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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
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Index

A

Academic sector, 14, 145, 267-268, 270-271

organic farming, 114-115

technology transfer, 106-109, 257

see also Land-grant universities;

Professional education

Advanced Technology Program, 10-11, 264

Aesthetic quality, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238

Agricultural Health Study, 65

Agricultural Research Service, 14, 28, 109, 164, 167, 259, 268

Air contamination, 63, 69, 72, 74-75, 76-77, 78, 121

ozone layer depletion, 76-77, 189-190, 256

Alien species, see Invasive species

American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 62

Animal studies of pesticide effects, 124, 126

Animal production and transportation systems, 3, 67, 106, 211, 221-223, 239

California, 221, 223

FDA, 20, 221

insecticides, 71

invasive plant species, toxic, 190

professional education, 221

regulation, 221

Annual cropping systems, 211, 212-219

Apples, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47, 53, 68, 85-87, 118, 128, 220-221, 238

organic farming, 85, 87, 113-114, 115-117

Application technologies, 4, 5, 134-135, 146, 154, 179-185

animal production systems, 221

baculoviruses, 161, 162, 163

baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191

herbicides, 181

human health factors, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 212, 252-253

nontarget species, 5, 179-181

occupational exposures, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 252-253

odorants and dyes, 13, 77, 135-139, 168, 267

precision agriculture, 110, 112, 182-184

protective equipment, 66, 67

R&D recommendations, 5, 8, 253, 258, 260, 262

remote sensing, 183-184

training, 110

urban pest management, 223, 226

Aquaculture, 1, 211, 250

Aquatic habitat, see Water contamination

Assessment methodology, 210, 226-246

decision support systems, 175-186, 268, 269

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

risk assessment, 5, 9, 123-129, 234-235, 241-242, 254, 255

study at hand, methodology, 2, 250-251

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors;

Registration of pesticides

Asthma, 37

Attitudes

aesthetic quality of food products, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238

workers, 253-254

see also Public opinion

Austria, 116

B

Bacillus thuringiensis, 148, 149, 157-160, 162, 164, 169, 171, 173, 194-195, 213, 252

market for, 146

registration of, 159-160

resistance to, 58

vegetables, 157-158

Baculoviruses, 156, 160-163

Baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191

see also Pheromones

Barley, 127

Beans, 127, 222-223

Benefit-cost analysis, see Cost-benefit analysis

Biochemistry, general, 7, 8, 28

funding, 29, 30

Biocontrols, general, 9, 10, 19-20, 44, 193

combined budget-market models, 49

herbicides, 271

historical perspectives, 24, 25

natural enemies, 19, 23, 25, 27, 44, 82-83, 150, 169

pesticide defined, 19-20

population dynamics, 184

R&D, general, 28, 30, 257

R&D recommendations, 6, 8, 11-12, 256-257, 260, 261

wildland systems, 226

see also Biopesticides;

Integrated pest management;

Transgenic crops

Biodegradability, 19, 156

Biodiversity, 82, 191-192, 226, 242

annual cropping systems, 213

Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265

local, 8, 81, 256

perennial cropping systems, 211

recommendations, 6, 256

see also Nontarget species

Biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120

Biopesticide and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD), 11, 265

Biopesticides, 2, 3, 20, 156, 261-267

baculoviruses, 156, 160-163

cost and cost-benefit factors, 156, 158, 161, 162, 231

fungicides, 156, 165-168

herbicides, 20

market for, 145-146, 231

microbial pesticides, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-168, 169, 171, 175

soil, 156, 166-168

see also Bacillus thuringiensis;

Integrated pest management;

Transgenic crops

Biotechnology, 10, 20, 107-108, 152, 252, 258, 261-267

historical perspectives, 25, 27

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

pests, genetic engineering of, 173-176

see also Biopesticides;

Minor crops;

Transgenic crops

Birds, 80, 82

Broad spectrum pesticides, 24-25, 76, 79, 161, 162, 163-164, 210, 213-214, 219, 224

Bt, see Bacillus thuringiensis

C

California, 11, 17, 49, 55, 86, 110, 120, 122, 157, 264

animal production systems, 221, 223

historical perspectives, 23, 24

occupational exposures, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77

organic foods, 114, 118

prescription use of restricted pesticides, 134

Canada, 103-104, 118

Cancer, 36, 62, 65, 68-69, 76, 86, 89, 118, 124, 128-129

Canola, 127, 169

Carbon dioxide, 120-121, 186-189

Carson, Rachel, 25

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

Cereals, general, 35, 57, 82, 145, 169, 211

see specific cereals

Cherries, 118, 220-221

Children, 37-38, 66, 69, 84, 123, 125-126

education of, 14, 268, 269

farm workers/residents, 66

Chile, 103

China, 103, 116

Citrus fruit, 220

fumigation, 54

productivity, pesticide-related, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47

Clean Air Act Amendments, 77

Climate and weather, 185, 211

annual cropping systems, 212, 213

entomopathogenic fungi, 163-164

global warming, 120-121, 187-189

herbicides, 212, 213

human effects, 136

perennial cropping systems, 212

pesticide-related productivity, 44

study at hand, methodology, 2

Cockroaches, 37-38

Colleges and universities, see Academic sector;

Land-grant universities

Combinatorial chemistry, 177-178

Combined budget-market models, 49, 227

Commodity programs, 110-111, 235

Computer applications, see Databases

Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265

Conservation tillage, 36

Consulting services, 109-110, 260, 271

extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271

Containers, see Packaging and containers

Convention on Climate Change, see Kyoto protocol

Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, 109

Corn, 34, 35, 36, 38, 30, 40, 43-44, 46, 47, 54, 56, 127-128, 145, 148, 188, 193, 212, 213, 216-217, 222-223, 252

Cost and cost-benefit factors, 4, 77, 157, 227-244, 253, 254-255, 262-263

biopesticides, 156, 158, 161, 162, 231

combined budget-market models, 49, 227

discounting, 228, 230, 238, 241, 244

ecological factors, 240, 242-243, 245

EPA, 227

farm worker exposure prevention, 66

food residues, 240-241

globalization and, 103, 256, 259

herbicides, 227, 246, 257

historical perspectives, 24-25

human health, 66, 227-228, 240, 246, 267

market forces, 49, 227, 228-244

microbial pesticides, 158, 161

models of changes in pesticide use, 45, 47-52

nontarget species, 243

occupational exposure, 66, 240, 267

partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49, 227

pest resistance to pesticides, 58-59

pesticides, consumer cost of, 33, 36-38, 54, 184-185, 245

private sector, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244

public opinion and, 84-86, 87

regional factors, 45, 48, 49, 50, 234, 229, 231, 232, 233-234, 237, 240, 242, 243, 244

registration requirements, 123, 127, 179

regulation, 45, 47-48, 49, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243

substitutes for pesticides, 45, 49

supply and demand, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234-239 (passim)

technological innovation, general, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244

temporal factors, 179, 230, 243-244

see also Price factors;

Supply and demand

Cotton, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 119, 145, 148, 149, 169, 215-216

Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 83-84, 133-134

Court cases, see Liability and litigation

Crop insurance, 12, 54, 266

commodity programs, phase out of, 110-111

ecologically based pest management, 12

Farmers' Risk Management Act, 12, 266

integrated pest management, 12, 266

Crop rotation, 40, 44, 48, 56, 193, 257

Cropping systems, general, 10, 33-34, 48, 184, 270

annual, 211, 212-219

perennial, 211-212

see specific crops

Cultural controls, 28, 44, 186, 192, 213

biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

crop rotation, 40, 44, 48, 56, 193, 257

perennial cropping systems, 211

R&D recommendations, 6, 8, 256-257, 260

see also Biocontrols

D

Dairy products, 68, 111, 114, 123-124, 235

Databases, 109, 122, 125, 126, 128, 130, 177, 185, 271

DDT, 24, 56, 59, 62, 70, 80, 17

Decision support systems, 175-186, 268, 269

Definitional issues

agroecosystems, 211

ecologically based pest management (EBMP), 2

pest, 18, 79

pesticide, 2, 17-20, 41, 251

Delaney clause, 70, 123-124

Demand, see Supply and demand

Denmark, 139

Dermal exposure, 63, 69, 75

Department of Agriculture, 18, 27, 29

Agricultural Research Service, 14, 28, 109, 164, 167, 259, 268

Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265

cotton, boll weevil eradication, 41

crop loss estimates, 47, 48

entomopathogenic fungi, 163

extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271

food exposures, 68, 69

Forest Service, 161, 164

globalization, research priorities, 103

occupational exposures, 66

on-farm studies, 8, 260

organic farming, 115

pesticide use statistics, 38

R&D funding, 7, 8, 28, 29, 128, 259, 260;

resistant pests, 195

technology transfer, 109

urban areas, 89

Department of Commerce, 10-11, 264

Department of Energy, 7, 259

Department of Health and Human Services, 18

see also Food and Drug Administration;

National Institutes of Health

Department of the Interior, see Geological Survey

Developing countries, 103, 105

Disease, see Human health;

Plant disease

Drugs, 17-18, 19

pharmaceuticals markets, 105

Dyes, see Odorants and dyes

E

Eastern Europe, 104

EBPM, see Ecologically based pest management (EBPM)

Eco-labeling, 6, 88, 115-119, 255

Ecologically based pest management (EBPM), 4, 251, 252-253, 265, 269

crop insurance, 12

defined, 2

R&D recommendations, 10, 259, 264

study at hand, methodology, 2, 3, 29, 250

Ecological factors, general, 12

biodegradability, 19, 156

changes affecting agriculture, 186-192;

see also Invasive species

Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265

cost-benefit analysis, 240, 242-243, 245

crop insurance, 12

historical perspectives, 25, 27

natural product fungicides, 167

persistence of pesticides, 24, 25, 61, 178

population and community dynamics, 8, 12, 184-185

public opinion, 88

R&D recommendations, 5, 7, 8, 28, 30, 253, 254, 255, 260, 261

stewardship, 5, 12, 120, 255, 262, 265

study at hand, methodology, 1, 2, 4, 250, 251

voluntary environmental protection agreements, 122

see also Air contamination;

Biodiversity;

Integrated pest management;

Nontarget species;

Soil contamination;

Water contamination;

Weather and climate

Econometric models, 50-52

Economic factors, 5, 35-37, 44, 102-120, 144-154

academic research, 106-109

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

animal production systems, 221

biotechnology, 10, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

combined budget-market models, 49

commodity programs, 110-111, 235

consumer expenditures on food, 35-36

decentralization and privatization, 102, 106-110, 111

devolution of federal role, 106, 111

eco-labeling, 115-119

environmental concerns and income level, 120

globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 110-111, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259

herbicides, 24, 33, 36, 38-39, 40, 42-43, 46, 145, 152, 153

historical perspectives, 24, 27, 33, 36, 38-43

industrialization, 102, 105-106

knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112

consultants, 109-110, 260, 271

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

organic food market, 6, 10, 88, 102, 113-119, 139, 255-256

partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49, 227

privatization, 102, 106-110

product quality enhancements due to pesticides, 53

professional education, 13-14

property damage, 242, 261

recommendations, 5, 6, 8, 253, 254, 255

registration requirements, 123, 127, 179

regulatory requirements, other, 45, 47-48, 49, 102, 103-104, 106, 115-117, 123, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243, 261-262

study at hand, methodology, 1, 250

US consumption of and expenditures on pesticides, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47-48, 59

weeds, 36

world expenditures on pesticides, 144-145, 152

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors;

Crop insurance;

Market forces;

Patents;

Price factors;

Productivity, agricultural;

Supply and demand

Economic Research Service, 48

Education, see Academic sector;

Consulting services;

Extension services;

Professional education;

Public education

Employment issues, 119

farm workers, 64-67, 83, 130-139, 212, 265, 266-267

industrialization, 105

see Occupational exposures

Endocrine effects

humans, 69, 70, 74, 81, 118, 128-130

insects, 25, 56, 163, 194;

see also Pheromones

Enforcement of regulations, 5, 55, 62-64, 66, 69, 110, 121, 122, 129, 130-131, 212, 243, 254, 258, 262-263, 266

Entomopathogenic fungi, 156, 163-165

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 7, 29, 127, 128, 129, 130, 179, 259, 260, 264-265

animal production systems, 221

cost-benefit analyses, 227

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 2, 17-18, 19-20, 65-66, 120, 128, 251

historical perspectives, 25, 26, 120, 121

household insecticides, 37-38

occupational exposures, 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 137-138

pesticide defined, 18-19

Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program, 120

reduced-risk pesticides, 3, 154-156, 251

resistant pests, 195

unprocessed foods, 124

urban areas, 89

see also Registration of pesticides

Environmental Sciences Institute, 130

Epidemiology, 62, 64-65

Europe

baculoviruses, 161

eco-labeling, 115-116

global warming, 188

organic farming, 115-117

taxation, 121

European Union, 103, 104, 139

Evaluation methodology, see Assessment methodology;

Decision support systems

Evolution of pests, 6-8, 28, 192-197

see also Resistant pests

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

Exports, see Globalization;

Imports and exports

Exposure pathways, see Air contamination;

Dermal exposure;

Food residues;

Occupational contamination;

Soil contamination;

Water contamination

Extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271

F

Farm Bill (1990), 121-122

Farm management practices, 44, 265

on-farm studies, 8, 260, 271

stewardship, 5, 12, 120, 255, 262, 265

study at hand. methodology, 2

see also Ecologically based pest management;

Integrated pestmanagement

Farm workers, 64-67, 83, 130-139, 212, 265, 266-267

Farmers' Risk Management Act, 12, 266

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 18, 123

Federal government, general 10, 243

commodity programs, 110-111, 235

devolution of regulatory authority, 106, 111

product grading standards, 53

R&D, 1, 5, 7-9, 243, 250, 257-267, 276

storage, fumigation, 53-54

see also Funding;

Land-grant universities;

Legislation;

Regulatory issues;

specific departments and agencies

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 2, 17-18, 19-20, 65-66, 120, 123, 128, 251

Federal Technology Transfer Act, 109

Fertilizer, 33, 50, 110, 113, 119, 187, 223, 233

FIFRA, see Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

Florida, 64, 68, 131, 132

Food and Drug Administration, 7, 18, 27, 68, 69, 125, 259

animal production systems, 20, 221

urban areas, 89

Food prices, 36, 86, 87, 114, 117, 237

Food processing, see Processing of agricultural products

Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), 37-38, 70, 123-130, 133, 154-156, 255, 262

Food residues, 8, 15, 28, 61, 63, 67-70, 112, 252-253, 260

animal production systems, 221

animal studies of effects, 124, 126

children, 37-38, 66, 69, 84, 123, 125-126

cost-benefit analysis, 240-241

Department of Agriculture, 68, 69

Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), 37-38, 70, 123-130, 133, 154, 156, 255, 262

Food Security Act, 121

foreign countries, regulations, 103-104, 106, 114, 115-117, 120

fungicides, 53, 68-69

metabolic processes, 67-68

organic foods free of, see Eco-labeling;

Organic foods

product grading standards, 53

public opinion, 84-89

regulatory issues, 53, 37-38, 70, 103-104, 106, 114, 121, 123-130

see also Food and Drug Administration;

Public opinion

Food Security Act, 121

Foreign countries, see Globalization;

Imports and exports;

International perspectives;

specific countries and regions

Forest Service, 161, 164

Forests and forestry, 1, 4, 30, 66, 121, 155, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168, 183, 186, 188, 190, 211, 226, 250

FQPA, see Food Quality Protection Act

France, 116

Fruits, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42-45, 49, 76, 116, 148, 149, 158, 220-221, 250

children, consumption by, 69

citrus fruit, 39, 40

perennial cropping systems, 211

storage, 36, 53-54

product grading standards, 53

see also specific fruits

Funding, 10

biochemistry, general, 29, 30

conservation, 12, 122

data collection, 128

Department of Agriculture, 7, 8, 28, 29, 128, 259, 260;

see also Agricultural Research Service

herbicides, 30

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

historical perspectives, 7, 28, 259

insecticides, general, 29, 30

integrated pest management, 119, 120

metabolic processes, R&D, 29

minor-crop products, 11, 263, 265

National Science Foundation (NSF), R&D funding, 7, 8, 28, 30, 259, 260

occupational exposures, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267

private investment, 7, 10, 11, 106-110, 111-112, 146-154, 178, 234, 257, 258

R&D, general, 7-11 (passim),

resistant pests, 29

US-Israeli Fund, 104-105

Fungicides, 35, 148, 149, 150, 220-221, 222-223, 238

biopesticides, 156, 165-168

food residues, 53, 68-69

historical perspectives, 33, 36, 39, 41, 42-43

hypovirulence, 168

integrated pest management, 165-168

natural product fungicides, 167

occupational exposures, 62, 64

resistant pests, 57, 194

resistant plants, 169

storage of agricultural products, 53

transportation of, 62

US use volume and expenditures, 33, 36, 39, 41-43, 46

world expenditures, 145, 152

Fungus-based insecticides, 156, 163-165

Fumigants, 22, 23, 38, 40, 41, 53-54, 55, 76-77, 219

G

Gardens, see House and garden uses

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 103

Genetics, 8, 28

insect hybrid sterility, 173

population genetics, 8, 12, 184-185, 195, 246, 260

plant hybrids, 33-34, 191

ultraviolet radiation, 189, 190

see also Biotechnology;

Evolution of pests;

Resistant pests;

Resistant plants;

Transgenic crops

Genomics, 8, 28, 153, 169, 178

Geological Survey, 78

Geographic factors, see Globalization;

International perspectives;

Regional factors, national;

Regional factors, world

Germany, 116

Globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259

commodity programs, phase out of, 110-111

costs and benefits, 103, 256, 259

Department of Agriculture, research priorities, 103

invasive species, 6, 256

R&D, impact on, 103, 104-105

regulatory issues, 103-104

Global positioning system, 8, 182

Global warming, 120-121, 187-189

Grapes, 114, 118-119, 128, 149, 212

Greenhouse effect, see Global warming

H

Hartman Report, 87-88

Hay, 127

Health and safety, see Human health;

Occupational exposures

Herbicides, 38, 39, 148, 212, 214-218, 220-221, 222-223

application technology, 181

biocontrols, general, 271

biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120

biopesticide categories, 20

costs and cost-benefit analysis, 227, 246, 257

conservation tillage, 36

definitional issues, 17

economics, 24, 33, 36, 38-39, 40, 42-43, 46, 145, 152, 153

historical perspectives, 17, 24, 34-35, 57, 59, 270

humidity effects, 212, 213

integrated pest management, 224-225, 270-271

nontarget species, 81, 82

occupational exposures, 60-61, 138, 137, 138

photosynthesis, 81

paraquat, 60-61, 75, 137, 138

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

population dynamics, 184

R&D funding, 30

regulation of, 124, 138

resistant pests, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257

timing of application, 224-225, 271

US use volume and expenditures, 24, 33, 36, 38-39, 40, 42-43, 46

wildland systems, 226

world expenditures, 145, 152

Historical perspectives, 20-28, 33-35, 40, 177, 192-193

biocontrols, general, 24, 25

biotechnology, 25, 27

California, 23, 24

commodity programs, phase out of, 110-111

cost and cost-benefit analysis, 24-25

crop loss estimates, 47-48

ecological factors, general, 25, 27

economic factors, general, 24, 27, 33, 36, 38-43

EPA, 25, 26, 120, 121

funding, 7, 27, 28, 259

fungicides, 33, 36, 39, 41, 42-43

genetic engineering of pests, 173-174

herbicides, 17, 24, 34-35, 57, 59, 270

industrialization, 102, 105-106

insecticides, 17, 22-26, 34, 35, 40-43, 57

nontarget species, 25, 80

persistence of pesticides, 24, 25

pesticide defined, 17, 251

pesticide registration, 70, 71

productivity, agricultural, 33-35

public opinion, 25, 120

R&D, 7, 27, 28, 259

regulatory measures, 70, 71, 120-121, 124, 251;

see also Legislation

resistant pests, 25, 33, 56-57, 193

technological innovation, general, 21-27, 105-106

transgenic crops, 27, 106, 172

US consumption of and expenditures on pesticides, 24, 33, 36, 38-43

Hormones, see Endocrine effects

House and garden uses, 33, 36-38, 63, 89, 137-138, 145, 149, 164

Human health, 4, 30, 60-78, 129

air contamination, 63, 69, 72, 74-75, 76-

animal production systems, 221

animal studies, 124, 126

application technologies, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 212, 252-253

asthma, 37

cancer, 36, 62, 65, 68-69, 76, 86, 89, 118, 124, 128-129

cost-benefit analysis, 66, 227-228, 240, 246, 267

dermal exposure, 63, 69, 75

endocrine effects, 69, 70, 74, 81, 118, 128-130

epidemiology, 62, 64-65

fumigants, 53-54, 55, 76-77

house and garden pests and pesticides, 37-38

insecticides, 62, 60-64, 69, 70, 74, 76, 81, 118, 128-130

malaria, 173

minor crops, 11, 12-13, 66, 133, 263, 264-265, 266-267

product quality enhancements due to pesticides, 52-54

R&D recommendations, 6, 9, 253, 256, 260

reduced-risk pesticides, 2-3, 154-156, 251

soil contamination, 70, 72-73, 118, 178-179

stinging hymenopterans, 38

study at hand, methodology, 1, 3, 4, 31, 250, 251

urban pest management, 89, 223, 226, 250

weather effects vs pesticide effects, 136

see also Children;

Food residues;

Occupational exposures;

Public opinion;

Water contamination

Hypovirulence, 168

I

Illegal pesticide uses, 69

Imports and exports, 35, 50, 68, 237, 256

eco-labeling, 115

European Union, 103, 104, 139

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 103

genetically modified organisms, regulations, 104

North American Free Trade Agreement, 103

organic foods, 114

regional trading blocks, 103, 104, 139

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

see also Globalization

Information dissemination, see Consulting services;

Databases;

Extension services;

Professional education;

Public education

Ingestion, see Food residues

Inhalation, see Air contamination

Innovation, see Technological innovation

Insecticides, general, 214-218, 220-221, 222-223, 246

animal production, 71

annual cropping systems, general, 212

baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191

biopesticides, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-165

definitional issues, 2, 17-20 (passim)

DDT, 24, 56, 59, 62, 70, 80, 17

endocrine effects, humans, 69, 70, 74, 81, 118, 128-130

endocrine effects, insects, 25, 56, 163, 194;

see also Pheromones

entomopathogenic fungi, 156, 163-165

EPA, 37-38

funding, 29, 30

historical perspectives, 17, 22-26, 34, 35, 40-43, 57

household uses, 37-38

human health effects, 62, 60-64, 69, 70, 74, 76, 81, 118, 128-130

market forces, 3, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47-48, 59, 148, 149, 246

microbial, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-165, 169

viral, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175

see also Bacillus thuringiensis

nontarget species, 80-81, 82-83, 213

occupational exposures, 60-64 (passim)

organophosphates, 59, 60, 61, 64, 80, 117, 127, 129

persistence in environment, 24, 61

R&D funding, 29, 30

resistant pests, 55-56, 57-58, 59, 194-197

resistant plants, 34, 44, 48, 152, 175, 168-169, 170-171, 173, 193-194, 224, 256

risk avoidance, 54

TCCD, 62

transportation of, 62

urban areas, 89, 223, 226, 250

US use volume and expenditures, 24, 36, 39, 40-43, 46

viral, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175

world expenditures, 145, 152

Insect pheromones, see Pheromones

Insurance, see Crop insurance

Integrated Agricultural Producers, 154

Integrated food production systems

Europe, 115-116

New Zealand, 117

Integrated pest management (IPM), 40, 118-119, 133, 139, 213

Advanced Technology Program, 10-11, 264

biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120

crop insurance, 12, 266

cultural controls, 119-120

eco-labeling, 115, 118-119

entomopathogenic fungi, 163-164

funding, 119, 120

fungicides, 165-168

labeling and consumer preference, 88

herbicides, 224-225, 270-271

microbial pesticides, 156-163

prescription use of restricted pesticides, 122, 133-134

professional education, 119

R&D, 5, 10-11, 119-120, 254, 255, 259, 264

resistant pests, 195

resistant plants, 168-169, 170-171, 173

urban areas, 89

weeds, 224-225, 270-271

Intellectual property, see Knowledge economy;

Patents

International Biosafety Conference, 104

International Life Sciences Institute, 130

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, 105

International perspectives

eco-labeling, 115-116

food residue regulations, 103-104, 106, 114, 115-117, 120

globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 110-111, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259

global warming, 120-121, 187-189

ozone layer depletion, 76-77, 189-190, 256

public opinion of risks, 84

public opinion of transgenic crops, 88

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

R&D, cooperative efforts, 104-105

world expenditures on pesticides, 145, 152

see also Imports and exports;

Regional factors, world;

specific countries and regions

Interregional Research Project 4 (IR4), 11, 264

International Rice Research Initiative, 105

Invasive species, 190-191

globalization, 6, 256

livestock, toxic to, 190

photosynthesis, 190

resistance to pesticides, 58, 197

IPM, see Integrated pest management

IR4, see Interregional Project 4 (IR4)

Israel, 104-105

Italy, 116

J

Japan, 103-104, 116

K

Knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112

consultants, 109-110, 260, 271

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

see also Technology transfer

Kyoto protocol, 120-121

L

Labeling, 127

eco-labeling, 6, 88, 115-119, 255

pesticides, general, 62, 271

Land-grant universities, 13-14, 15, 27, 268, 269

extension services, 14, 109-110

Language factors

farm workers, 65

labeling, 62

Latin America, 103

Legal issues

illegal pesticide uses, 69

liability and litigation, 121, 129

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

Legislation, 24

Clean Air Act Amendments, 77

education of legislators, 17

Farm Bill (1990), 121-122

Farmers' Risk Management Act, 12, 266

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 18, 123

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 2, 17-18, 19-20, 65-66, 120, 123, 128, 251

Federal Technology Transfer Act, 109

Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), 37-38, 70, 123-130, 133, 154, 156, 255, 262

Food Security Act, 121

foreign countries, 139

foreign trade, 103

Stevenson Wydler Act, 109

see also Regulatory issues

Liability and litigation, 121, 129

Livestock, see Animal production and transportation systems

Local governments, 111, 262

M

Maize, see Corn

Malaria, 173

Market forces, 144-147, 152-154, 257

Bt, 146

biopesticides, 145-146, 231

combined budget-market models, 49, 227

commodity programs, phase out of, 110

cost-benefit analysis, 49, 227, 228-244

globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259

insecticides, 3, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47-

organic food market, 6, 10, 88, 102, 113-

pest resistance to pesticides, 59-60

pharmaceuticals markets, 105

technological innovation, 102, 107-112, 147, 227, 228-244;

see also Technology transfer

tradable permit systems, 12, 121, 262, 265

US consumption of and expenditures on pesticides, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47-48, 59

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

world expenditures on pesticides, 144-145, 152

see also Imports and exports;

Price factors;

Supply and demand

Mass media, 9, 261

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 106

Metabolic processes, 19, 221

food residues, 67-68

R&D funding, 29

see also Biodegradability

Methyl bromide, 76-77

Mexico, 103, 158

Michigan, 118

Microbial pesticides, 19, 20, 58, 156-168

cost and cost-benefit analysis, 158, 161

entomopathogenic fungi, 163-165

fungicides, 156, 165-168

hypovirulence, 168

insecticides, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-165, 169

viral, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175

integrated pest management, 156-163

see also Bacillus thuringiensis

Middle East, 104

Mildew, 148, 149

Milk and milk products, see Dairy products

Minor crops

funding, 11, 263, 265

R&D, 5, 10, 11, 153, 156, 254, 263-264, 265, 268

registration issues, 11, 127, 128, 129, 133, 264-266

occupational exposures, 11, 12-13, 66, 133, 263, 264-265, 266-267

Montana, 219

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 77

Multinationals, see Globalization

N

Narrow-spectrum pesticides, 2, 80, 191, 194

paraquat, 60-61, 75, 137, 138

National Agricultural Statistics Service, 66

National Cancer Institute, 65

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 65, 131

National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, 65

National Institutes of Health, 7, 65, 259

National Organic Standards Program, 115

National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program, 7, 259

National Science Foundation (NSF), R&D funding, 7, 8, 28, 30, 259, 260

National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 78

Natural enemies, 19, 23, 25, 44, 82-83, 150, 169

transgenic, 27, 252

Natural Foods Merchandiser, 87

Natural selection, see Evolution of pests;

Resistant pests;

Resistant plants

Nematodes, 2, 19, 55, 76, 150, 156, 170

Netherlands, 139

New Animal Drug Application, 20

New York State, 118

New Zealand, 116-117

Non-native species, see Invasive species

Nontarget species, 3, 4, 6, 60, 78-83, 178, 179, 213, 253

application technologies, 5, 179-181

birds, 80, 82

broad spectrum pesticides, 24-25, 76, 79, 161, 162, 163-164, 210, 213-214, 219, 224

cost-benefit analysis, 243

eco-labeling, 118

herbicides, 81, 82

historical perspectives, 25, 80

insecticides, 80-81, 82-83, 213

microorganisms and invertebrates, 19, 82, 83

natural enemies, 19, 23, 25, 27, 44, 82-83, 150, 169

natural product fungicides, 167

pollinators, 82, 83

R&D recommendations, 5, 6, 254, 256, 258

study at hand, methodology, 3, 4, 250

wildland systems, 226

see also Human health

North Africa, 104

North American Free Trade Agreement, 103

North Dakota, 40, 219

NRI, see National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program

Nuts, 119-120, 168

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

O

Oats, 127

Occupational exposures, 4-5, 9, 60-67, 119, 130-139, 252-253

application technologies, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 252-253

attitudes of workers, 253-254

California, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77

cost-benefit analysis, 66, 240, 267

Department of Agriculture, 66

education on, 66-67

EPA, 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 137-138

farm workers, 64-67, 83, 130-139, 212, 265, 266-267

funding, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267

fungicides, 62, 64

herbicides, 60-61, 138, 137, 138

insecticides, 60-64 (passim)

manufacturing workers, 60-62

minor crops, 11, 12-13, 66, 133, 263, 264-265, 266-267

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 65, 131

odorants and dyes to identify toxicity, 13, 77, 135-139, 168, 267

protective equipment, 66, 67

R&D funding, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267

regional factors, 63-64, 132

regulation of, 4-5, 12-13, 61-62, 66-67, 130-139, 253-254, 262-263, 266-267

state government, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77, 130-132

urban pest management, 223, 226

weather effects vs pesticide effects, 136

Worker Protection Standards (WPS), 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 262-263, 266-267

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 62

Odorants and dyes, 13, 77, 135-139, 168, 267

Oil crops, 40, 44, 145

Oklahoma, 219

On-farm studies, 8, 260, 271

Oregon, 113, 119

Organic foods, 6, 10, 85, 87, 113-119, 139, 255-256

academic sector, 114-115

apples, 85, 87, 113-114, 115-117

California, 114, 118

Department of Agriculture, 115

Europe, 115-117

foreign trade, 114

R&D, 115-116

regulations, 6, 115-116, 255-256

supply and demand, 87, 88, 113, 114, 116-117

see also Eco-labeling

Organophosphates, 59, 60, 61, 64, 80, 117, 127, 129

Ozone layer depletion, 76-77, 189-190, 256

see also Ultraviolet radiation

P

Packaging and containers, 63, 134-135

see also Labeling

Paraquat, 60-61, 75, 137, 138

Partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49, 227

Patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

Peanuts, 36, 111

Pears, 117, 118

Perennial cropping systems, 211-212

Persistence of pesticides, 8, 28, 178

biodegradability, 19, 156

historical perspectives, 24, 25

insecticides, 24, 61

see also Food residues

Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program, 120

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 123, 125, 252-253

Petrochemical industry, 105, 108

Pharmaceuticals, see Drugs

Pheromones, 20, 22, 25, 44, 56, 81, 145, 158, 162, 192, 194, 150, 162

Photosynthesis

atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, 186-187

herbicides, 81

invasive species, 190

Plant disease, 35

viral, 20, 148

see also Fungi and fungicides

Poland, 116

Pollinators, nontarget species, 82, 83

Population genetics, 8, 12, 184-185, 195, 246, 260

Potatoes, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 82, 118, 128, 169, 213, 217-218

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

Precision agriculture, 8, 110, 112, 182-184

Predators, see Natural enemies

Prescription use of restricted pesticides, 122, 133-134

Price factors, 51, 52, 53, 85, 110, 154, 227, 228, 231-232, 235-239 (passim),

energy, 44

federal supports, 110-111, 235

food, 36, 86, 87, 114, 117, 237

inflation, 35, 44

partial budget models, 45, 48, 49

technological innovation and, 111-112, 237

see also Supply and demand

Private sector, general

cost-benefit analysis, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

R&D investment, 7, 10, 11, 106-110, 111-112, 146-154, 178, 234, 257, 258, 259, 263, 264

see also Knowledge economy

Privatization, 102, 106-110

commodity programs, phase out of, 110

extension services (USDA), 14, 109-110

technology transfer, 106-108

Processing of agricultural products, 69-70

industrialization, 105, 106

regulation of, 70, 123-124

study at hand, methodology, 1, 250

vertical integration, 152

see also Storage;

Transportation

Productivity, agricultural, 5, 38, 41, 44-52, 234, 239, 243, 244, 251

citrus fruit, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47

combined budget-market models, 49

econometric models, 50-52

globalization and, 103

historical perspectives, 33-35

partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49

pest resistance to pesticides, 58-59

projections, 35-36

sustainability vs, 14

technology transfer and, 108

Professional education, 5, 13-14, 133, 134, 243, 258, 267-269

animal production systems, 221

consultants, 109-110, 260, 271

extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271

integrated pest management, 119

occupational exposures, 66-67

risk factors, 13-14, 268, 269

supply and demand for, 13

see also Academic sector;

Land-grand universities

Projections

crop yield, 35-36

study at hand, methodology, 2, 251, 277

Property damage, 242, 261

Protective equipment, 66, 67

Public education, 9, 13, 14-15, 27, 89, 243, 254, 267

elementary and secondary, 14, 268, 269

occupational exposures, 66-67

risk communication, 9, 261, 268

study at hand, methodology, 1

Public opinion, 3, 13, 83-89, 104, 120, 268

aesthetic quality of food products, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238

costs and cost-benefit analysis, 84-86, 87

historical perspectives, 25, 120

international, 84, 88

mass media, 9, 261

pesticide defined, 17, 18

research recommendations, 8-9, 261

risk factors, 8-9, 83-85, 268

voluntary environmental protection agreements, 122

urban pest-management systems, 89

R

Rangelands, 66, 211, 226

Reduced-risk pesticides, 2-3, 154-156, 251

Regional factors, national, 213

cost-benefit analysis, 45, 48, 49, 50, 234, 229, 231, 232, 233-234, 237, 240, 242, 243, 244

crop rotation, 56

devolution of federal power, 106, 111

extension and research, 271

occupational exposures, 63-64, 132

pesticide substitution, 41, 44

pesticides, intensity of use, 211-212, 262

tradable permit systems, 262, 265

Regional factors, world

biodiversity, 192

pesticide market, 145

tropical, 164, 186, 188

trading blocks, 103, 104, 139

see also specific countries and regions

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

Registration of pesticides, 18, 70, 71, 77, 121, 212-124, 127-130, 194, 219

animal production systems, 221

baculoviruses, 163

Bt, 159-160

costs, 123, 127, 179

historic perspectives, 70, 71

minor-crop products, 11, 127, 128, 129, 133, 264-266

recommendations, 5, 11, 254

reduced-risk pesticides, 2-3, 154-156

redundancy, 11, 264

study at hand, methodology, 1, 3, 250, 277

technology transfer and, 108

time factors, 11, 179, 264-265

Regulatory issues, 9, 27, 120-139, 176, 212, 252, 261

animal production systems, 221

devolution of federal role, 106, 111

cost-benefit analyses, 45, 47-48, 49, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243

enforcement, 5, 55, 62-64, 66, 69, 110, 121, 122, 129, 130-131, 212, 243, 254, 258, 262-263, 266

economic factors, 45, 47-48, 49, 102, 103-104, 106, 115-117, 123, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243, 261-262

food residues, 53, 37-38, 70, 103-104, 106, 114, 121, 123-130

foreign countries/international organizations, 103-104, 106, 114, 115-117, 120

globalization, 103-104

herbicides, 124, 138

historical perspectives, 70, 71, 120-121, 124, 251;

see also Legislation

household insecticides, 37-38

illegal pesticide uses, 69

incentives, 9, 11, 12, 19, 121, 122, 258

occupational exposures, 4-5, 12-13, 61-62, 66-67, 130-139, 253-254, 262-263, 266-267

organic products, 6, 115-116, 255-256

pesticide defined, 1, 17-18

prescription use of restricted pesticides, 122, 133-134

processing of agricultural products, 70, 123-124

product grading standards, 53

public opinion of, 83

recommendations, 5, 10, 258

socioeconomic changes and, 102

study at hand, methodology, 3, 251, 277

tradable permit systems, 12, 121, 262, 265

unprocessed foods, 70, 123-124

water quality, 121-122

see also Environmental Protection Agency;

Food and Drug Administration;

Legislation;

Registration of pesticides;

Tradable permit systems

Remote sensing, 183-184

Research and development, 148-197

academic sector, 14, 106-109, 114-115, 145, 257, 267-268, 270-271

Agricultural Research Service, 14, 28, 109, 164, 167, 259

alternatives to chemical pesticides, 6

animal studies of pesticide effects, 124, 126

application technologies, 5, 8, 253, 258, 260, 262

biocontrols, general, 6, 8, 11-12, 28, 30, 256-257, 260, 261

cultural controls, 6, 8, 256-257, 260

databases, 109, 122, 125, 126, 128, 130, 185, 271

decentralization of efforts, 106-108, 109-110

Department of Agriculture, 7, 8, 28, 29, 128, 259, 260

ecological factors, general, 5, 7, 8, 28, 30, 253, 254, 255, 260, 261

ecologically based pest management (EBPM), 10, 259, 264

federal government, general, 1, 5, 7-9, 243, 250, 257-267, 276

funding, general, 7-11 (passim),;

see also Funding

genomics, 8, 28, 153

globalization, impact on, 103, 104-105

historical perspectives, 7, 27, 28, 259

human health, 6, 9, 253, 256, 260

insecticides, 29, 30

integrated pest management, 5, 10-11, 119-120, 254, 255, 259, 264

international cooperation, 104-105

knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112

consultants, 109-110, 260, 271

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

land-grant universities, 13-14, 15, 27, 109-110, 268, 269

metabolic processes, 29

minor crops, 5, 10, 11, 153, 156, 254, 263, 265, 268, 263-264

National Science Foundation (NSF), 7, 8, 28, 30, 259, 260

nontarget species, 5, 6, 254, 256, 258

occupational exposures, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267

on-farm studies, 8, 260, 271

organic farming, 115-116

pest resistance to pesticides, 59

private sector, cost-benefit analysis, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244

investment, 7, 10, 11, 106-110, 111-

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

public opinion, 8-9, 261

recommendations, 5-15 (passim),

regional factors, 271

resistant pests, 6-7, 8, 29, 253, 256-257

study at hand, methodology, 1-2, 210, 251-252

US-Israeli cooperation agreement, 104-105

see also Technological innovation;

Technology transfer;

Transgenic crops

Residues, see Food residues

Resistant pests, 55-60, 118, 152, 168, 176, 193-197, 224

animal production systems, 221

fungi, 57, 194

herbicides, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257

historical perspectives, 25, 33, 56-57, 193

insects, 55-56, 57-58, 59, 194-197

integrated pest management, 195

invasive species, 58, 197

market forces and, 59-60

R&D funding, 29

R&D recommendations, 6-7, 8, 253, 256-257

study at hand, methodology, 3-4

transgenic crops, 195

Resistant plants, 2, 34, 44, 48, 152, 175, 168-169, 193-194, 224, 256

fungicides, 169

integrated pest management, 168-169, 170-171, 173

weeds, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257

see also Transgenic crops

Rice, 57, 105, 114, 116, 127, 145, 149, 153, 155, 165, 188, 193, 197

Risk communication, 9, 261, 268

Risk factors, 5

animal studies, 124, 126

assessment methodology, 5, 9, 123-129, 234-235, 241-242, 254, 255

crop losses, 54-55

house and garden pesticides, 37-38

professional education, 13-14, 268, 269

public opinion, 8-9, 83-85, 268

reduced-risk pesticides, 3, 154-156, 251

study at hand, methodology, 3, 4

see also Air contamination;

Human health;

Resistant pests;

Soil contamination;

Water contamination

Row crops, general, 25, 39, 153, 211, 224, 225

see also specific crops

Rye, 127

S

Satellite technology

global positioning system, 8, 182

remote sensing, 183-184

Scandinavia, 121

Scouting, 44, 54

Seeds and seedlings, 192-193

biopesticides, 156

plant resistance, 169

vertical integration of industry, 147, 152

Silent Spring, 25

Small and medium-sized companies, 11

Social factors, 102, 251

alternative pesticides, 5

definition of pesticide, 2

federal protections, 111

recommendations, 5, 253, 254, 262

see also Public education;

Public opinion

Soil, 2, 115, 185, 232

biopesticides, 156, 166-168

conservation, 38

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×
s

fertilizer, 33, 50, 110, 113, 119, 187, 223, 233

fumigants, 34, 38, 40, 41, 55, 76

see also Organic foods

Soil contamination, 70, 72-73, 118, 178-179

Sorghum, 127

South Dakota, 219

Soybeans, 38, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 56, 128, 148, 188-189, 193, 212, 215

Spatial factors, 8

precision agriculture, 8, 110, 112, 182-

see also Population dynamics

Specialty crops, see Minor crops

Standards, see Regulatory issues

State government, 262

devolution of regulatory authority to, 106, 111

minor crops, 11

occupational exposures, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77, 130-132

product grading standards, 53

see also specific states

Stevenson Wydler Act, 109

Stewardship, 5, 12, 120, 255, 262, 265

Storage, 1, 53-54, 211, 219

fungicides, 53

household pesticides, 37

perishable crops, 36

pesticides, 37, 62, 53-54

Supply and demand

competition in pesticide market, 108, 231

cost-benefit analysis, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234-239 (passim)

crop insurance, 54

data on pesticides, 130

federal commodity programs, 110

food products, 27, 38, 49, 50, 53, 70, 85, 110, 125, 219, 255

organic foods, 87, 88, 113, 114, 116-

land, 44, 113

pesticides, 51, 103, 108, 130, 191, 193, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234-238 (passim)

professional education, 13

see also Price factors;

Productivity, agricultural

Sweden, 139

Switzerland, 117

T

Taxation, 12, 121, 243

TCDD, 62, 81

Technological innovation, 2, 3, 106-109, 148-197, 252

academic sector, 106-109, 257

Advanced Technology Program, 10-11, 264

biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120

cost-benefit analysis, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244

crop yield projections and, 36

historical perspectives, 21-27, 105-106

knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112

consultants, 109-110, 260, 271

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

market forces, 102, 107-112, 147, 227, 228-244

precision agriculture, 8, 110, 112, 182-184

satellite technology, 8, 182, 183-184

see also Application technologies;

Biopesticides;

Biotechnology;

Research and development;

Transgenic crops

Technology transfer, 27

academic sector, 106-109, 257

decentralization of R&D efforts, 106-108, 109-110

extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271

international, 104-105

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

privatization and, 106-108

productivity and, 108

registration of pesticides, 108

Technology Transfer Information Systems, 109

Temporal factors, 8

application technologies, evaporation, 180

biocontrol agents, long-term effects, 11-12

biodegradability, 19, 156

cost-benefit analysis, 179, 230, 243-244

persistence of pesticides in environment, 8, 19, 24, 25, 28, 61, 156, 178

registration of pesticides, 11, 179, 264-265

study, scope of, 2, 251, 277

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9598.
×

weed control timing, 224-225, 271

see also Historical perspectives;

Population dynamics

Texas, 68, 219

Tobacco, 39, 111

Tomatoes, 82, 113-114, 128, 158, 222

Total Diet Study, 69

Tradable permit systems, 12, 121, 262, 265

Trade, see Globalization;

Imports and exports;

Market forces

Transgenic crops, 115, 148, 150-151, 152, 168-173, 252, 265

Bacillus thuringiensis, resistance to, 58

eco-labeling, 115

foreign countries, regulations, 104

fungicides, 62

historical perspectives, 27, 106, 172

projections for extent of, 251

public opinion, 88

resistant pests, 195

study at hand, methodology, 2, 3-4, 251

Transgenic natural enemies, 27, 252

Transportation

crops, 1, 36, 38

pesticides, 62

Tropical regions, 164, 186, 188

U

Ultraviolet radiation, 76-77, 162, 189-190, 256

United Nations International Biosafety Conference, 104

Universities and colleges, see Academic sector;

Land-grant universities

Urban areas

integrated pest management, 89

mass media, 9, 261

occupational exposures, 223, 226

pest-management systems, 89, 223, 226, 250

US-Israeli Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund, 104-105

V

Vegetables, 36, 38, 40, 41, 42-45, 46, 47, 49, 76, 113-114, 116, 118, 148-149, 213, 219, 222-223, 250

Bt, 157-158

product grading standards, 53

public opinion, 84

scouting, 54

storage, 36, 53-54

see also specific vegetables

Viruses

baculoviruses, 156, 160-163

human, 136

hypovirulence, 168

insect, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175

plant, 20, 148

Voluntary environmental protection agreements, 122

W

Washington State, 84, 118, 132, 161, 212

Water contamination, 23, 61, 69, 70, 72-74, 77, 78, 80, 87, 118, 178, 190, 211, 226

regulatory actions, 121-122

Weather, see Climate and weather

Weeds, 21, 34, 36, 41, 44

atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, 187

biocontrol, 12, 41, 82-83, 175

global warming, 188

integrated pest management, 224-225, 270-271

resistant pests, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257

population dynamics, 184-185

timing of control measures, 224-225, 271

see also Herbicides

Weed Society of America, 36

Wetlands, 122

Wheat, 34-35, 36, 38, 39, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 127, 188, 212-213, 214-215

Wildland systems, 211, 226

rangelands, 66, 211, 226

see also Forests and forestry

Wildlife, see Biodiversity;

Birds;

Invasive species;

Nontarget species

Wine, 114, 118-119

Wisconsin, 118

World Wildlife Fund, 118

Worker Protection Standards (WPS), 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 262, 266-267

Workers, see Employment issues;

Farm workers;

Occupational exposures

Y

Yield, see Productivity, agricultural

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Get This Book
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Although chemical pesticides safeguard crops and improve farm productivity, they are increasingly feared for their potentially dangerous residues and their effects on ecosystems.

The Future Role of Pesticides explores the role of chemical pesticides in the decade ahead and identifies the most promising opportunities for increasing the benefits and reducing the risks of pesticide use. The committee recommends R&D, program, and policy initiatives for federal agriculture authorities and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors. This book presents clear overviews of key factors in chemical pesticide use, including:

  • Advances in genetic engineering not only of pest-resistant crops but also of pests themselves.
  • Problems in pesticide use--concerns about the health of agricultural workers, the ability of pests to develop resistance, issues of public perception, and more.
  • Impending shifts in agriculture--globalization of the economy, biological "invasions" of organisms, rising sensitivity toward cross-border environmental issues, and other trends.

With a model and working examples, this book offers guidance on how to assess various pest control strategies available to today's agriculturist.

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