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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Index

A

Access. See Public access; Research community access

Access control.

in bounded communities, 158-159

enforcing in open communities, 159-164

Adversaries, in defeating technical protection solutions, 13, 313-318

Advertising-based business models, 81-82, 179-181

All-rights language, 36-37, 64

American Society for Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), 67, 93

American Society of Media Photographers, 68

Anchoring content, to single machine or user, 85, 88, 160-161, 164, 295-302

Anticircumvention regulations, 171-175, 221, 312

exceptions to, 222, 313-318

Archiving

large-scale, 119, 207

the public record, libraries' interest in, 69

Archiving digital information, 9-10, 113-122, 206-209

fundamental intellectual and technical problems with, 116-119

intellectual property and, 119-121

lack of progress in, 207-208

technical protection services, 121-122

ASCAP. See American Society for Composers, Authors and Publishers

Attention, as a commodity, 40, 196

Attribution, rights of, see Moral Rights

Author-operated models for rights management, 68

Authors. See Creators of intellectual property

Auxiliary markets, 82-83, 181-182

B

Balance

upsetting the existing, 24-25

Berne Copyright Convention, 56, 59

BMI. See Broadcast Music, Inc.

Bounded communities, access control in, 158-159

Broad contracts, increasing use of, 64

Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI), 67

Business models, 14-15, 65-68, 79-83, 176-186, 224, 237

bringing technical protection services in line with, 176

dealing with intellectual property, 183-186

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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for the music market, 79-83

impact of the digital environment on, 177-179

interaction with technical protection services, law, and public policy, 225

less traditional, and their implications for intellectual property, 181-183

using digital content to promote the traditional product, 81-82

role in the protection of intellectual property, 80-83, 176-186

traditional, and their implications for intellectual property, 179-181

C

CCI. See Copy control information

Certifying authorities, 292

China

copyright tradition in, 57

piracy in, 55

Circumvention of intellectual property protection. See Anticircumvention regulations

Circumvention of technical protection, 14, 174, 175, 221-223, 311-329

Clearinghouse operations, 65, 67-68

Commercial copying

of federal government information, 10, 112, 211

illegal, 17-18, 186-192, 226-227

Commission on New Technological Uses of Information (CONTU), 39

Communications policy, 19, 230-231

Communities. See Bounded communities; Open communities; Research community

Compensating creators of intellectual property, 61-65, 273-277

bundling information products, 94, 276

grants, 275

royalties, 274-275

Compression

algorithms for, 30

using MP3 format, 84

Computers. See also Networks

difference made by programmable, 43-45

installed base of, 169, 219

installing software on more than one, 48

open architecture, 88, 162-163

proliferation of personal, 24, 46

relatively short life of, 89

Constraints, on technical protection, 87-89, 153-154

Content

anchoring to single machine or user, 85, 88, 160-161, 164, 295-302

defined, 26

liberated from medium, 32-33

unbundling, 94

Content scrambling system (CSS), 172

Contract law, 19, 34-37, 62, 64, 100-104, 230-231, 237

Control of copying, 38-39, 140-144

correctness as a mechanism in the digital age, 141-144

CONTU. See Commission on New Technological Uses of Information

Copy control information (CCI), 163

Copying, 4. See also Private use copying of digital information

access by, 6-8, 28, 31, 142

appropriateness as a fundamental concept, 18, 140-145, 230-232

defined, 26

detection in open communities, 164-167, 295-300

economics of, 3-4, 31-32, 38

ephemeral (temporary), 43-144, 229

illegal commercial, 17-18, 186-188, 191-192, 226-227

for private use, 135-136

speed of, 41

Copyright, 277. See also Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998;

Economics of copyright

defined, 26

deposit, 96, 115-116

exclusive rights in, 146

and individual behavior, 11-12, 123-151

and licensing, 8-9, 100-104, 202-204

and the new information environment, 18-19, 106-109

history, 24-25

public access an important goal of, 7, 97-113, 201

and public compliance with the law, 21-22, 72, 123-128, 212-214

tradition in China, 57

Copyright Act of 1976, 125-128, 132

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Copyright education, 16-17, 136, 216-217, 304-310

audience for, 306-308

cautions regarding, 309-310

content of, 305-306

funding for, 306, 308-309

need for, 304-305

Copyright registration, 96

Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, 99, 127

Counterfeit, defined, 26

Creators of intellectual property, 5, 61-62, 65, 73-75, 272. See also Rights holders

challenges faced by, 12, 64, 122

compensating, 61-65, 273-277

defined, 26

and the digital environment, 5, 232-233

rights of, 56-57, 146-148, 236

Cryptographic envelopes, 301-302

Cryptography. See Encryption technologies

CSS. See Content scrambling system

Cultural heritage, archiving and preservation of, 69, 114-115

Cybergold, 195-197

Cyber law, research on, 227-230

Cyberspace, new world of, 49-51

D

DAT. See Digital audiotape player

Data, call for improved, 225-233

Data Encryption Standard, 284-286

Databases, noncopyrightable, 109-111

Decompilation, 135

Decryption. See also Encryption technologies

on the fly, 162

just-in-time, 161-162

on-site, 161-162

Derivative work rights, 229

Derivative works, 33, 137

boundaries of, 66

Digital audiotape (DAT) player, 43-44

Digital copying. See Copying

Digital distribution, avoiding altogether, 221

Digital divide, 74

Digital information, 3-4. See also Information infrastructure; Intellectual property protection; Private use copying of digital information

becoming more a service than a product, 8

capturing and compressing, 29-30

explosive growth in, 23, 28

flexibility of, 37

importance of, 28-38

Digital infrastructure. See Information infrastructure

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998, 14, 105, 221-223, 318-328

and circumvention of technological protection measures, 311-329

and developing technical protection mechanisms, 174-175

and testing technical protection services, 171-173

fair use provisions of, 137-139, 174

permitting digitization, 118

problems with language of, 318-321

Section 103 of, 322-329

Digital networks. See Networks

Digital signatures, 289-291, 294

potential of, 291

Digital Signature Standard (DSS), 294-295

Digital time stamping, 165, 299-300

Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) standard, 162-163

Digital video disks (DVDs), 15, 169, 172, 220-221

Digital watermarking, 84, 155, 166-167, 295-299

Disintermediation, 40, 90

Distant access, 35, 37-38

Distribution. See also Mass-market distribution;

Superdistribution

of information, 38-43, 272-273

Distributors, 39, 65-68

challenges faced by, 67

private, 205

Divx, 168

DMCA. See Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998

Dongles, 171

Download times, 81

DSS. See Digital Signature Standard

DTCP. See Digital Transmission Content Protection standard

DVDs. See Digital video disks

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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E

Economic efficiency, 53-54, 274-277

Economics of copying, 34, 31-32, 38. See also Information economics

Economics of copyright

intertwined with technology, law, psychology, sociology, and public policy, 53-54

research on, 17-18, 227-230

Efficiency. See Economic efficiency

Electronic deposit, chartering task force on, 10, 208

Encryption keys, management of, 293-295

Encryption technologies, 13, 44, 84, 155, 283-289

key exchange problem, 287

persistent, 85, 155, 161

public-key, 89, 157, 287-289, 291-293

research into, 326-328

symmetric-key, 156-157, 284-287

for technical protection service components, 156-158

End-to-end protection services, 155, 219

Enforcement, 191, 279-281

of access and use control in open communities, 159-164

by network servers, 59

Ephemeral copies, 143-144, 228-229

European Union (E.U.) Directive on Databases, 110-111

F

Fair use and other copyright exceptions, 5-6, 278-279. See also Private use copying of digital information

arguments that private use copying is fair use, 133-135

arguments that private use copying is not fair use, 132-133

as defense, 5, 133

as affirmative rights, 5, 133

boundaries of, 66

consumers' understanding of, 48

defined, 26

future of, 11-12, 136-139

and individual behavior, 123-151, 213-215

libraries' interest in, 69

promoting public access, 99

schools' interest in, 68-69

Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), 111-112

Federal government information

information infrastructure changing access to, 111-113

public access to, 10, 211-212

Fee-based business model, 179, 182

Fingerprinting, 295, 297

First Amendment concerns, 19, 75, 230-231

First North American serial rights, 62

First-sale rights, 51, 98, 106

Framing, 34

Free distribution business model, 180-182

Freedom of Information Act, 113

G

General public, 71-73

complying with intellectual property law, 21-22

need for quality information, 71

understanding copyright in the digital environment, 124-125, 127

Global problems, with differing views, laws, and enforcement, 5-6, 54-55, 58

Government Printing Office, Access system, 111, 211

H

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), 39

I

Identity certificates, 292

IETF. See Internet Engineering Task Force

IFPI. See International Federation of the Phonographic Industry

IIPA. See International Intellectual Property Association

IITF white paper, 27, 130, 136, 139

Illegal commercial copying, 186-192, 226-227

estimating the cost of, 17-18, 187-190, 226-227

Individual behavior

copyright education and, 216-217

fair use and private use copying, 11-12, 129-136, 213-215

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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implications of digital dilemma for, 212-217

need for research on, 20, 212-213

perceptions and, 212-213

Individual use. See Private use copying

Information. See also Digital information; Federal government information

bundling with ancillary, products, 276

creation, distribution, and consumption of, 272-273

integrity of, 73

leveraging, 278

new kinds and uses of, 33-34

ultimate delivery of, 164, 169

Information appliances, 45

Information economics, 41, 271-281

subtlety of, 6

and technical protection solutions, 14

Information environment. See New information environment

Information infrastructure

defined, 2

facilitating infringement of intellectual property rights, 21

transaction support from, 89

Information Infrastructure Task Force and Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure, 27, 105, 130, 136, 138-139, 200, 306, 309

Information innovations, impact of granting patents for, 192-198

Information overload, 90

Innovations. See Information innovations, Technological innovations

Integrity

rights of, 146-147

verifying, 295

Intellectual property (IP)

defined, 26

implications of less traditional business models, 182-183

implications of traditional business models, 180-181

maximizing value of, 224

new models for, 140-145, 230-232

role of, 277-279

surviving the digital age, 239

Intellectual property law, 2, 24, 230, 237

and common sense, 126

complexity of, 47-49

European, 54-55

history of, 36, 96-98

need for flexibility in, 238

public compliance with, 21-22, 47, 235

Intellectual property protection, 83-89, 152-198. See also Business models; Technical protection

mechanisms for, 12-17

renewable, 87

requirement for ease of use, 87

role of business models in, 176-186

traditional, 7

varying need for, 21

International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), 91

International Intellectual Property Association (IIPA), 186-188

Internet

compared to telephone network, 263-266

concealing authorship, 50

enforcing national laws on, 58

history of, 266-267

linking Web sites, 19

pricing and quality of service on, 268-269

private distribution on, 4-5

workings of, 263-270

Internet Archive, 117

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 268-269

Internet service providers (ISPs), 265

ISPs. See Internet service providers

J

Java, 315

Journalists, 75, 137

Journals, online availability of scholarly, 39

K

Key exchange problem, 163, 287

L

Labeling, 165-166, 295, 299-300

Lanham Act, 56

Law. See also Copyright; Cyber law; individual laws

global problems with differing views and enforcement, 5-6, 54-55, 58

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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interaction with technical protection services and business models, 225

interpreting, 5-6, 123-128

intertwined with technology, economics, psychology, sociology, and public policy, 53-54

network servers enforcing, 59

process of formulating, 20-22, 233-239

software substituting for, 234

Legislation, 111. See also Law, DMCA

on archiving, 10, 208-210

cautions about, 239

how to formulate, 233-238

Liability, libraries' interest in, 69, 207

Libraries, 1-2, 68-69, 98-99, 101-102

history of, 78-79

problems faced by, 113-115, 119-120, 121

Web one of the world's largest, 23

Library of Congress, 96, 105, 115-116

THOMAS system, 111, 211

Licensing, 8-9. See also Contract Law, UCITA

consequences for public access, 103-104, 202-206

defined, 26

increasing use of, 34-35, 178

mass market, 205-206

offering both promise and peril, 51, 100-104

point-and-click, 212

serial-transaction, 179

single-transaction, 179

site, 179

M

Markets. See Auxiliary markets; Mass-market distribution; Music market

Marking bits, 83-84. See also Watermarking techniques

for copy detection in open communities, 164-167

Mass-market distribution, 14, 102, 182, 185

licensing, 205-206

Media Photographers Copyright Agency (MPCA), 68

MIDI. See Musical Instrument Digital Interface

Monitoring

for copy detection in open communities, 164-167

Web, 300

Moral rights, of creators of intellectual property, 56-57, 62, 232

MP3 format, 3, 77-78, 80, 89-94, 124

compression using, 84

MPCA. See Media Photographers Copyright Agency

Music market, 76-95

broader lessons, 94-95

future of, 78-79

industry consequences of the new technology, 89-94

rationale behind, 77-78

a scenario, 86-87

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), 30

Music industry. See Music market

N

National Archives and Records Administration, 113

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), 74, 321

National Writers Union, 68

Networks. See also Internet; World Wide Web

alternatives to, 15-16, 221

economics and speed of distribution on, 4, 38-39

how the Internet works, 263-270

ownership within, 178

servers as law enforcers, 59

New information environment

blurring the distinction between public and private, 107-109, 205

challenging some access rules, 106-107

Niches, protection technologies for, 12-13, 171

Noncopyrightable databases, access challenges presented by, 109-111

O

Obsolescence, technological, 210

Obstacles to progress, 51-60. See also Solutions

diversity of stakeholders' interests, 51-52

global problems, 54-55, 58

the many intertwined threads, 53-54

variety of forces at work, 52

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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One-time pad, 284-286

Open communities

copy detection in, 164-167

enforcement of access and use control in, 159-164

Origins of the digital dilemma, 3-4, 28-51

P

Patents, 277

defined, 26

impact of granting for information innovations, 19, 192-198

research on, 227-230

Perceptions and individual behavior, 123-127, 212-213

need for research on, 20

Pharmaceutical research, 280

Photocopying, 38, 130, 177

Piracy

defined, 26

of digital movies, 94-95

estimating losses from, 187-190, 226-227

of music, 79

Point-and-click licenses, 212

PRC. See Publication Rights Clearinghouse

Preservation

of the cultural heritage, 69

of digital information, 9-10, 209-210

of the public record, 69

Priceline.com, 195-197

Principles for the formulation of law and public policy, 235-239

Privacy issues, 19, 71-72, 230-231

Private distribution

on the Internet, 4-5

publication and, 205

Private use copying of digital information, 11-12, 129-139

arguments that it is fair use, 133-135

arguments that it is not fair use, 132-133

individual behavior and, 123-151, 213-215

wide range of, 130-132

Programmable computers, difference made by, 43-45

Progress, obstacles to, 51-60

Protecting intellectual property. See Intellectual property protection

Proxy caching, 19

Psychology, intertwined with technology, law, economics, sociology, and public policy, 53-54

PTO. See U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

Public access, 6-10. See also Access control; General public

an important goal of copyright, 97-113, 201

and archiving and preserving digital information, see Archiving digital information

and blurring of the distinction between public and private, 107-109, 205

changing, for federal government information, 111-113, 211

consequences of licensing and technical protection services, 100-106, 202-206

value of, 201-202

Public-key encryption, 89, 157, 287-289, 291-293

Public-key infrastructure, 291-293

Public policy

interaction with technical protection services and business models, 225

intertwined with technology, law, economics, psychology, and sociology, 53-54

process of formulating, 20-22, 215, 233-239

and technical protection mechanism development, 174-175

Public record, archiving and preservation of, 69

Publication

changing nature of, 7-9, 39-43, 202-206

determining status of, 108, 116, 133, 205

irrevocable, 202-203

and private distribution, 205

Publication Rights Clearinghouse (PRC), 68

Publishers. See also Disintermediation; Music market; Rights holders

challenges faced by, 12, 40, 67

scholarly, 51

Q

Quality, issues, 71, 80, 165, 269

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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R

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 47, 91-92

Reformatting, periodic, 118

Remote access, 35, 37-38

Reproduction. See Copying

Research

call for, 225-233

on the economics of copyright, use of patents, and cyber law, 227-230

educational use of, 69

into encryption technologies, 326-328

pharmaceutical, 280

Research community, 70-71

access, need for information, 14, 131

need for leading-edge cryptographers, 14, 220

RIAA. See Recording Industry Association of America

Rights. See also Clearinghouse operations; First-sale rights; Work rights

exclusive, 146, 236

granting, 36-37, 64

managing, 67, 69

Rights holders, 14. See also Creators of intellectual property; Publishers

defined, 26

incentives for, 143, 208-209

Rights management languages, 155, 159, 302

S

Sales

difference from licensing, 34-35, 100-102

traditional models of, 14, 179

Sampling, 34

Scholarly publishing, 51

Schools, and access to information, 68-69, 99

SCMS. See Serial copy management system

Security and Exchange Commission, EDGAR system, 111-112, 211

Security systems. See also Technical protection solutions

need for leading-edge researchers in, 14, 220

objectives of, 283-284

Security testing, 328-329

Self-destruct mechanism, 122

Self-publishing, 63. See also Private distribution

Serial copy management system (SCMS), 84

Serial-transaction licensing, 179

Shrink-wrap licenses, 100, 212

SightSound.com, 194

Signatures, digital, 289-291

Site licensing, 100, 179

Sociology, intertwined with technology, law, economics, psychology, and public policy, 53-54

Software

installing on more than one computer, 48

making backup copies of, 102

sharing, 53, 130

substituting for law, 234

Software-only protection, 154

Solutions. See also Business models; Technical protection

evaluating potential, 58-60

in the music market, 79-86

Sony case, 46, 98-99, 129, 138

Sound waves, digitizing, 29-30

"Space-shifting" (of music), 45, 91

Special-purpose devices, protection technologies for, 171

Spiders, 298

Stakeholders

concerns, 61-75

creators of intellectual property, 12, 61-62, 65

distributors, 65-68

diversity of, 4-5, 51-52

general public, 71-73

governmental organizations, 73-74

journalists, 75

libraries, 68-69

need for discussion among, 9, 199

other consumers and producers of intellectual property, 73-75

private sector organizations, 74-75

publishers, 12

research community, 70-71

schools, 68-69

standards organizations, 75

Standards organizations, controlling intellectual property, 75

Stock photo archives, 65

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Street price, 189

Subscription purchases, 179

Superdistribution, 302-303

Symmetric-key encryption, 156-157, 284-287

System renewability, 163

T

Task Force on Electronic Deposit, 10, 208-209

Task Force on the Status of the Author, 12, 232-233

TCP. See Transmission Control Protocol

Technical protection, 12, 148-149, 153-176, 282-303

access control in bounded communities, 158-159

and archiving digital information, 121-122

bringing in line with a business model, 176

circumvention of, 13-14, 311-329

consequences for public access, 202-206

constraints on, 87-89

copy detection in open communities, marking and monitoring, 164-167

effect on fair use, 106-107

encryption, an underpinning technology for, 156-158

end-to-end, 155, 219

enforcement of access and use control in open communities, 159-164

for niches and special-purpose devices, 171

interaction with business models, law, and public policy, 225

levels of, 13-14, 224

limitations of, 153-154, 218

music market and, 83-86

public access and, 104-106

self-destruct mechanism, 122

success of, 173, 176

testing, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, 171-173

trusted systems, 167-170

Technical protection services (TPSs), 8-9, 217-221, 237. See also Technical protection; and specific techniques (e.g., Watermarking)

Technological innovations, 28-43

computer networks, 38-39

digital information, 28-38

music industry consequences of, 89-94

problems in archiving digital information, 116-119

World Wide Web, 39-43

Technology

intertwined with law, economics, psychology, sociology, and public policy, 53-54

rapid evolution in, 20-21

running headlong into intellectual property, 45-46

Telecommunications industry, trends in, 266

Telephone network, Internet compared to, 263-266

Temporary copies. See Ephemeral copies

Time stamping technology, 165, 299-300

Trade associations, 17, 186-187, 226

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement, 139

Trade secrets, 277

Trademarks, 277

defined, 26

protection of, 66-67

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 264

Trusted Computing Platform Alliance, 170

Trusted systems, 167-170

24-hour rule, 125

U

UCITA. See Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act

Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (UCITA), 35, 103

Universal Copyright Convention, 59

U.S. Constitution, 18, 97, 236

U.S. Copyright Law, 64, 124

complexity of, 127

Sections 106, 107, and 109 of, 145-151

U.S. Copyright Office, 27, 99, 191, 321

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO), 193-196

U.S. Supreme Court, 97-98, 107, 109, 129-130, 133-135, 192-195, 310

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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V

Vanderbilt University Television News Archive, 121

Video and Library Privacy Protection Act of 1988, 72

Visual Artists Rights Act, 56

W

Watermarking techniques, 84, 155, 166-167, 296-299

Web crawlers, 167

WIPO. See World Intellectual Property Organization

Work-for-hire agreements, 64

Work rights, derivative, 229

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 59, 110, 173, 311, 321

World Trade Organization, 139

World Wide Web

free copies predominating on, 178

impact of, 4, 39-43

linking sites on, 19, 46, 70

monitoring, 300

posting to, 108-109, 124

viewing pages on, 31

world's largest copying machine, 23

a worldwide publishing medium, 39-42, 126

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9601.
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Imagine sending a magazine article to 10 friends-making photocopies, putting them in envelopes, adding postage, and mailing them. Now consider how much easier it is to send that article to those 10 friends as an attachment to e-mail. Or to post the article on your own site on the World Wide Web.

The ease of modifying or copying digitized material and the proliferation of computer networking have raised fundamental questions about copyright and patent--intellectual property protections rooted in the U.S. Constitution. Hailed for quick and convenient access to a world of material, the Internet also poses serious economic issues for those who create and market that material. If people can so easily send music on the Internet for free, for example, who will pay for music?

This book presents the multiple facets of digitized intellectual property, defining terms, identifying key issues, and exploring alternatives. It follows the complex threads of law, business, incentives to creators, the American tradition of access to information, the international context, and the nature of human behavior. Technology is explored for its ability to transfer content and its potential to protect intellectual property rights. The book proposes research and policy recommendations as well as principles for policymaking.

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