Modifications 1987–1998,

 

170

 5-1

 

Equilibrium in Output Market When Supply Shifts as a Result of Technological Change,

 

236

 5-2

 

Equilibrium in Output Market with Change in Product Quality,

 

239

Boxes

 1-1

 

Biopesticide Categories,

 

20

 2-1

 

Fumigants,

 

76

 3-1

 

International Organic Food Market,

 

116

 4-1

 

Microbial Fungicides,

 

165

 5-1

 

Assessing Integrated Weed Management from Biological Time Constraints and Their Impact on Weed Control and Crop Yield,

 

224

 6-1

 

Working Model for Assessing Integrated Weed-Management Strategies,

 

270

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R20
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R21
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
Page R22
Next: Executive Summary »
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Get This Book
×
Buy Hardback | $68.00 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Although chemical pesticides safeguard crops and improve farm productivity, they are increasingly feared for their potentially dangerous residues and their effects on ecosystems.

The Future Role of Pesticides explores the role of chemical pesticides in the decade ahead and identifies the most promising opportunities for increasing the benefits and reducing the risks of pesticide use. The committee recommends R&D, program, and policy initiatives for federal agriculture authorities and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors. This book presents clear overviews of key factors in chemical pesticide use, including:

  • Advances in genetic engineering not only of pest-resistant crops but also of pests themselves.
  • Problems in pesticide use--concerns about the health of agricultural workers, the ability of pests to develop resistance, issues of public perception, and more.
  • Impending shifts in agriculture--globalization of the economy, biological "invasions" of organisms, rising sensitivity toward cross-border environmental issues, and other trends.

With a model and working examples, this book offers guidance on how to assess various pest control strategies available to today's agriculturist.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!