About the Authors
MAY BERENBAUM, Chair, is professor of entomology and department head at the University of Illinois. Berenbaum has made major contributions to the understanding of the role of chemistry in the interactions between plants and herbivorous insects. She has identified key plant defensive chemicals and determined their modes of action. Her investigations have encompassed both proximate physiological mechanisms and their evolutionary consequences for both plants and insects. Berenbaum received her PhD in ecology and evolutionary biology at Cornell University. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1994 where she is a member of OPUS (Office for Public Understanding of Science). She serves on the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and previously served on the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.
MARK BRUSSEAU is professor of subsurface hydrology and environmental chemistry at the University of Arizona. His research is focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the factors and processes influencing the transport and fate of chemicals in the subsurface. Brusseau' s approach integrates theoretically and experimentally based investigations with the development and use of mechanistically accurate mathematical models. He received his PhD from the University of Florida.
JOSEPH DIPIETRO is dean and professor of veterinary parasitology at the University of Florida. DiPietro studies the chemotherapy, epidemiol
ogy, and control of internal parasites in livestock. DiPietro's research includes clinical evaluations to measure anthelmintic efficacy of pyrantel salts, benzimidazoles, and avermectins in livestock animals. He has extensive background in research and use of ivermectins in horses, including ecological implications. DiPietro received his DVM and MS in veterinary parasitology from the University of Illinois.
ROBERT M. GOODMAN is a member of the Department of Plant Pathology, the interdepartmental program in Plant Genetics and Plant Breeding, the Institute for Environmental Studies, the graduate program in cellular and molecular biology, and the Biotechnology Training Program at the University of Wisconsin. His laboratory works on the molecular regulation of plant defense genes and the role of plant genotype in associations with noninvasive, beneficial microorganisms. Goodman is well known for his groundbreaking research at the University of Illinois, where he was the first to describe the molecular biology of a group of single-stranded DNA plant viruses, now called geminiviruses. Formerly, he was executive vice president for research and development at Calgene, Inc. Goodman has served on the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and numerous study committees. He received his PhD from Cornell University.
FRED GOULD is professor of entomology at North Carolina State University. Gould has researched ecological genetics of pest adaptation to chemical, biological, and cultural control tactics. His major emphasis in recent years has been focused on developing methods for delaying pest adaptation to transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Gould was an author of the National Research Council report Ecologically Based Pest Management (1996) and participated in the workshop on “Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management” (1986). He received his PhD in ecology and evolution at State University of New York at Stony Brook.
JEFFREY GUNSOLUS is professor of research and extension at the University of Minnesota. He performs and publishes research on weed crop interactions, including evaluations of decision-making processes for weed management in corn and soybeans. In his extension role, Gunsolus provides pest-management expertise to growers. His extension bulletins include topics on herbicide mode of action, herbicide-resistant weeds, and chemical and cultural weed control of field crops. In a previous position, Gunsolus was an extension associate at Iowa State University. He received his PhD at North Carolina State University.
BRUCE HAMMOCK is professor of entomology and environmental toxicology at the University of California, Davis. Hammock is a leader in insect-toxicology research and development of immunochemical assays for environmental monitoring. He has extensive research in detection of metabolites produced by exposure to a wide range of agrochemicals and recombinant biocontrol products (such as Bacillus thuringiensis; baculoviruses). His group has isolated novel peptides from scorpion venom toxic only to insects and used the genes for these peptides in the development of recombinant viral insecticides. His group has carried out studies on mammalian safety of biological insecticides. He received his PhD in entomology-toxicology from the University of California, Berkeley. Hammock participated in a Research Council workshop Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986).
ROLF HARTUNG is professor emeritus of environmental toxicology at the University of Michigan. Hartung brings a wealth of knowledge of wildlife toxicology and public-health related to environmental pollutants. He has researched coactions between chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and aquatic pollutants; environmental dynamics of heavy metals; risk assessment; effects of polluting oils on waterfowl; and toxicity of amino-ethanols. He has co-authored several Research Council reports including Building a Foundation for Sound Environmental Decisions (1997); Review of the Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program (1996); Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems (1989); and Testing for Effects of Chemicals on Ecosystems (1981). Hartung received his PhD in wildlife management from the University of Michigan.
PAMELA MARRONE is president and CEO of AgraQuest, a firm she founded that has a portfolio of proprietary natural-product pesticide discoveries and products. Marrone has substantial management expertise in startup and multi-international biotechnology firms. Before this endeavor, Marrone was president of Entotech, a subsidiary of Novo Nordisk, and senior group leader of insect control at Monsanto Agricultural Company. Marrone received her PhD degree in entomology from the North Carolina State University.
BRUCE MAXWELL is professor of agroecology at Montana State University. He focuses on research to predict evolution and dynamics of herbicide resistance in weed populations. He also has researched weed thresholds; effects of weed dispersion and competition on crop yield; development of successional weed-management strategies on rangeland; weed-management expert systems; and agricultural sustainability
through ecosystem management and planning. Maxwell received a PhD degree in crop and forest science from the Oregon State University.
KENNETH RAFFA is professor of entomology in the department of entomology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Raffa conducts research on insects affecting forest-resource management, plant-insect interactions, insect ecology, population dynamics, and biological control. He is also adjunct professor in the department of forest ecology and management. He has researched chemical defenses of trees against insects and fungi, tri-trophic interactions, roles of microorganisms in mediating plantinsect interactions, insect-pheromone ecology, and deployment strategies for transgenic plants. Raffa formerly worked as section research biologist at E.I. Dupont and Company, where he investigated insecticide-resistance management, insecticide synergists, and behavioral manipulation of insects using natural products. Raffa received his PhD in entomology at Washington State University.
JOHN RYALS is the Chief Executive Officer and President of ParadigmGentics, Inc. in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, a company that specializes in genomics and functional genomics for products in the areas of crop production, foods for human nutrition, industrial applications, and therapeutic foods. Dr. Ryals is also an adjunct professor of Crop Science at North Carolina State University. Prior to founding Paradigm Genetics in 1997, Dr. Ryals was the head of agricultural biotechnology research for Ciba-Geigy Corporation and Novartis, Inc. His research focus has been on the molecular biology of plant-pathogen interactions, and in particular, in the field of systemic acquired resistance in plants.
JAMES SEIBER is professor of environmental sciences at the University of Nevada. He has a broad background in analytical chemistry of pesticides, industrial byproducts and naturally occurring toxicants; ecological chemistry of plant-derived poisons; modeling for chemical environmental fate; trace organic analysis; and origin and fate of trace organics in the atmosphere, including pesticides. In previous positions, Seiber worked for Dow Chemical Company and chaired the department of environmental toxicology at the University of California. He is co-author of several Research Council reports, Science and Judgement in Risk Assessment (1994), and Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993). Dr. Seiber received his PhD in chemistry at Utah State University. He resigned from the committee in December 1998, after appointment as Director, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Albany, California.
DALE SHANER is the director of Ag Biotech at American Cyanamid in Princeton, New Jersey. He directs the agricultural-biotechnology program, which is aimed at finding new pesticide target sites and identifying genes associated with output traits in major crops. Before to becoming director, Shaner was a senior research fellow for herbicide discovery, and directed basic research in plant biochemistry, plant physiology, and plant-chemical-environment interactions. He has published on the mode of action of imidazolinone herbicides, biochemistry of resistance development, and selection and utility of herbicide-resistant crops. He chairs the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, an international, intercompany committee. Before to his position at American Cyanamide, Shaner was an assistant professor at the University of California, Riverside. He received his PhD in plant physiology at the University of Illinois.
DAVID ZILBERMAN is professor of agricultural and resource economics at the University of California, Berkeley. He also serves as director of the Center for Sustainable Resource Development. Zilberman has diverse research interests: economics of technological change, economics of natural resources, microeconomic theory, and agricultural and nutrition policy. Zilberman has published numerous articles on topics of water quality in irrigated agriculture, pollution prevention, financial incentives and pesticide use, biotechnology and precision agriculture. Zilberman researched market incentives to control environmental problems for his PhD degree in agricultural economics at the University of California, Berkeley. Zilberman participated in a Research Council workshop on precision agriculture affiliated with the Committee on Assessing Crop Yield.