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Safety of Silicone Breast Implants (1999)

Chapter: Reference Lists

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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Reference Lists

These reference lists were prepared in response to the sponsor's request for a comprehensive bibliography through 1998, although some 1999 references are also included. Many references here are not cited in the text of this report, though all were reviewed. They are included because they are responsive to the charge for comprehensiveness. The Committee on the Safety of Silicone Breast Implants gave priority to full reports in peer-reviewed publications in the open scientific literature, and these references are listed separately first. Other references—such as letters, discussions, abstracts, book chapters, and industry technical re-ports—are included in a second list. This arrangement should not be taken to imply that reports listed first are all of equal quality or that the subsequent list does not contain useful, scientifically valid information. References need to be judged individually on their merits. Staff categorized references by keywords to allow computer sorting. These keywords are at the bottom of each citation. (Note that the use of all capital or lowercase letters for these keywords is merely a device employed by the project staff to locate the appropriate records in its filing system; it carries no further meaning.) The keywords are provided as further information and as a suggestion of the reference content, but they should not be taken to indicate the specific usefulness or content of a report.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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List of Peer-Reviewed Scientific Reports

Aalto, M., Potila, M., and Kulonen, E. The effect of silica-treated macrophages on the synthesis of collagen and other proteins in vitro. Exper. Cell Res. 1975, 97, 193-202. SILICA.

Aaron, A. D., O'Mara, J. W., Lengendre, K. E., Evans, S. R. T., Attinger, C. E., and Montgomery, E. A. Chest wall fibromatosis associated with silicone breast implants. Surgical Oncology. 1996, 5, (2): 93-99. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Aaron, L. A., Bradley, L. A., Alarcón, G. S., Alexander, R. W., Triana-Alexander, M., Martin, M. Y., and Alberts, K. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with fibromyalgia are related to health care-seeking behavior rather than to illness. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996, 39, (3): 436-445. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/psychosocial.

Abelson, P. H. Exaggerated risks of chemicals. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995, 48, (2): 173-178. GENERAL.

Ablaza, V. J., and LaTrenta, G. S. Late infection of a breast prosthesis with Enterococcus avium. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Jul, 102, (1): 227-230. INFECTION/local complications.

Abraham, J. L. Diagnostic applications of scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis in pathology. Israel J. Med. Sci. 1979 Aug 8, 15, (8): 716-723. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Abraham, J. L., and Etz, E. S. Molecular microanalysis of pathological specimens in situ with a laser-raman microbe. Science. 1979 Nov 9, 206, (9): 716-718. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Achauer, B. M. A serious complication following medical-grade silicone injection of the face. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Feb, 71, (2): 251-253. SILICONE INJECTION.

Adams, Jr. W. P., Robinson, Jr. J. B., and Rohrich, R. J. Lipid infiltration as a possible biologic cause of silicone gel breast implant aging. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Jan, 101, (1): 64-68. RUPTURE/local complications.

Addington, D. B., and Mallin, R. E. Closed capsulotomy causing fractures of the scar capsule and the silicone bag of a breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 62, (2): 300-301. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/RUPTURE/local complications.

Adler, A. J., and Berlyne, G. M. Silicon metabolism. II. Renal handling in chronic renal failure patients. Nephron. 1986 Jan, 44, 36-39. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Aggarwal, S. K., Gemma, N. W., Kinter, M., Nicholson, J., Shipe, J. R., and Herold, D. A. Determination of platinum in urine, ultrafiltrate, and whole plasma by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry compared to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytical Biochemistry. 1993, 210, 113-118. PLATINUM.

Agnew, W. F., Todd, E., Richmond, H., and Chronister, W. Biological evaluation of silicone rubber for surgical prosthesis. J Surg Res. 1962 Nov, 11, (6): 357. TOXICOLOGY/ SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Ahn, C. Y., DeBruhl, N. D., Gorczyca, D. P., Bassett, L. W., and Shaw, W. W. Silicone implant rupture diagnosis using computed tomography: A case report and experience with 22 surgically removed implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994b Dec, 33, (6): 624-628. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Ahn, C. Y., DeBruhl, N. D., Gorczyca, D. P., Shaw, W. W., and Bassett, L. W. Comparative silicone breast implant evaluation using mammography, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging: Experience with 59 implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994a Oct, 94, (5): 620-627. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Ahn, C. Y., Ko, C. Y., Wagar, E. A., Wong, R. S., and Shaw, W. W. Clinical significance of intracapsular fluid in patients' breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995a, 35, (5): 455-457. INFECTION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Ahn, C. Y., Ko, C. Y., Wagar, E. A., Wong, R. S., and Shaw, W. W. Microbial evaluation: 139 implants removed from symptomatic patients. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Dec, 98, (7): 1225-1229. INFECTION/local complications/capsule-contracture/pain.

Ahn, C. Y., Narayanan, K., Gorczyca, D. P., DeBruhl, N. D., and Shaw, W. W. Evaluation of autogenous tissue breast reconstruction using MRI. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995, 95, (1): 70-76. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Ahn, C. Y., Shaw, W. W., Narayanan, K., Gorczyca, D. P., DeBruhl, N. D., and Bassett, L. W. Residual silicone detection using MRI following previous breast implant removal: Case reports. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1995, 19, (4): 361-367. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/ local complications/capsule-contracture/granulomas.

Ahn, C. Y., Shaw, W. W., Narayanan, K., Gorczyca, D. P., Sinha, S., Debruhl, N. D., and Bassett, L. W. Definitive diagnosis of breast implant rupture using magnetic resonance imaging. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Sep, 92, (4): 681-691. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Ahn, C., and Shaw, W. W. Regional silicone gel migration in patients with ruptured implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Aug, 33, (2): 201-208. RUPTURE/local complications/migration/connective tissue disease.

Aho, K., Koskela, R., Makitalo, M. K., Heliovarra, M., and Palouso, T. Antinuclear antibodies heralding the onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Rheumatol. 1992, 19, 1377-1380. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Al-Janadi, M., al-Balla, S., al-Dalaan, A., and Raziuddin, S. Cytokine profile in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other rheumatic diseases. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1993, 13, (1): 58-67. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects/ connective tissue disease.

Alarcón-Segovia, D., and Cardiel, M. H. Comparison of three diagnostic criteria for mixed connective tissue disease. Study of 593 patients. J Rheumatol. 1989, 16, (3): 328-334. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Albores-Saavedra, J., Vuitch, F., Delgado, R., Wiley, E., and Hagler, H. Sinus histiocytosis of pelvic lymph nodes after hip replacement: A histiocytic proliferation induced by co-bait-chromium and titanium. American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 1994 Jan, 18, (1): 83-90. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Alexandrides, I. J., Shestak, K. C., and Noone, R. B. Thermal injuries following TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Apr, 38, (4): 335-341. SENSATION/local complications/reconstruction.

Allwork, S. P., and Norton, R. Surface ultrastructure of silicone rubber aortic valve poppets after long-term implantation. Thorax. 1976, 31, 742-752. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Alonso-Ruiz, A., Zea-Mendoza, A. C., Salazar-Vallinas, J. M., Rocamora-Ripoll, A., and Beltrán-Gutiérrez. Toxic oil syndrome: A syndrome with features overlapping those of various forms of scleroderma. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1986 Feb, 15, (3): 200-212. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

American Academy of Neurology, Ad Hoc Subcommittee. Research criteria for diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Neurology. 1991 May, 41, 617-618. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/neurologic disease.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk: Policy statement. Pediatrics. 1997, 100, (6): 1035-1039. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

American Medical Women's Association. Silicone Gel Breast Implants [position paper]. JAMWA. 1998 Winter, 53, (1): 33-35. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee, Subcommittee for Scleroderma Criteria (Masi A. T., Rodnan, G. P., Medsger, Jr. T. A., Altman, R. D., D'Angleo, W. A., Fries, J. F., and et al.). Preliminary criteria for the classification of system sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1980 May, 23, (5): 581-590. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Amin, P., Wille, J., Shah, K., and Kydonieus, A. Analysis of the extractive and hydrolytic behavior of microthane poly(ester-urethane) foam by high pressure liquid chromatography. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1993, 27, 655-666. POLYURETHANE/carcinogenicity.

Andersen, B., Hawtof, D., Alani, H., and Kapetansky, D. The diagnosis of ruptured breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 Dec, 84, (6): 903-907. RUPTURE/local complications.

Anderson, A. M., Niven, H., Pelagalli, J., Olanoff, L. S., and Jones, R. D. The role of the fibrous capsule in the function of implanted drug-polymer sustained release systems. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1981, 15, (6): 889-902. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Anderson, D. R., Schwartz, J., Cottrill, C. M., McClain, S. A., Ross, J. S., Magidson, J. G., Klainer, A., and Bisaccia, E. Silicone granuloma in acral skin in a patient with silicone-gel breast implants and systemic sclerosis. International Journal of Dermatology. 1996 Jan, 35, (1): 36-38. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Anderson, J. M. Inflammatory response to implants. Transactions of the American Society of Artifical Internal Organs. 1988, 34, 101-107. IMMUNE EFFECTS/capsule-contracture.

Anderson, J. M. Mechanisms of inflammation and infection with implanted devices. Cardiovascular Pathology. 1993, 2, (3 (Supplement)): 33S-41S. IMMUNE EFFECTS/infection/local complications.

Anderson, J. M., Bonfield, T. L., and Ziats, N. P. Protein adsorption and' cellular adhesion and activation on biomedical polymers. The International Journal of Artificial Organs. 1990, 13, (6): 375-382. TOXICOLOGY.

Anderson, J. M., Ziats, N. P., Azeez, A., Brunstedt, M. R., Stack, S., and Bonfield, T. L. Protein adsorption and macrophage activation on polydimethysiloxane and silicone rubber. J Biomater Sci Polymer Ed. 1995, 7, (2): 159-169. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Anderson, S. G., Rodin, J., and Ariyan, S. Treatment considerations in postmastectomy reconstruction: Their relative importance and relationship to patient satisfaction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994, 33, (3): 263-270. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Andjelkovish, D. A., Mathew, R. M., Richardson, R. B., and Levine, R. J. Mortality of Iron Foundry Workers: I. Overall Findings. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1990 Jun, 32, (6): 529-540. SILICA.

Andrews, J. Cellular behavior to injected silicone fluid: A preliminary report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1966 Dec, 38, (6): 581-583. TOXICOLOGY/SILICONE INJECTION.

Angell, M. Evaluating the health risks of breast implants: the interplay of medical science, the law, and public opinion. Special Article. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1996 Jun 6, 334, (23): 1513-1518. GENERAL.

Antonyshyn, O., Gruss, J. S., Mackinnon, S. E., and Zuker, R. Complications of soft tissue expansion. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1988, 41, 239-250. EXPANDER/local complications/capsule-contracture/rupture/pain/hematomas.

Aoki, A., Sirai, A., Sakamoto, H., Igarashi, T., Matsunaga, K., Ishigatsubo, Y., Tani, K., and Okubo, T. A case of silicosis associated with polymyositis and benign monoclonal gammopathy. Ryumachi (Japan). 1988 Oct, 28, (5): 373-378. SILICA/myeloma.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Apesos, J. Pope Jr. T. L. Silicone granuloma following closed capsulotomy of mammary prosthesis. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1985 May, 14, (5): 403-406. GRANULOMAS/ local complications/closed capsulotomy.

Appleton, B. E., and Lee, P. The development of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) following augmentation mammoplasty. J Rheumatol. 1993, 20, (6): 1052-1054. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Aptekar, R. G., Davie, J. M., and Cattell, H. S. Foreign body reaction to silicone rubber: Complication of a finger joint implant. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1974, 98, 231-232. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Archer, C., and Gordon, D. A. Silica and progressive systemic sclerosis (Scleroderma): Evidence for workers' compensation policy. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1996, 29, 533-538. SILICA.

Arend, W. P. Book reviews: Science on Trial. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996 Oct 10, 39, (10): 1771-1772. GENERAL.

Argenta, L. C. Controlled tissue expansion in reconstructive surgery. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1984a, 3, 520-529. EXPANDER/RECONSTRUCTION.

Argenta, L. C. Migration of silicone gel into breast parenchyma following mammary prothesis rupture. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1983, 7, 253-254. MIGRATION/local complications/rupture.

Argenta, L. C. Reconstruction of the breast by tissue expansion. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1984b, 11, (2): 257-264. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Argenta, L. C and Grabb, W. G. Studies on the endogenous flora of the human breast and their surgical significance. Plast Surg Forum. 1981, 4, 55. INFECTION/local complications.

Argenta, L. C., Marks, M. W., and Grabb, W. G. Selective use of serial expansion in breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1983 Sep, 11, (3): 188-195. EXPANDER/ reconstruction.

Argenta, L. C., Marks, M. W., and Pasyk, K. A. Advances in tissue expansion. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1985a Apr, 12, (2): 159-171. EXPANDER.

Argenta, L. C., Vanderkolk, C., Friedman, R. J., and Marks, M. W. Refinements in reconstruction of congenital breast deformities. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985b Jul, 76, (1): 73-80. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Arion, H. G. Retromammary prosthesis. C.R. Soc. Fr. Gynecol. 5, 1965. GENERAL/saline.

Armstrong, B. K., McNulty, J. C., Levitt, L. J., Williams, K. A., and Hobbs, M. S. T. Mortality in gold and coal miners in Western Australia with special reference to lung cancer. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1979, 36, 199-205. SILICA.

Armstrong, R. W., Berkowitz, R. L., and Bolding, F. Infection following breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1989 Oct, 23, (4): 284-288. INFECTION/local complications.

Arons, M. S., Sabesin, S. M., and Smith, R. R. Experimental studies with Etheron sponge: Effect of implantation in tumor-bearing animals. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1961 Jul, 28, (1): 72-80. GENERAL/carcinogenicity.

Aronsohn, R. B. A 22-year experience with the use of silicone injections. American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery. 1996, 1, 21-28. SILICONE INJECTION.

Arroyave, E. The ban on breast implants medical or political issue? The rest of the story. Journal of the Florida Medical Association. 1994, 81, (7): 479-483. GENERAL.

Artz, J. S., Dinner, M. I., Foglietti, M. A., and Sampliner, J. Breast reconstruction utilizing subcutaneous tissue expansion followed by polyurethane-covered silicone implants: A six-year experience. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Oct, 88, (4): 635-639. EXPANDER/ local complications/polyurethane.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Ashley, F. L. Further studies on the Natural Y breast prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1972 Apr, 49, (4): 414-419. POLYURETHANE/local complications.

Ashley, F. L. A new type of breast prosthesis. Preliminary report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1970 May, 45, (5): 421-424. POLYURETHANE.

Ashley, F. L., Braley, S., and McNall, E. G. The current status of silicone injection therapy. Symposium on Cosmetic Surgery, Surg. Clin. North. Amer. 1971, 51, (2): 501-509. SILICONE INJECTION.

Ashley, F. L., Braley, S., Rees, T. D., Goulian, D., and Ballantyne, Jr. D. L. The present status of silicone fluid in soft tissue injection. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1967 Apr, 39, (4): 411-420. SILICONE INJECTION/SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Ashley, F. L., Rees, T. D., Ballantyne, Jr. D. L., Galloway, D., Machida, R., Grazer, F., McConnell, D. V., Edgington, T., and Kiskaden, W. An injection technique for the treatment of facial hemiatrophy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1965 Jun, 35, (6): 640-648. SILICONE INJECTION.

Ashley, F. L., Thompson, D., and Henderson, T. Augmentation of surface contour by subcutaneous injections of silicone fluid: A current report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973 Jan, 51, (1): 8-13. SILICONE INJECTION.

Asken, M. J. Psychoemotional aspects of mastectomy: a review of recent literature. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1975 Jan, 132, (1): 56-59. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Aslam, M., and Rahman, Q. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of calcium silicates on human lymphocytes in vitro. Mutation Research. 1993 Jan, 300, 45-48. SILICON MEASUREMENT/silica.

Asplund, O. Breast reconstruction with submuscular prosthesis after modified radical or simple mastectomy. Surgical technique and early complications. Scandinavian Journal of Plast Reconstr Surg. 1983, 17, (2): 141-146. RECONSTRUCTION.

Asplund, O. Capsular contracture in silicone gel and saline-filled breast implants after reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Feb, 73, (2): 270-275. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/saline/local complications/reconstruction.

Asplund, O. Nipple and areola reconstruction—A study in 79 mastectomized women. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1983, 17, 233-240. RECONSTRUCTION.

Asplund, O., Gylbert, L., Jurell, G., and Ward, C. Textured or smooth implants for sub-muscular breast augmentation: A controlled study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 May, 97, (6): 1200-1206. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Asplurid, O., and Körlof, B. Late results following mastectomy for cancer and breast reconstruction. Scandinavian Journal of Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984, 18, (2): 221-225. PSYCHOSOCIAL/pain/local complications.

Asplund, O., and Nilsson, O. Interobserver variation and cosmetic result of submuscular breast reconstruction. Scandinavian Journal of Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984, 18, (2): 215-220. RECONSTRUCTION/local complications.

Atabek, U., Barot, L., Matthews, M., Brown, A. S., Spence, R. K., Mossberg, L., and et al. Immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1993, 90, 379-382. RECONSTRUCTION.

Atwood, H. D., Bates, R., Beckman, J. S., Bixe, R. N., Franz, P. F., Goodman, R. C., Lehmberg, R. W., McCutcheon, F. B., Moffett, T. R., Pope, N. A., Pullman, N. K., Shewmake, K. B., Still, E. F., Stuckey, J. G., Talbert, G. E., Walley, L. R., and Yuen, J. C. The silicone gel breast implant controversy: Current status and clinical implications. Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society. 1994 Feb, 90, (9): 427-434. GENERAL.

August, D. A., Wilkins, E., and Rea, T. Breast reconstruction in older women. Surgery. 1994, 115, (6): 663-668. RECONSTRUCTION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Austad, E. D., Pasyk, K. A., McClatchey, K. D., and Cherry, G. W. Histomorphologic evaluation of guinea pig skin and soft tissue after controlled tissue expansion. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Dec, 70, (6): 704-710. EXPANDER.

Austad, E. D., and Rose, G. L. A self-inflating tissue expander. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Nov, 70, (5): 588-593. EXPANDER.

Austad, E. D., Thomas, S. B., and Pasyk, K. Tissue expansion: Dividend or loan? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Jul, 78, (1): 63-67. EXPANDER.

Autian, J. Toxicological problems and untoward effects from plastic devices used in medical applications. Essays In Toxicology. first edition ed. McMillan, 1975a, pp. 1-33. TOXICOLOGY/carcinogenicity.

Autian, J., Singh, A. R., Turner, J. E., Hung, G. W. C., Nunez, L. J., and Lawrence, W. H. Carcinogenesis from polyurethanes. Cancer Research. 1975 Jun, 35, 1591-1596. POLYURETHANE/carcinogenicity.

Autian, J., Singh, A. R., Turner, J. E., Hung, G. W. C., Nunez, L. J., and Lawrence, W. H. Carcinogenic activity of a chlorinated polyether polyurethane. Cancer Research. 1976, 36, 3973-3977. CARCINOGENICITY/POLYURETHANE.

Azizsoltani E., Myryk, Q., Foster, L., Gindhar, G., and Gristina, A. Simple technique for the preparation of silicone gel particles: The effect of silicone gel particles on oxidative responses of macrophages. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1995, 29, 101-105. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Badley, E. M., Rasooly, I., and Webster, G. K. Relative importance of musculoskeletal disorders as a cause of chronic health problems, disability, and health care utilization: Findings from the 1990 Ontario Health Survey. Journal of Rheumatology. 1994, 21, (3): 505-514. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Badwin, B. et al. Cosmetic saline breast implants. Plast. Surg. Forum. 1995, 18, 275. SALINE.

Baek, H.-S., and Yoon, J.-W. Direct involvement of macrophages in destruction of b-cells leading to development of diabetes in virus-infected mice. Diabetes. 1991 Dec, 40, (12): 1586-1597. SILICA/immune effects.

Bagnail, R. D. Adsorption of plasma proteins on hydrophobic surfaces I. Albumin and gammaglobulin. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1977, 11, 947-977. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Bailey, M. H., Smith, J. W., Casas, L., and et al. Immediate breast reconstruction: Reducing the risks. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 May, 83, (5): 845-851. RECONSTRUCTION/local complications.

Baines, C. J., McFarlane, D. V., Miller, A. B., and et al. Sensitivity and specificity of first screen mammography in 15 NBSS centres. J Can Assoc Rad. 1988 Dec, 39, 273-276. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Baker, D. E., Breiting, V., and Christensen, L. Five years experience using silicone gel pros-theses with emphasis on capsule shrinkage. Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984, 18, 311. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Baker, Jr. J. L. The effectiveness of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in reducing the incidence of spherical contracture around breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Nov, 68, (5): 696-698. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Baker, Jr. J. L. Kolin I. Bartlett E. Psychosexual dynamics of patients undergoing mammary augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974 Jun, 53, (6): 652-659. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Baker, Jr. J. L., Bartels, R. J., and Douglas, W. M. Closed compression technique for rupturing a contracted capsule around a breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976 Aug, 58, (2): 137-141. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY.

Baker, Jr. J. L., and Donis, R. Genesis and management of the hard augmented breast. Adv Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990, 6, 249. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Baker, Jr. J. L., LeVier, R. R., and Spielvogel, D. E. Positive identification of silicone in human mammary capsular tissue. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Jan, 69, (1): 56-60. SILICON MEASUREMENT/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Bakker, D., van Blitterswijk, C. A., Hesseling, S.C., and Grote, J. J. Effect of implantation site on phagocyte/polymer interaction and fibrous capsule formation. Biomaterials. 1988 Jan, 9, 14-23. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Baldt, V. M., Bankier, A., Mallek, R., Youssefzadeh, S., Freilinger, G., and Wolf, G. Long-term changes after implantation of silicone breast prostheses. Fortschr Röntgenstr. 1994, 160, (5): 441-447. SALINE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Baldwin, J. K., and Hoover, B. K. Quality assurance for epidemiologic studies. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1991 Dec, 33, (12): 1250-1252. GENERAL.

Baldwin, Jr. C. M., and Kaplan, E. N. Silicone-induced human adjuvant disease? Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1983 Apr, 10, (4): 270-273. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/saline.

Ballantyne Jr., D. L. Rees T. D. Seidman I. Silicone fluid: Response to massive subcutaneous injections of dimethylpolysiloxane fluid in animals. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1965 Sep, 36, (3): 330-338. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Bames, H. O. Augmentation mammaplasty by lipo-transplant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1953, 11,404-414. RECONSTRUCTION.

Bames, H. O. Breast malformations and a new approach to the problem of the small breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1950, 5, 499-506. RECONSTRUCTION.

Banic, A., Boeckx, W., Greulich, M., Guelickx, P., Marchi, A., Rigotti, G., and Tschopp, H. Late results of breast reconstruction with free TRAM flaps: A prospective multicentric study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995, 95, (7): 1195-1204. RECONSTRUCTION.

Bantick, G. L., and Taggart, I. Mammography and breast implants. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1995, 48, (1): 49-52. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Bar-Meir, E., Teuber, S. S., Lin, H. C., Alosacie, I., Goddard, G., Terybery, J., Barka, N., Shen, B., Peter, J. B., Blank, M., Gershwin, M. E., and Shoenfeld, Y. Multiple autoantibodies in patients with silicone breast implants. Journal of Autoimmunity. 1995, 8, 267-277. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Bard, M., and Sutherland, A. M. Psychological impact of cancer and its treatment. Cancer. 1955 Jul-1955 Aug 31, 8, (4): 656-672. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Barker, D. E. Mammometer: A New Instrument for Measuring ''Pseudocapsule Firmness" after Breast Augmentation. Aesth. Plast. Surg. 1978, 2, 447-450. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Barker, D. E., Retsky, M. I., and Schultz, S. "Bleeding" of silicone from bag-gel breast implants, and its clinical relation to fibrous capsule reaction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1978 Jun, 61, (6): 836-841. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/capsule-contracture.

Barker, D. E., Retsky, M., and Schulz, S. L. The new low bleed mammary prosthesis: An experimental study in mice. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1981, 5, 85-91. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Barker, D. E., Retsky, M., and Searies, S. L. New low-bleed implant—Silastic II. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1985, 9, 39-41. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Barker, D. E., and Schulz, S. L. Reaction to silicone implants in the guinea pig. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1978, 1,371-378. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Barker, D. E., and Shultz, S. L. The theory of natural capsular contraction around breast implants and how to prevent it. Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 1980, 4, 357-361. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Barloon, T. J., Young, D. C., and Bergus, G. The role of diagnostic imaging in women with breast implants. American Family Physician. 1996, 54, (6): 2029-2036. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Barlow, S. M., and Knight, A. F. Teratogenic effects of Silastic intrauterine devices in the rat with or without added medroxyprogesterone acetate. Fertility and Sterility. 1983 Feb, 39, (2): 224-230. TOXICOLOGY.

Barnard, J. J., Todd, E. L., Wilson, W. G., Mielcarek, R., and Rohrich, R. J. Distribution of organosilicon polymers in augmentation mammaplasties at autopsy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jul, 100, (1): 197-203. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Barnett, A. J., Miller, M. H., and Littlejohn, G. O. A survival study of patients with scleroderma diagnosed over 30 years (1953-1983): The value of a simple cutaneous classification in the early stages of the disease. J. Rheumatol. 1988, 15, (2): 276-283. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Barnett, A., Lavey, E., Pearl, R. M., and Vistnes, L. M. Toxic shock syndrome from an infected breast prosthesis. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1983 May, 10, (5): 408-410. INFECTION/local complications.

Barney, B. B. Augmentation mammaplasty with two different kinds of prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974 Sep, 54, (3): 265-267. SALINE.

Barondes, R. de R., Judge, W. D., Towne, C. G., and Baxter, M. L. New organic derivatives and some of their unique properties. The Military Surgeon. 1950 May: 379-386. TOXICOLOGY.

Barone, F. E., Perry, L., Keller, T., and Maxwell, G. P. The biochemical and histopathic effects of surface texturing with silicone and polyurethane in tissue implantation and expansion. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Jul, 90, (1): 77. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications/polyurethane.

Barreau-Pouhaer, L., Lê, M. G., and Rietjens, M. et al. Risk factors for failure of immediate breast reconstruction with prosthesis after total mastectomy for breast cancer. Cancer. 1992 Sep 1, 70, (5): 1145-1151. RECONSTRUCTION.

Barrett, D. M., O'Sullivan, D. C., Malizia, A. A., Reiman, H. M., and Abell-Aleff, P. C. Particle shedding and migration from silicone genitourinary prosthetic devices. Journal of Urology. 1991 Aug, 146, 319-322. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Barsky, A. J. A 37-year-old man with multiple somatic complaints. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1997 Aug 27, 278, (8): 673-679. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Barsky, A. J. Hypochondriasis, medical management and psychiatric treatment. Psychosomatics. 1996, 37, (1): 48-56. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Barsky, A. J., and Borus, J. F. Somatization and medicalization in the era of managed care. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1995 Dec 27, 274, (24): 1931-4. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Barthels, K. M. Decreased swimming speed following augmentation mammaplasty [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Feb, 72, (2): 255-256. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Bartlett, P. Toxic shock syndrome associated with surgical wound infections. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1982 Mar 12, 247, 1448-1450. INFECTION/local complications.

Basindale, A. R., Brown, S. S. D., and Lo, P. Sterochemical nonrigidity in a chelated platinum(0)-diolefin complex. Organometallics. 1994, 13, 738-740. PLATINUM.

Bates, D. W., Schmitt, W., and Buchwald, D. et al. Prevalence of fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in a primary care practice. Arch Intern Med. 1993 Dec 27, 153, 2759-2765. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Bates, R. R., and Klein, M. Importance of a smooth surface in carcinogenesis by plastic film. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1966, 37, 145-151. CARCINOGENICITY.

Batich, C., and De Palma, D. Materials used in breast implants: Silicones and polyurethanes. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 1992, 1, (3): 255-268. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/polyurethane.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Batich, C., De Palma, D., Marotta, J., Latorre, G., and Hardt, N. S. Silicone degradation reactions. Potter, M., and Rose, N., eds. Current Topics In Microbiology and Immunology - Immunology of Silicones. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 13-23. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/toxicology.

Batich, C., Williams, J., and King, R. Toxic hydrolysis product from a biodegradable foam implant. Journal of Biomed. Mater. Res. 1989, 23, (A3): 311-319. POLYURETHANE/ toxicology.

Batra, M., Bernard, S., and Picha, G. Histologic comparision of breast implant shells with smooth, foam, and pillar microstructuring in a rat model from 1 day to 6 months. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Feb, 95, (2): 354-363. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Bayet, B., Mathieu, G., Lavand Homme, P., and et al. Primary and secondary breast reconstruction with a permanent expander. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1991, 14, 73-79. EXPANDER/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Beale, S., Hambert, G., Lisper, H. O., and et al. Augmentation mammoplasty: The surgical and psychological effects of the operation and prediction of the result. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1985 Jun, 14, (6): 473-493. PSYCHOSOCIAL/sensation/local complications.

Beale, S., Lisper, H. D., and Palm, B. A psychological study of patients seeking augmentation mammaplasty. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1980, 136, 133-138. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Beckenbaugh, R. D., Dobyns, J. H., Linscheid, R. L., and Bryan, R. S. Review and analysis of silicone-rubber metacarpophalangeal implants. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1976 Jun, 58-A, (4): 483-487. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/general.

Becker, H. Breast augmentation using the expander mammary prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987b Feb, 79, (2): 192-199. EXPANDER.

Becker, H. Breast reconstruction following mastectomy using a permanent tissue expander. Plastic Surgery Forum. 1986a, 9, 20-21. RECONSTRUCTION/expander.

Becker, H. Breast reconstruction using an inflatable breast implant with detachable reservoir. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Apr, 73, (4): 678-683. RECONSTRUCTION/saline.

Becker, H. The expandable mammary implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987a Apr, 79, (4): 631-637. EXPANDER/capsule-contracture/local complications/reconstruction.

Becker, H. Expansion augmentation. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1988 Oct, 15, (4): 587-593. EXPANDER/reconstruction/local complications.

Becker, H. The use of intradermal tattoo to enhance the final result of nipple-areola reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986b Apr, 77, (4): 673-675. RECONSTRUCTION.

Becker, H., and Hartman, J. Do saline breast implants harbor microbes? Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Apr, 36, (4): 342-344. INFECTION/saline.

Beckett, W., Abraham, J., Becklake, M., Christiani, D., Cowie, R., Davis, G., Jones, R., Kreiss, K., Parker, J., and Wagner, G. Adverse effects of crystalline silica exposure. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 1997, 155, 761-765. SILICA.

Beckham, J., Caldwell, D., Peterson, B., Pippen, A. M. M., Currie, M., Keefe, F., and Weinberg, J. Disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis: relationships of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble interleukin 2-receptor, soluble CD4/CD8 ratio, neopterin, and fibrin D-dimer to traditional severity and functional measures. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 1992, 12, (5): 353-361. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Bedu, O., Gay, J., Rouffy, J., and Loeper, J. Action of silicon on cultured lymphocytes. Med. Sci. Res. 1991, 19, 317-318. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Beebe, G. W., Simin, A. H., and Vivona, S. Long term mortality follow-up of army recruits who received adjuvant influenza virus vaccine in 1951-1953. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1972, 95, 337-345. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Beegle, P. H., Bostwick, J., Hargraves, H., and Hester, T. R. Evaluation of capsular contracture in submammary vs. submuscular breast augmentation. Surg. Forum. 1982, 33, 586-587. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Beekman, W. H., Feitz, R., Hage, J. J., and Mulder, J. W. Life span of silicone gel-filled mammary prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997b Dec, 100, (7): 1723-1726. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection/rupture/pain.

Beekman, W. H., Feitz, R., van Diest, P. J., and Hage, J. J. Migration of silicone through the fibrous capsules of mammary prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997a May, 38, (5): 441-445. MIGRATION/local complications/capsule-contracture/rupture.

Beekman, W. H., Scot, M. G. M., Taets van Amerongen, A. H. M., Hage, J. J., and Mulder, J. W. Silicone breast implant bleed and rupture: Clinical diagnosis and predictive value of mammography and ultrasound. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996, 36, (4): 345-347. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Beisang, A. A., and Geise, R. A. Radiolucent prosthetic gel. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 May, 87, (5): 855-892. MAMMOGRAPHY/general.

Ben-Hur, N. Prolonged allograft survival by partial block of the reticuloendothelial system with silicone fluid. Europ. Surg. Res. 1970, 2, 73-78. TOXICOLOGY.

Ben-Hur, N., Ballantyne, Jr. D. L., Rees, T. D., and et al. Local and systemic effects of dimethylpolysiloxane fluid in mice. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1970, 46, 50-56. TOXICOLOGY.

Ben-Hur, N., Ballantyne, Jr. D. L., Rees, T. D., and Seidman, I. Local and systemic effects of dimethylpolysiloxane fluid in mice. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1967 Apr, 39, (4): 423-426. TOXICOLOGY.

Ben-Hur, N., and Neuman, Z. Malignant tumor formation following subcutaneous injection of silicone fluid in white mice. Israel Medical Journal. 1963, 22, 15. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Ben-Hur, N., and Neuman, Z. Siliconma—another cutaneous response to dimethylpolysiloxane. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1965, 36, (6): 629-631. CARCINOGENICITY/IMMUNE EFFECTS/granulomas.

Benavent, W. J. Treatment of bilateral breast carcinomas in a patient with silicone-gel breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973, 51, 588-589. CANCER.

Benediktsson, K. P., Perbeck, L., Geigant, E., and Solders, G. Touch sensibility in the breast after subcutaneous mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with a prosthesis. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1997, 50, (6): 443-449. SENSATION/local complications/reconstruction.

Bengtsson, D., Edstrom, K., Sigurdsson, J., and Tibblin, G. Prevalence of subjectively experienced symptoms in a population sample of women with special reference to women with arterial hypertension. Scan J Prim Health Care. 1987, 5, 155-162. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Benito, J. Breast implants: methods for reducing capsular contracture. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1990, 13, 198-200. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE.

Benjamin, E., Ahmed, A., Rashid, A. T. M. F., and Wright, D. H. Silicone lymphadenopathy: A report of two cases, one with concomitant malignant lymphoma. Diagnostic Histopathology. 1982, 5, 133-141. LYMPHADENOPATHY/local complications/cancer.

Benjamin, J. L., and Guy, C. L. Calcification of implant capsules following augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977, 59, (3): 432-433. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Bennett, D. R., Gorzinski, S. J., and LeBeau, J. E. Structure-activity relationships of oral organosiloxanes on the male reproductive system. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1972, 21, 55-67. TOXICOLOGY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Bennett, R. M. Fibromyalgia and the disability dilemma. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996 Oct, 39, (10): 1627- 1634. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Bennett, R. M., Clark, S. R., Campbell, S. M., and Burckhardt, C. S. Low levels of somatomedin C in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: A possible link between sleep and muscle pain. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1992 Oct, 35, (10): 1113-1116. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Benoit, F. M. Degradation of polyurethane foam used in the Meme breast implant. Journal of Biomed. Mater. Res. 1993, 27, 1341-1348. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

Bercowy, G. M., Vo, H., and Rieders, F. Silicon analysis in biological specimens by direct current plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 1994 Jan-1994 Feb 28, 18, 46-48. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Berg, W. A., Anderson, N. D., Zerhouni, E. A., Chang, B. W., and Kuhlman, J. E. MR imaging of the breast in patients with silicone breast implants: Normal postoperative variants and diagnostic pitfalls. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994, 163, (3): 575-578. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Berg, W. A., Caskey, C. I., Hamper, U. M., Anderson, N. D., Chang, B. W., Sheth, S., Zerhouni, E. A., and Kuhlman, J. E. Diagnosing breast implant rupture with MR imaging, US, and mammography. RadioGraphics. 1993, 13, 1323-1336. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Berg, W. A., Caskey, C. I., Hamper, U. M., Kuhlman, J. E., Anderson, N. D., Chang, B. W., Sheth, S., and Zerhouni, E. A. Single- and double-lumen silicone breast implant integrity: Prospective evaluation of MR and US criteria. Radiology. 1995, 197, 45-52. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Bergman, R. B., and van der Ende, A. E. Exudation of silicone through the envelope of gel-filled breast prostheses: An in vitro study. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1979, 32, 31-34. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/rupture.

Berkel, H., Birdsell, D. C., and Jenkins, H. Breast augmentation: A risk factor for breast cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1992 Jun 18, 326, (25): 1649-1653. CANCER.

Berkel, J., Fillius, P. M. G., Dik, E., and Deboer, A. Long term health effects of breast augmentation: A review. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 1994, 3, 265-273. CANCER/GENERAL/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/mammography.

Berlin, Jr. C. M. Drugs and Chemicals: Exposure of the Nursing Mother. Clinical Pharmacology. 1989 Oct, 36, (5): 1089-1097. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Berlin, Jr. C. M. Silicone breast implants and breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 1994 Oct, 94, (4, part 1): 547-549. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Berlyne, G. M., Adler, A. K., Ferram N., Bemmett, S., and Holt, J. Silicon metabolism: some aspects of renal silicon handling in normal man. Nephron. 1986, 43, 5-9. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Berman, D. E., Lettieri, J., Herold, D. A., Lin, Y. F., and Morgan, R. F. Steroid and benzyl alcohol diffusion through tissue expanders and double lumen breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1991, 27, (4): 316-320. STEROIDS/local complications/expander.

Berman, D. E., Lettieri, J., Herold, D., Edlich, R. F., and Morgan, R. F. Lidocaine permability in silicone tissue expanders: An in vitro analysis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 Oct, 84, (4): 621-623. PAIN/local complications/expander.

Bern, S., Burd, A., and May, Jr. J. W. The biophysical and histologic properties of capsules formed by smooth and textured silicone implants in the rabbit. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Jun, 89, (6): 1037-1042. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Berrino, P., Campora, E., and Santi, P. Post quadrantectomy breast deformities: Classification and techniques of surgical correction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987 Apr, 79, (4): 567-572. RECONSTRUCTION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Berrino, P., Casabona, F., and Santi, P. Long-term advantages of permanent expandable implants in breast aesthetic surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998a Jun, 101, (7): 1964-1972. EXPANDER.

Berrino, P., Franchelli, S., and Santi, P. Surgical correction of breast deformities following long lasting complications of polyurethane covered implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990 Jun, 24, (6): 481-488. POLYURETHANE/local complications.

Berrino, P., Galli, A., Rainero, M. L., and Santi, P. L. Long-lasting complications with use of polyurethane covered breast implants. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1986, 39, 549-553. POLYURETHANE/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Berrino, P., Leone, S., and Cicchetti, S. Umbilicated nipples eversion after breast augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998b Jul, 102, (1): 231-233. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Berson, M. I. Derma-fat-fascia transplants used in building up the breasts. Surgery. 1944, 35, 451-456. RECONSTRUCTION.

Bevin, A. G. On augmentation mammaplasty by the transaxillary approach. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Jun, 59, (6): 841-844. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY.

Biagini, R. E., Bernstein, I. L., and Gallagher, I. S. et al. The diversity of reaginic immune responses to platinum and palladium metallic salts. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1985 Dec 1, 76, (6): 794-802. PLATINUM/toxicology/immune effects.

Biggs, T. M., Cukier, J., and Worthing, L. F. Augmentation mammaplasty: A review of 18 years. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Mar, 69, (3): 445-450. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ infection/local complications/hematomas.

Biggs, T. M., and Yarish, R. S. Augmentation mammaplasty: A comparative analysis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Mar, 85, (3): 368-372. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/steroids.

Biggs, T. M., and Yarish, R. S. Augmentation mammaplasty: Retropectoral versus retro-mammary implantation. Clin. Plast. Surg. 1988, 15, (4): 549-555. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE.

Bignail, J. Silicone breast implants, breast feeding, and scleroderma. The Lancet. 1994, 343, 229. BREAST FEEDING/connective tissue disease.

Bilbey, J. H., and Connell, D. G. MRI diagnosis of a ruptured breast implant presenting as an infraclavicular mass. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. 1993 Jun, 44, (3): 224-226. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Bingham, H. G., Copeland, E. M., Hackett, R., and Caffee, H. H. Breast cancer in a patient with a silicone breast implant after 13 years. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1988, 20, 236-237. CANCER.

Bircoll, M., and Novack, B. H. Autologous fat transplantation employing liposuction techniques. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1987 Apr, 18, (4): 327-329. RECONSTRUCTION.

Birdsell, D. C., Jenkins, H., and Berkell, H. Breast cancer diagnosis and survival in women with and without breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Oct, 92, (5): 795-800. CANCER.

Birnbaum, L. M., Hopp, D. D., and Mertens, B. The role of iodine-releasing silicone implants in prevention of spherical contractures in mice. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Jun, 69, (6): 956-959. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/infection.

Birnbaum, L., and Olsen, J. A. Breast reconstruction following radical mastectomy, using custom designed implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 61, (3): 355-363. RECONSTRUCTION.

Birtchnell, S., and Lacey, J. Augmentation and reduction mammoplasty: Demographic and obstetric differences in women attending a National Health Service Clinic. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1988, 64, 587-589. PREVALENCE.

Bischoff, F. Organic polymer biocompatibility and toxicology. Clinical Chemistry. 1972, 18, (9): 869-894. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Black, C. M., Welsh, K. T., Walker, A. E., and et al. Genetic susceptibility to scleroderma-like syndrome induced by vinyl chloride. The Lancet. 1983 Jan 1, 8, 53-55. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Blackburn Jr., W. D., and Everson, M. P. Silicone-associated rheumatic disease: An unsupported myth. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Apr, 99, (5): 1362-1367. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ connective tissue disease.

Blackburn Jr., W. D., Grotting, J. C., and Everson, M. P. Lack of evidence of systemic inflammatory rheumatic disorders in symtomatic women with breast implants. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1997 Apr, 99, (4): 1054-1060. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Blair, A., Burg, J., Foran, J., Gibb, H., Greenland, S., Morris, R., Raabe, G., Savits, D., Teta, J., Wartenberg, D., Wong, O., and Zimmerman, R. Guidelines for Application of Metaanalysis in Environmental Epidemiology. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 1995, 22, 189-197. GENERAL.

Bloch, C., and Hudson, D. Silicone and breast implants. South African Medical Journal. 1992, 81, (2): 449-450. CANCER/connective tissue disease/immune effects.

Blocksma, R. Experiences with dimethylpolysiloxane fluid in soft tissue augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1971 Dec, 48, (6): 564-567. SILICONE INJECTION.

Blocksma, R., and Braley, S. The silicones in plastic surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1965 Apr, 35, (4): 366-370. GENERAL.

Boice, Jr. J. D., Friis, S., McLaughlin, J. K., Mellemkjær, L., Blot, W. J., Fraumeni, J. F., and Olsen, J. H. Cancer following breast reduction surgery in Denmark. Cancer Causes and Control. 1997, 8, 253-258. CANCER.

Bombardier, C. H. Chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia: Disability and health-care use. Medical Care. 1996, 34, (9): 924-930. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Bommer, J., Gesma, D., Waldherr, R., Kessler, J., and Ritz, E. Plastic filing from dialysis tubing induces prostanoid release from macrophages. Kidney Intl. 1984, 26, 331. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Bommer, J., Ritz, E., and Waldherr, R. Silicone-induced splenomegaly: treatment of pancytopenia by splenectomy in a patient on hemodialysis. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1981 Oct 29, 305, 1078. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Bommer J., Waldherr R., Gastner M., Lemmes R., and Ritz E. Iatrogenic multiorgan silicone inclusions in dialysis patients. Klin Wochenschr. 1981 Oct 15, 59, (20): 1149-1157. SILICON MEASUREMENT/local complications.

Bon, A., and Eichmann, A. Serious long-term complication following silicone injection of the face. Dermatology. 1993, 187, 286-287. SILICONE INJECTION.

Boné, B., Aspelin, P., Isberg, B. Perbeck L., and Veress, B. Contrast-enhaced MR imaging of the breast in patients with breast implants after cancer surgery. Acta Radiologica. 1995 Mar, 36, (2): 111-116. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Bonfield, T. L., Colton, E., Marchant, R. E., and Anderson, J. M. Cytokine and growth factor production by monocytes/macrophages on protein preabsorbed polymers. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1992, 26, 837-850. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Bonfield, T., Colton, E., and Anderson, J. Plasma protein adsorbed biomedical polymers: Activation of human monocytes and induction of interleukin 1. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1989a, 23, 535-548. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Bonfield, T., Colton, E., and Anderson, J. Student research award in the graduate degree candidate category, 15th annual meeting of the society for biomaterials, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, April 28-May 2, 1989. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1989b, 23, 535-548. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Bonfield, T., Colton, E., and Anderson, J. M. Fibroblast stimulation by monocytes cultured on protein adsorbed biomedical polymers. I. Biomer and polydimethylsiloxane. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1991, 25, (2): 165-175. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE.

Boo-Chai, K. The complications of augmentation mammoplasty by silicone injection. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1969, 22, 281-286. SILICONE INJECTION.

Boone, J. L., and Braley, S. A. Resistance of silicone rubbers to body fluids. Chemistry and Technology. 1966 Sep, 39, (4): 1293-1297. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Boonstra. B. B., Cochrane, H., and Dannenberg, E. M. Reinforcement of silicone rubber by particulate silica. Rubber Chem. Technol. 1975, 48, (4): 558. SILICA.

Borgan, E. R., and Ruben, L. Injectable fluid silicone therapy, human mobility and mortality. J Amer. Med. Assoc. 1975, 234, 308-309. SILICONE INJECTION.

Bosanquet, A. G., Ishimaru, J.-I., and Goss, A. N. The effect of silastic replacement following discectomy in sheep temporomandibular joints. Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery. 1991, 49, 1204-1209. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Boschert, N. L. Thermoplastic vulcanizates in medical applications. Medical Plastics and Biomaterials. 1997 Jan: 28. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Bosetti, M., Navone, R., Rizzo, E., and Cannas, M. Histochemical and morphometric observations on the new tissue formed around mammary expanders coated with pyrolytic carbon. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998 May, 40, (2): 307-313. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Bostwick III, J. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Cancer. 1990 Sep 15, 66, (6): 1402-1411. RECONSTRUCTION.

Bostwick III, J., and Jones, G. Why I choose autogenous tissue in breast reconstruction. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1994, 21, (2): 165-175. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/capsule-contracture/expander.

Bostwick III, J., Nahai, F., Wallace, J. G., and Vasconez, L. O. Sixty latissimus dorsi flaps. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979, 63, (1): 3141. RECONSTRUCTION.

Bostwick III, J., Paletta, C., and Hartrampf, C. R. Conservative treatment for breast cancer: Complications requiring reconstructive surgery. Annals of Surgery. 1986 May, 203, (5): 481-489. CANCER.

Bowers, Jr. D. G., and Radlauer, C. B. Breast cancer after prophylactic subcutaneous mastectomies and reconstruction with silastic prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1969, 44, (4): 541-544. CANCER.

Bown, S. L., Middleton, M. S., Berg, W. A., Soo, M. S., and Pennelo, G. Silicone Gel Breast Implant Rupture Prevalence in a Population of Women in Birmingham, Alabama. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. (submitted). 1999. RUPTURE/local complications.

Boyes, D. C., Adey, C. K., Bailar, J., Baines, C., Kerrigan, C., and Langlois, P. Safety of polyurethane-covered breast implants. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1991, 145, (9): 1125-1128. POLYURETHANE.

Bradley, S. G., Munson, A. E., McCay, J., Brown, R., Musgrove, D., Wilson, S., Stem, M., Luster, N., and White, Jr. K. L. Subchronic 10-day immunotoxicity of polydimethylsiloxane (silicone) fluid, gel and elastomer and polyurethane disks in female B6C3F1 mice. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 1994a, 17, (3): 175-220. TOXICOLOGY/immune effects/polyurethane.

Bradley, S. G., White Jr., K. L., McCay, J. A., Brown, R. D., Musgrove, D. L., Wilson, S., Stem, M, Luster, M. I., and Munson, A. E. Immunotoxicity of 180-day exposure to polydimethylsiloxane (silicone) fluid, gel and elastomer and polyurethane disks in female B6C3F1 mice. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 1994b, 17, (3): 221-269. TOXICOLOGY/immune effects/polyurethane.

Braley, S. The silicones as tools in biological engineering. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 1965, 3, 127-136. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Braley, S. The status of injectable silicone fluid for soft tissue augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1971 Apr, 47, (4): 343-344. SILICONE INJECTION.

Braley, S. The use of silicones in plastic surgery: A retrospective view. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973, 51, (3): 280-288. GENERAL.

Bramm, E., Binderup, L., and Arrigoni-Martelli, E. Inhibition of adjuvant arthritis by intraperitoneal administration of low doses of silica. Agents and Actions. 1980 May, 10, (5): 435-438. SILICA/immune effects.

Bramwell, B. Diffuse sclerodermia: its frequency, its occurrence in stone-masons, its treatment by fibrolysin—elevations of temperature due to fibrolysin injections. Edinburgh Medical Journal. 1914, 12, (5): 387-401. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Brand, K. G. Do implanted medical devices cause cancer? Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 1994, 8, 325. CARCINOGENICITY.

Brand, K. G. Foam-covered mammary implants. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1988 Oct, 15, (4): 533-539. POLYURETHANE/local complications/infection.

Brand, K. G. Infection of mammary prostheses: A survey and the question of prevention. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Apr, 30, (4): 289-295. INFECTION/local complications.

Brand, K. G., and Brand, I. Risk assessment of carcinogenesis at implantation sites. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 Oct, 66, (4): 591-594. CARCINOGENICITY.

Brand, K. G., Buoen, L. C., and Brand, I. Foreign-body tumorigensis induced by glass and smooth and rough plastic: Comparative study of preneoplastic events. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1975 Aug, 55, (2): 319-322. CARCINOGENICITY.

Brand, K. G., Buoen, L. C., Johnson, K. H., and Brand, I. Etiological factors, stages, and the role of the foreign body in foreign-body tumorigenesis: A review. Cancer Research. 1975 Feb, 35, 279-286. CARCINOGENICITY.

Brandon, H. J., Peters, W., Young, V. L., Jerina, K. L., Wolf, C. J., and Schorr, M. W. Analysis of two Dow Corning breast implants removed after 28 years of implantation. Aesthetic Surgery Journal. 1999 Jan-1999 Feb 28, 19, (1): 40-48. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Brandt, B., Breiting, V., Christensen, L., Nielsen, M., and Thomsen, J. L. Five years experience of breast augmentation using silicone gel prostheses with emphasis on capsule shrinkage. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1984, 18, (3): 311-316. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications/hematomas/infection.

Brandt, B., Breiting, V., Christensen, L., Nielsen, M., and Thomsen, J. L. Silicone granulomas mimicking malignant breast tumors. Breast. 1985, 11, (4): 6-8. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Brantley, S. K., Davidson, S. F., Johnson, M. B., St. Arnold, P. A., and Das, S. K. The effects of prior exposure to silicone on capsular formation, histology, and pressure. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990a Jul, 25, (1): 44-47. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications/immune effects.

Brantley, S. K., Davidson, S. F., St. Arnold, P. A., Johnson, M. B., Tabbot, P. J., Grogan, J. B., Cuchens, M. A., Hsu, H. S., and Das, S. K. Assessment of the lymphocyte response to silicone. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990b Dec, 86, (6): 1131-1137. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Brash, J. L., and Samak, Q. M. Dynamics of interactions between human albumin and polyethylene surface. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1978 Jul, 65, (3): 495-504. POLYURETHANE.

Brash, J. L., and Uniyal, S. Dependence on albumin-fibrinogen simple and competitive adsorption on surface properties of biomaterials. Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Symposium. 1979, 66, 377-389. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Brautbar, N. Silicone implants and immune dysfunction: Scientific evidence for causation. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995, 7, (1): 3-13. GENERAL/immune effects.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Brautbar, N., Campbell, A., and Vojdani, A. Silicone breast implants and autoimmunity: Causation, association, or myth? J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 1995, 7, (2): 133-145. GENERAL/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brautbar, N., Vojdani, A., and Campbell, A. Silicone breast implants and autoimmunity: Causation or myth? Archives of Environmental Health. 1994 May-1994 Jun 30, 49, (3): 151-153. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Brawer, A. E. Chronology of systemic disease development in 300 symptomatic recipients of silicone gel-filled breast implants. Journal of Clean Technology, Environmental Toxicology, and Occupational Medicine. 1996 Jan, 5, (3): 223-233. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brawer, A. E. Clinical features of local breast phenomena in 300 symptomatic recipients of silicone gel-filled breast implants. Journal of Clean Technology, Environmental Toxicology, and Occupational Medicine. 1996 Jan, 5, (3). 235-247. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/capsule-contracture/sensation.

Brem, R., Tempany, C, and Zerhouni, E. MR detection of breast implant rupture. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 1992, 16, (1): 157-159. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture.

Brenner, R. J. Breast MR imaging. An analysis of its role with respect to other imaging and interventional modalities. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 1994, 2, (4): 705-723. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Bridges, A. J. Rheumatic disorders in patients with silicone implants: A critical review. Journal Biomater Sci Polymer Edn. 1995, 7, (2): 147-157. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Bridges, A. J., Conley, C., Wang, G., Burns, D. E., and Vasey, F. B. A clinical and immunologic evaluation of women with silicone breast implants and symptoms of rheumatic disease. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1993a Jun 15, 118, (12): 929-935. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Bridges, A. J., and Vasey, F. B. Silicone breast implants: History, safety, and potential complications. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1993 Dec 13, 153, 2638-2644. GENERAL.

Bright, R. A., Jeng, L. L., and Moore, R. M. National survey of self-reported breast implants: 1988 estimates. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 1993, 3, 81-89. PREVALENCE.

Bright, R. W. Operative correction of partial epiphyseal plate closure by osseous-bridge resection and silicone-rubber implant. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1974 Jun, 56-A, (4): 655-664. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Brink, R. R. Evaluating breast parenchymal maldistribution with regard to mastopexy and augmentation mammaplasty. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1990 Oct, 86, (4): 715-719. RECONSTRUCTION/local complications.

Brink, R. R. Sequestered fluid and breast implant malposition. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Sep, 98, (4): 670-684. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Brinton, L. A., and Brown, S. L. Breast implants and cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1997 Sep 17, 89, (18): 1341-1349. CANCER.

Brinton, L. A., Malone, K. E., Coates, R. J., Schoenberg, J. B., Swanson, C. A., Daling, J. R., and Stanford, J. L. Breast enlargement and reduction: Results from a breast cancer case-control study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Feb, 97, (2): 269-275. CANCER.

Brinton, L. A., Nasca, P. C., Mallin, K., Baptiste, M. S., Wilbanks, G. D., and Richart, R. M. Case-control study of cancer of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol. 1990, 75, (5): 859-866. CANCER.

Brinton, L. A., Toniolo, P., and Pasternack, B. S. Epidemiologic follow-up studies of breast augmentation patients. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 557-563. CANCER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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British Department of Health. Polyurethane-coated breast implants: Potential release of a probable carcinogenic degradation product following breakdown of the polyurethane foam in vivo. Safety Action Bulletin. 1994 Sep, 94, 39. POLYURETHANE/carcinogenicity.

Broadbent, T. R., and Woolf, R. M. Augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1967 Dec, 40, (6): 517-523. GENERAL.

Broadbent, T. R., and Woolf, R. M. Unsatisfactory results in augmentation mammoplasty: chest and breast asymmetry. Aesth Plast Surg. 1978, 2, 251-269. GENERAL.

Broadbent, T. R., and Woolf, R. M. Trends in plastic surgery in the United States. Ann Plast Surg. 1978 May, 1, (3): 249-251. GENERAL.

Brockhurst, R. J., Ward, R. C., Lou, P., Omerod, D., and Albert, D. Dystrophic calcification of silicone scleral buckling implant materials. American Journal of Ophthamology. 1993 Apr, 115, (4): 524-529. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Brody, G. L., and Frey, C. F. Peritoneal response to silicone fluid. Arch Surg. 1968: 237-241. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Brody, G. S. Fact and fiction about breast implant bleed. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Oct, 60, (4): 615-616. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/capsule contracture/rupture.

Brody, G. S. Mechanical analysis of explanted silicone breast implants [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Aug, 98, (2): 273-275. RUPTURE/local complications.

Brody, G. S. On the safety of breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Oct, 100, (5): 1314-1321. GENERAL.

Brody, G. S. Risk assessment of carcinogenesis at implantation sites [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 Oct, 66, (4): 595. CARCINOGENICITY.

Brody, G. S., Conway, D. P., Deapen, D. M., Fisher, J. C., Hochberg, M. C., LeRoy, E. C. Medsger Jr. T. A., Robson, M. C., Shons, A. R., and Weisman, M. H. Consensus statement on the relationship of breast implants to connective-tissue disorders. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1992 Dec, 90, (6): 1102-1105. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brohim, R. M., Foresmann, P. A., Hildebrandt, P. K., and Rodeheaver, G. T. Early tissue reaction to textured breast implant surfaces. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 28, (4): 354-362. POLYURETHANE/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Brooks, S. M., Baker, D. B., Gann, P. H., Jarabek, A. M., Hertzberg, V., Gallagher, J., Biagini, R. E., and Berstein, I. L. Cold air challenge and platinum skin reactivity in platinum refinery workers: Bronchial reactivity precedes skin prick response. Chest. 1990 Jun, 97, (6): 1401-1407. PLATINUM.

Brorson, T., Skarping, G., and Sangö, C. Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 1991, 63, 253-259. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Brown, J. B., Fryer, M. P., and Ohlwiler, D. A. Study and use of synthetic materials, such as silicones and Teflon, as subcutaneous prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1960a Sep, 26, (3): 264-279. GENERAL.

Brown, J. B., Fryer, M. P., Ohlwiler, D. A., and Kollias, P. Dimethylsiloxane and halogenated carbons as subcutaneous prostheses. American Surgeon. 1962, 28, 146-148. GENERAL.

Brown, J. B., Fryer, M. P., Randall, P., and Lu, M. Silicones in plastic surgery. Laboratory and clinical investigations, a preliminary report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1953, 12, 374-376. GENERAL.

Brown, J. B., Ohwiler, D. A., and Fryer, M. P. Investigation of and use of dimethylsiloxanes, halogenated carbons and polyvinyl alcohol as subcutaneous prostheses. Am Surg. 1960b, 152, 534. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Brown, J., Fryer, M., Randall, P., and Lu, M. Silicones in plastic surgery: Laboratory and clinical investigations, a preliminary report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1953 May 15, 12, 374-376. TOXICOLOGY.

Brown, Jr. J. F., and Slusarczuk, J. Macrocyclic Polydimethysliloxanes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1965, 87, 931. SILICONE CHEMISTRY.

Brown, S. L., Langone, J. J., and Brinton, L. A. Silicone breast implants and autoimmune disease. JAMWA. 1998 Winter, 53, (1): 1-5. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Brown, S. L., Middleton, M. S., Berg, W. A., Soo, M. S., and Pennello, G. Silicone gel breast implant rupture prevalence in a population of women in Birmingham, Alabama. Unpublished Document, 1999. RUPTURE/local complications.

Brown, S. L., Parmentier, C. M., Woo, E. K., Vishnuvajjala, R. L., and Headrick, M. L. Silicone gel breast implant adverse event reports to the Food and Drug Administration, 1984-1995. Public Health Reports. 1998, 113, 535-543. PSYCHOSOCIAL/general.

Brown, S. L., Silverman, B. G., and Berg, W. A. Rupture of silicone-gel breast implants: Causes, sequelae, and diagnosis. The Lancet. 1997b Nov 22, 350, 1531-1537. RUPTURE/local complications/mammography.

Brozena, S. J., Fenske, N. A., Cruse, C. W., Espinoza, C. G., Vasey, F. B., Germain, B. F., and Espinoza, L. R. Human adjuvant disease following augmentation mammoplasty. Arch Dermatol. 1988 Sep, 124, 1383. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brozman, M., and Hostyn, L. Local response by organism to the silicon implante in experiment. Acta Chir Plast. 1971, 13, (3): 183-187. INFECTION.

Bruck, H. G. Long-term results of polyurethane-covered prostheses. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1990, 14, 85-86. POLYURETHANE.

Brunner, C. A., Feller, A. M., Groner, R., Dees, E., Biefel, K., and Biemer, E. Increase of immunologically relevant parameters in correlation with Baker classification in breast implant recipients. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 May, 36, (5): 512-518. IMMUNE EFFECTS/local complications/capsule-contracture/connective tissue disease.

Brunner, C. A., Groner, R., Biemer, E., and Johnson, J.P. Expression of CD44-v6-containing isoform on breast tissue adjacent to silicone breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Sep, 39, (3): 235-240. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Bryant, H., and Brasher, P. M. Breast implants and breast cancer—reanalysis of a linkage study. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1995 Jun 8, 332, (23): 1535-1539. CANCER.

Bryson, G., and Bischoff, F. Silicate-Induced Neoplasms. Progr. Exp. Tumor Res. 1967, 9, 77-164. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology/silica.

Buchwald, D., and Garrity, M. D. Comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivites. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1994 Sep 26, 154, (18): 2049-2053. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Buchwald, D., Umali, P., Kith, P., Pearlman, T., and Komaroff, A. L. Chronic fatigue and the chronic fatigue syndrome: Prevalence in a Pacific Northwest health care system. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995 Jul, 123, (2): 81-88. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Bucky, L. P., Ehrlich, H. P., Sohoni, S., and May, Jr. J. w. The capsule quality of saline-filled smooth silicone, textured silicone, and polyurethane implants in rabbits: A long-term study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 May, 93, (6): 1123-1131. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline/polyurethane.

Bucky, L. P., and May, Jr. J. W. The capsule in various types of breast implants [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Apr, 95, (5): 937-938. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Buehler, P. K. Patient selection for prophylactic mastectomy: Who is at high risk? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Sep, 72, (3): 324-329. CANCER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Burda, C. D., Cox, F. R., and Osborne, P. Histocompatibility antigens in the fibrositis (fibromyaliga) syndrome. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 1986, 4, 355-357. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Burkhardt, B. R. Capsular Contracture: Hard Breasts, Soft Data. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1988, 15, (4): 521-532. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/infection.

Burkhardt, B. R. Fibrous capsular contracture around breast implants: The role of subclinical infection. Infect Surg. 1985, 4, 469-475. INFECTION/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Burkhardt, B. R., and Demas, C. P. The effect of siltex texturing and povidone-iodine irrigation on capsular contracture around saline inflatable breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Jan, 93, (1): 123-128. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Burkhardt, B. R., Dempsey, P. D., Schnur, P. L., and Tofield, J. J. Capsular contracture: A prospective study of the effect of local antibacterial agents. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Jun, 77, (6): 919-930. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection.

Burkhardt, B. R., and Eades, E. The effect of Biocell texturing and povidone-iodine irrigation on capsular contracture around saline-inflatable breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Nov, 96, (6): 1317-1325. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/ saline.

Burkhardt, B. R., Fried, M., Schnur, P. L., and Tofield, J. J. Capsules, infection, and intraluminal antibiotics. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981, 68, 43-47. INFECTION/local complications.

Burkhardt, B. R., Schnur, P. L., Tofield, J. J., and Dempsey, P. D. Objective clinical assessment of fibrous capsular contracture. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 May, 69, (5): 794-797. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Burmester, G. R., Dimitriu-Bona, A., Waters, S. J., and Winchester, R. J. Identification of the three major synovial lining cell populations by monoclonal antibodies directed to Ia antigens and antigens associated with monocytes/macrophages and fibroblasts. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 1983, 17, 69-82. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/immune effects.

Bums, C. J., Laing, T. J., Gillespie, B. W., Heering, S. G., Alcser, K. H., Mayes, M. D., Wasko, C. M., Cooper, B. C., Garabrant, D. H., and Schottenfeld, D. The epidemiology of scleroderma among women: Assessment of risk from exposure to silicone and silica. The Journal of Rheumatology. 1996, 23, (11): 1904-1911. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/silica.

Butler, J. E., Lü, E. P., Navarro, P., and Christiansen, B. Comparative studies on the interaction of proteins with a polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. I. Monolayer protein capture capacity (PCC) as a function of protein pl, buffer pH and buffer ionic strength. Journal of Molecular Recognition. 1997, 10, (1): 36-51. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Buyon, J. P. The effects of pregnancy on autoimmune diseases. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 1998 Mar, 63, 281-287. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Buyon, J. P., Ben-Chetrit, E., Karp, S., Roubey, A. S., Pompeo, L., Revers, W. H., Tan, E. M., and Winchester, R. Acquired congenital heart block: pattern of maternal antibody response to biochemically defined antigens of the SSA/Ro-SSB/La system in neonatal lupus. J. Clin. Invest. 1989, 84, 627-634. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Buyon, J. P., Slade, S. G., Reveille, J. D., Hamel, J. C., and Chan, E. K. L. Autoantibody responses to ''native" 52k SS-A/Ro protein in neonatal lupus. J. Immunol. 1994, 152, 3675-3684. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Byler, D. M., and Susi, H. Examination of the secondary structure of protein by convoluted FTIR spectra. Biopolymers. 1986, 25, 469-487. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Byron, M. A., Venning, V. A., and Mowat, A. G. Post-mammoplasty human adjuvant disease. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1984, 23, 227-229. SALINE/connective tissue disease/immune effects.

Cabral, A. R., Alocer-Varela, J., Orozco-Topete, R., Reyes, E., Fernández-Domínguez, L., and Alarcón-Segovia, D. Clinical, histopathological, immunological and fibroblast studies in 30 patients with subcutaneous injections of modelants including silicone and mineral oils. La Revista De Investigación Clinica. 1994 Jul, 46, (4): 257-266. SILICONE INJECTION.

Caffee, H. H. The effects of intraprosthetic methylprenisolone on implant capsules and surrounding tissue. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1984, 12, (4): 348-352. STEROIDS/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. External compression for the prevention of scar capsule contracture: A preliminary report. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1982 Jun, 8, (6): 453-458. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. The influence of silicone bleed on capsule contracture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1986a Oct, 17, (4): 284-287. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. Measurement of implant capsules. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1983 Nov, 11, (5): 412-416. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE.

Caffee, H. H. Textured silicone and capsular contracture. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1990, 24, 197-199. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. Vitamin E and capsule contracture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1987 Dec, 19, (6): 512-514. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Caffee, H. H., Hardt, N. S., and La Torre, G. Detection of breast implant rupture with aspiration cytology. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995, 95, (7): 1145-1149. RUPTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H., Mendenhall, N. P., Mendenhall, W. M., and Bova, F. J. Postoperative radiation and implant capsule contraction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1988 Jan, 20, (1): 35-38. RADIATION/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Cahan, A. C., Ashikari, R., Pressmen, P., Cody, H., Hoffman, S., and Sherman, J. E. Breast cancer after breast augmentation with silicone implants. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 1995, 2, (2): 121-125. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Cairns, T. S., and de Villiers, W. Capsular contracture after breast augmentation—a comparison between gel- and saline-filled prostheses. South African Medical Journal. 1980 Jun, 57, 951-953. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline/sensation.

Callery, C. D., Rosen, P. P., and Kinne, D. W. Sarcoma of the breast. A study of 32 patients with reappraisal of classifications therapy. Annals Surgery. 1985, 201,527. CANCER.

Camilleri, I. G., Malata, C. M., and McLean, N. R. A review of 120 Becker permanent tissue expanders in reconstruction of the breast. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1996, 49, (6): 346-351. EXPANDER/reconstruction/local complications/radiation/psychosocial.

Cammarata, A., Georgiou, J., Cruz, E., and et al. Inflammatory carcinoma in a patient with a breast implant. Breast, Diseases of the Breast. 1984, 10, (3): 24. CANCER.

Campbell, A. W., Brautbar, N., and Vojdani, A. Suppressed natural killer cell activity in patients with silicone breast implants: reversal upon explantation. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 1994, 10, (3): 149-154. IMMUNE EFFECTS/explantation.

Campbell, R. D., and Milner, C. M. MHC genes in autoimmunity. Current Opinion in Immunology. 1993, 5, 887-893. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Capozzi, A. Clinical experience with Heyer-Schulte inflatable implants in breast augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 May, 77, (5): 772-778. EXPANDER/local complications/rupture/capsule-contracture/saline.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Capozzi, A. Long-term complications of polyurethane-covered breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Sep, 88, (3): 458-461. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/rupture/local complications/polyurethane.

Capozzi, A., Du Bou, R., and Pennisi, V. R. Distant migration of silicone gel from a ruptured breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 62, 302-303. MIGRATION/local complications/rupture/granulomas.

Capozzi, A., and Pennisi, V. R. Clinical experience with polyurethane-covered gel-filled mammary prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Oct, 68, (4): 512-518. POLYURETHANE/local complications/infection/capsule-contracture.

Carbotte, R. M., Denburg, S. D., and Denburg, J. A. Cognitive deficit associated with rheumatic diseases: Neuropsychological perspectives. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 Oct, 38, (10): 1363-1374. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/psychosocial/neurologic disease.

Cardona, M. A., Simmons, R. L., and Kaplan, S. S. TNF and IL-1 generation by human monocytes in response to biomaterials. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1992, 26, 851-859. IMMUNE EFFECTS/polyurethane.

Cardy, R. H. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of 2,4-toluenediamine in F344 rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1979 Apr, 62, (4): 1107-1113. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Carette, S. Chronic pain syndromes. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 1996, 55, (8): 497-501. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Carlisle, E. M. Silicon as an essential element. Federation Proceedings. 1974, 33, (6): 1758-1766. GENERAL.

Carlson, G. W., Curley, S. A., Martin, J. E., Fornage, B. D., and Ames, F. C. The detection of breast cancer after augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Apr, 91, (5): 837-840. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Carmen, R., and Kahn, P. Test in vitro of silicone rubber heart-valve poppets for lipid absorption. Journal of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. 1969, 3, (1): 14-17. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Carmen, R., and Mutha, S. C. Lipid absorption by silicone rubber heart valve poppets—in-vivo and in-vitro results. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1972, 6, (5): 327-346. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Carmichael, J. B., and Winger, R. Cyclic distribution in dimethylsiloxanes. J. Polymer Sci. 1965, A3, 971. SILICONE CHEMSITRY.

Caro, X. J. Immunofluorescent detection of IgG at the dermal-epidermal junction in patients with apparent primary fibrositis syndrome. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1984 Oct, 27, (10): 1174-1179. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Carpeneda, C. A. Inflammatory reaction and capsular contracture around smooth silicone implants. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1997, 21, (2): 110-114. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Carpenter, J. C. Study of the degradation of polydimethylsiloxane on soil. Environmental Science and Technology. 1995, 29, (4): 864-868. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Carrico, C. J., Meakins, J. L., Marshall, J. C., Fry, D., and Maier, R. V. Multiple-organ-failure syndrome. Arch Surg. 1986 Feb, 121, 196-208. INFECTION.

Carrico, T. J., and Cohen, I. K. Capsular contracture and steroid-related complications after augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Sep, 64, (3): 377-380. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/steroids.

Carson, S., Weinberg, M., and Oser, B. Safety evaluation of Dow Corning® 360 fluid and antifoam A. Proc Sci Sec Toilet Goods Assoc. 1966 May, 45, 8-19. TOXICOLOGY.

Caskey, C. I., Berg, W. A., Anderson, N. D., Sheth, S., Chang, B. W., and Hamper, U. M. Breast implant rupture: Diagnosis with US. Radiology. 1994, 190, 81-84. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Castello, D. Prophylactic treatment of childhood asthma. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacological Research. 1986, 6, 373-378. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS.

Cathcart, R. S., and Hagerty, R. C. Preoperative and postoperative considerations in elective breast operations. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1989 Jun, 22, (6): 533-538. GENERAL.

Cavic-Vlasak, B. A., Thompson, M., and Smith, D. C. Silicones and their determination in biological matrixes. A review. Analyst. 1996, 121, (6): 53R-63R. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Celli, B., Textor, S., and Kovnat, D. M. Adult respiratory distress syndrome following mammary augmentation. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1978, 275, (1): 81-85. SILICONE INJECTION.

Centeno, J. A., and Johnson, F. B. Microscopic identification of silicone in human breast tissues by infrared microspectroscopy and x-ray microanalysis. Applied Spectroscopy. 1993 Jan, 47, (3): 341-345. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Centeno, J. A., Kalasinsky, V. F., Johnson, F. B., Vinh, T. N., and O'Leary, T. J. Fourier transform infrared microscopic identification of foreign materials in tissue sections. Laboratory Investigation. 1992, 66, (1): 123-131. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Céspedes, I., Ophir, J., and Huang, Y. On the feasibility of pulse-echo speed of sound estimation in small regions: Simulation studies. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 1992, 18, (3): 283-291. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Chan, S. C., Birdsell, D. C., and Gradeen, C. Y. Detection of toluenediamines in the urine of a patient with polyurethane-covered breast implants. Clin Chem. 1991a, 37, (5): 756-758. POLYURETHANE/TOXICOLOGY.

Chan, S. C., Birdsell, D. C., and Gradeen, C. Y. Urinary excretion of free toluenediamines in a patient with polyurethane-covered breast implants. Clinical Chemistry. 1991b, 37, (12): 2143-2145. TOXICOLOGY/polyurethane.

Chandler, M. L., and LeVier, R. R. Structure-activity relationships of diphenylsilanediol and similar silicon-containing anticonvulsants. The Pharmacologist. 1977. TOXICOLOGY.

Chandra, G., Lo, P. Y., Hitchcock, P. B., and Lappert, M. F. A convenient and novel route to bis(n-alkyne)platinum(0) and other platinum(0) complexes from Speler's hydrosilylation catalyst H2[PtCl6] × H2O. X-ray structure of [Pt{(n-CH2==CHSiMe2)20}(P-t-Bu3)]. Organometrallics. 1987, 6, 191-192. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Chang, L., Caldwell, E., Reading, G., and Wray, Jr. R. C. A comparison of conventional and low-bleed implants in augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Jan, 89, (1): 79-92. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Chang, Y. Adjuvanticity and arthritogenecity of silicone. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Sep, 92, (3): 469-473. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Chang, Y. H., Pearson, C. M., and Abe, C. IV induction by a synthetic adjuvant: immunologic, histopathologic, and other studies. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1980 Jan, 23, (1): 62-71. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Chantelau, E. A., Berger, M., and Bohlken, B. Silicone oil released from disposable insulin syringes. Diabetes Care. 1986 Nov, 9, (6): 672-673. GENERAL/silicon measurement.

Chaplin, C. H. Loss of both breasts from injections of silicone (with additive). Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1969 Nov, 44, (5): 447-450. SILICONE INJECTION/silicon measurement.

Chase, D. R., Oberg, C. K., Chase, R. L., Malott, L. R., and Weeks, D. A. Pseudoepithelialization of breast implant capsules. International Journal of Surgical Pathology. 1994a, 1, (3): 151-154. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Chase, D. R., Oberg, K. C., Cahse, R. L., Malott, R. L., and Weeks, D. A. Tissue reactions to mammary implants: a capsule summary. Advances in Anatomic Pathology. 1995, 2, (1): 24-27. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Chastre, J., Basset, F., Viau, F., Dournovo, P., Bouchama, A., Akesbi, A., and Gilbert, C. Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone in transsexual men. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1983a Mar 31, 308, (13): 764-767. SILICONE INJECTION.

Chastre, J., Brun, P., and Soler, P. et al. Acute and latent pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone in transexual men. Am. J. Respir. Dis. 1987, 135, 236-240. SILICONE INJECTION.

Chen, F. Induction of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase MRNA by silica and lipopolysaccharide in pma-primed thp-1 cells. APMIS. 1996 Jan, 104, 176-182. SILICA.

Chen, N. T., Butler, P., Hooper, D., and May, J. Bacterial growth in saline implants: In vitro and in vivo studies. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Apr, 36, (4): 337-341. INFECTION.

Chen, T. H. Silicone injection granulomas of the breast: Treatment by subcutaneous mastectomy and immediate subpectoral breast implant. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1995, 48, 71-76. SILICONE INJECTION/granulomas.

Chen, Y. M., Lu, C. C., and Perng, R. P. Silicone fluid-induced pulmonary embolism. American Review of Respiratory Diseases. 1993, 147, 1299-1302. SILICONE INJECTION.

Cherup, L. L., Antaki, J. F., Liang, M. D., and Hamas, R. S. Measurement of capsular contracture: The conventional breast implant and the Pittsburgh implant. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery. 1989 Dec, 84, (6): 893-901. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline.

Cheung, K. L., Blarney, R. W., Robertson, J. F., Elston, C. W., and Ellis, I. O. Subcutaneous mastectomy for primary breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. European Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1997 Aug, 23, (4): 343-347. CANCER.

Chilcote, W. A., Dowden, R. V., Paushter, D. M., Hale, J. C., Desberg, A. L., Singer, A. A., Obuchowski, N., and Godec, K. Ultrasound detection of silicone gel breast implant failure: A prospective analysis. Breast Disease. 1994 Jan, 7, 307-316. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Child, G. P., Paquin, H. O., and Deichman, W. B. Chronic toxicity of the methylpolysiloxane DC antifoam A in dogs. AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene Occupational Medicine. 1951, 3, (5): 479-482. TOXICOLOGY.

Chinn, J. A., Posso, S. E., Horbett, T. A., and Ratner, B. D. Postadsorptive transitions in fibrinogen adsorbed to polyurethanes: Changes in antibody binding and sodium dodecyl sulfate elutability. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1992, 26, 757-778. TOXICOLOGY.

Chisholm, E. M., Marr, S., Macfie, J., Broughton, A. C., and Brennan, T. G. Post-mastectomy breast reconstruction using the inflatable tissue expander. British Journal of Surgery. 1986, 73, 817-820. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Cho, S-B, Nakanishi, K., Kokubo, T., Soga, N., Ohtsuki, C., and Nakamura, T. Apatite formation on silica gel in simulated body fluid: Its dependence on structures of silica gels prepared in different media. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1996 Jan, 33, 145-151. CALCIFICATION/local complications/silica.

Choi, Y., Kotzin, B., Herron, L., Callahan, J., Marrack, P., and Kappler, J. Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus toxin "superantigens" with human T cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1989, 86, 8941-8945. IMMUNE EFFECTS/infection/ local complications.

Christ, J., and Askew, J. Silicone granuloma of the penis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Feb, 69, (2): 337-339. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Christie, A. J., Pierret, and Levitan. Silicone Synovitis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1989, 19, 3. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Chu, F. C. H., Kaufmann, T. P., Dawson, G. A., and et al. Radiation therapy of cancer in prosthetically augmented or reconstructed breasts. Radiology. 1992, 185, 429-433. RADIATION.

Chung, K. C., Wilkins, E. G., Beil, R. J., Helvie, M. A., Ikeda, D. M., Oneal, R. M., Forrest, M. E., and Smith, Jr. D. J. Diagnosis of silicone gel breast implant rupture by ultrasonography. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Jan, 97, (1): 104-109. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Chung, Y-H., and Shong, Y. K. Development of thyroid autoimmunity after administration of recombinant human interferon-2b for chronic viral hepatitis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1993, 88, (2): 244-247. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Ciapetti, G., Cenni, E., Pratelli, L., and Pizzoferrato, A. In vitro evaluation of cell/biomaterial interaction by mtt assay. Biomaterials. 1993, 14, (5): 359-364. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ toxicology.

Ciapetti, G., Gradnhi, D., Stea, S., Cenni, E., Schiavon, P., Giallani, R., and Pizzoferrato, A. Assessement of viability and proliferation of in vivo silicone-primed lymphocytes after in vitro re-exposure to silicone. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1995, 29, 583-590. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Ciatto, S., Del Turco, M. R., Bonardi, R., Cataliotti, L., Distante, V., Cardona, G., and Bianchi, S. Nonpalpable lesions of the breast detected by mammography: Review of the 1182 consecutive histologically confirmed cases. European Journal of Cancer. 1994, 30A, (1): 40-44. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Citro, G., Galati, R., Verdina, A., Marini, S., Zito, R., and Giardina, B. Activation of 2,4-diaminotoluene to proximate carcinogens in vitro, and assay of DNA adducts. Xenobiotica. 1993, 23, (3): 317-325. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Claman, H. N., and Robertson, A. D. Antinuclear antibodies and breast implants. Western Journal of Medicine. 1994 Mar, 160, (3): 225-228. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Clark, P., Garbe, E., Habbick, B., Lawrence, V., and Spitzer, W. O. Question on breast-Implants study. Lancet. 1998 May 2, 351, 1358-1359. GENERAL.

Clark, P., Peters, G. N., and O'Brien, K. M. Cancer in the augmented breast. Cancer. 1993 Oct 1, 72, (7): 2170-2174. CANCER/mammography.

Clauw, D. J. The pathogenesis of chronic pain and fatigue syndromes, with special reference to fibromyalgia. Medical Hypotheses. 1995, 44, 369-378. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Clauw, D. J., Schmidt, M., Radulovic, D., Singer, A., Katz, P., and Bresette, J. The relationship between fibromyalgia and interstitial cystitis. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 1997, 31, (1): 125-131. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Cleare, M. J., Hughes, E.G., Jacoby, B., and Pepys, J. Immediate (type I) allergic responses to platinum compounds. Clinical Allergy. 1976, 6, 183-195. PLATINUM.

Clegg, D. O., Williams, H. J., Singer, J. Z., Steen, V. D., Schlegel, S., Ziminski, C., Alarcón, G. S., Luggen, M. E., Polisson, R. P., Willkens, R. F., Yarboro, C., McDuffie, F. C., and Ward, J. R. Early undifferentiated connective tissue disease: II. The frequency of circulating antinuclear antibodies in patients with early rheumatic diseases. Journal of Rheumatology. 1991, 18, (9): 1340-1343. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Clegg, H. W., Bertagnoll, P., Hightower, A. W., and Baine, W. B. Mammaplasty-associated mycobacterial infection: A survey of plastic surgeons. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983b Aug, 72, 165-169. INFECTION/local complications.

Clegg, H. W., Foster, M. T., Sanders, W. E., and Baine, W. B. Infection due to organisms of the Mycobacteriurn fortuitum complex after augmentation mammaplasty: Clinical and epidemiologic features. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1983a Mar, 147, (3): 427. INFECTION/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Clugston, P. A., Perry, L. C., Hammond, D. C., and Maxwell, G. P. A rat model for capsular contracture: The effects of surface texturing. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Dec, 33, (6): 595-599. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Coady, M. S., Gaylor, J., and Knight, S. L. Fungal growth within a silicone tissue expander: Case report. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1995, 48, (6): 428-430. EXPANDER/ infection/local complications.

Cocke, Jr. W. M. A critical review of augmentation mammoplasty with saline-filled prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Mar, 32, (3): 266. SALINE/local complications/ rupture.

Cocke, Jr. W. M. Inflammation and Silicone Prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984, 74, (2): 314. GENERAL.

Cocke, Jr. W. M., and Sampson, H. Silicone bleed associated with double-lumen breast prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1987 Jun, 18, (6): 524-526. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Cocke, Jr. W. M., Sampson, H. W., and Quarles, J. M. Observations of cell function and morphology in the presence of silicone gel: An in vitro study. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1987 Nov, 19, (5): 406-408. TOXICOLOGY.

Cocke, Jr. W. M., Whie, R., Vecchione, T. R., and Sampson, W. Calcified capsule following augmentation mammoplasty. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1985 Jul, 15, (1): 61-65. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Cocke, W. M., Leathers, H. K., and Lynch, J. B. Foreign body reactions to polyurethane covers of some breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1975 Nov, 56, (5): 527-530. POLYURETHANE/migration/local complications.

Cohen, B. E., Biggs, T. M., Cronin, E. D., Collins, Jr., and D.R. Assessment and longevity of the silicone gel breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 May, 99, (6): 1597-1601. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/mammography.

Cohen, B. E., Casso, D., and Whetstone, M. Analysis of risks and aesthetics in a consecutive series of tissue expansion breast reconstructions. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992, 89, 840-843. GENERAL.

Cohen, D. E., Kaufman, L. D., Varma, A. A., Seibold, J. R., Stiller, M., and Gruber, B. L. Antilaminin autoantibodies in collagen vascular diseases: The use of adequate controls in studies of autoimmune responses to laminin. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 1994, 53, 191-193. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Cohen, I. K., and Carrico, T. J. Capsular contracture and steroid-related complications in augmentation mammoplasty. Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 1980, 4, 267. STEROIDS/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Cohen, I. K., Diegelmann, R. F., and Wise, W. S. Biomaterials and collagen synthesis. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1976, 10, (6): 965-970. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Cohen, I. K., Goodman, H., and Theogaraj, S. D. Xeromammography—A reason for using saline-filled breast prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Dec, 59, (12): 886-888. MAMMOGRAPHY/saline.

Cohen, S. B., and Rohrich, R. J. Evaluation of the patient with silicone gel breast implants and rheumatic complaints. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Jul, 94, (1): 120-125. IMMUNE EFFECTS/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Cohney, B. C., Cohney, T. B., and Hearne, V. A. Augmentation mammoplasty—A further review of 20 years using the polyuretheane-covered prosthesis. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 1992, 1, (3): 269-279. POLYURETHANE/local complications/rupture/capsule-contracture/migration.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Cohney, B. C., Cohney, T. B., and Hearne, V. A. Nineteen years' experience with polyurethane foam-covered mammary prosthesis: A preliminary report. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1991, 27, (1): 27-30. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Cohney, B. C., and Mitchell, S. R. N. An improved method of removing polyurethane. Aesth. Plast. Surg. 1997, 21, 191-192. POLYURETHANE.

Cole-Beuglet, C., Schwartz, G., Kurtz, A. B., Patchefsky, A. S., and Goldberg, B. B. Ultrasound mammography for the augmented breast. Radiology. 1983, 146, (3): 737-742. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Coleman, D. J., Foo, I. T, and Sharpe, D. T. Textured or smooth implants for breast augmentation? A prospective controlled trial. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1991, 44, (6): 444-448. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Coleman, D. L., King, R. N., and Andrade, J. D. The foreign body reaction: A chronic inflammatory response. J Biomed Mater Res. 1974, 8, 199-211. GENERAL.

Coleman, E. A., Lemon, S. J., Rudick, J., Depuy, R. S., Feuer, E., and Edwards, B. Rheumatic disease among 1167 women reporting local implant and systemic problems after breast implant surgery. Journal of Women's Health. 1994 Nov, 8, (3): 165. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Collins, J. D., Shaver, M. L., Disher, A. C., and Miller, T. Q. Compromising abnormalities of the brachial plexus as displayed by magnetic resonance imaging. Clin. Anat. 1995, 8, (1-16). NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Collis, N., and Sharpe, D. T. Breast implant controversy: an update. The Breast. 1998, 7, 61-65. GENERAL.

Coilis, N., and Sharpe, D. T. Breast implants: a survey of cosmetic clinics. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1998, 51, 311-312. GENERAL.

Coilis, N., and Sharpe, D. T. Rupture of silicone-gel breast implants. The Lancet. 1998, 351, 520. RUPTURE/local complications.

Colon, G. A. Infection after augmentation mammaplasty [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Sep, 78, (3): 424-425. INFECTION/local complications.

Colon, G. A. Mammoscopy and endoscopic implant and breast tissue evaluation. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1995 Oct, 22, (4): 697-706. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/rupture.

Colon GA. The reverse double-lumen prothesis—a preliminary report. Ann Plast Surg. 1982 Oct, 9, (4): 293-297. EXPANDER.

Compton, R. A. Silicone manufacturing for long-term implants. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 1997, 7, (1): 29-54. TOXICOLOGY/silicone characterization/silica.

Comunale, S., Troiano, L., and Napolita. Augmentation mammaplasty with silicone-gel-filled implants—It's effect on mammography. The Breast Journal. 1997, 6, (5): 318. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Conant, E. F., Forsberg, F., Moore, Jr. J. H., Piccoli, C. W., Rawool, N., Greer, J., and Fox, J. W. Surgical removal of ruptured breast implants: The use of intraoperative sonography in localizing free silicone. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1995 Dec, 165, 1378-1379. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Connell, E. B. The exploitation of autoimmune disease: Breast implant litigation and its dire implications for women's health. Journal of Women's Health. 1998, 7, (3): 329-338. GENERAL.

Conway, B. J., McCrohan, J. L., Rueter, F. G., and Suleiman, O. H. Mammography in the eighties. Radiology. 1990, 177, 335-339. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Conway, H., and Dietz, G. Augmentation mammaplasty. Surgery Gyn Obstetrics. 1962, 114, 573-579. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Conway, H., and Goulian, D. Experience with an injectable silastic RTV as a subcutaneous prosthetic material, a preliminary report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1963 Sep, 32, (3): 294-302. SILICONE INJECTION.

Cook, L. S., Daling, J. R., Voigt, L. F., deHart, P. M., Malone, K. E., Stanford, J. L., Weiss, N. S., Brinton, L. A., Gammon, M. D., and Brogan, D. Characteristics of women with and without breast augmentation. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1997 May 28, 277, (20): 1612-1617. GENERAL/psychosocial.

Cook, P. D., Osborne, B. M., Connor, R. L., and Strauss, J. F. Follicular lymphoma adjacent to foreign body granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis surrounding silicone breast prosthesis. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 1995 Jun, 19, (6): 712-717. CANCER.

Cook, R. R., Delongchamp, R. R., Woodbury, M., Perkins, L. L., and Harrison, M. C. The prevalence of women with breast implants in the United States. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 519-525. PREVALENCE.

Cook, R. R., Harrison, M. C., and LeVier, R. R. The breast implant controversy. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Feb, 37, (2): 153-157. GENERAL.

Cook, R. R., and Klein, P. J. Epidemiology and causation: The breast implant controversy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998, 102, (3): 921-923. GENERAL.

Cooper, G. G., Webster, M. H., Bell, G., and et al. The results of breast reconstruction following mastectomy. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1984, 37, 369-372. INFECTION/ local complications/capsule-contracture/reconstruction.

Copeland, M., Choi, M., and Bleiweiss, M. Silicone breakdown and capsular synovial metaplasia in textured-wall saline breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Oct, 94, (5): 628-633. SALINE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Copeland, M., Kressel, A., Spiera, H., Hermann, G., and Bleiweiss, I. J. Systemic inflammatory disorder related to fibrous breast capsules after silicone implant removal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Nov, 92, (6): 1179-1181. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Corsico, D. N., Diena, A., and Rosselli Del Turco, B. Pharmacological evaluation on some silicon compounds. 1971 Jun 25. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Corsten, L. A., Suduikis, S. V., and Donegan, W. L. Patient satisfaction with breast reconstruction. Wisconsin Medical Journal. 1992 Mar, 91, (3): 125-126. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Coulaud, J. M., Labrousse, J., Carli, P., Galliot, M., Vilde, F., and Lissac, J. Adult respiratory distress syndrome and silicone injection. Toxicological European Research. 1983 Jul, 34, 171-174. SILICONE INJECTION.

Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. Silicone gel breast implants. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1993 Dec 1, 270, (21): 2602-2606. GENERAL.

Courtiss, E. H., and Goldwyn, R. M. Breast sensation before and after plastic surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976 Jul, 58, (1): 1-13. SENSATION/local complications.

Courtiss, E. H., Goldwyn, R. M., and Anastasi, G. W. The fate of breast implants with infections around them. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Jun, 63, (6): 812-816. INFECTION/ granulomas/local complications.

Courtiss, E. H., Webster, R. C., and White, M. F. Selection of alternatives in augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974 Nov, 54, (5): 552-557. GENERAL.

Coury, A. J., Slaikeu, P. C. Calahan P. T., and Stokes, K. B. Medical applications of implant-able polyurethanes: Current issues. Progress in Rubber and Plastics Technology. 1987, 3, (4): 24-37. POLYURETHANE.

Cowie, R. L. Silica dust-exposed mine workers with scleroderma. Chest. 1987 Aug, 92, (2): 260-262. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/silica.

Cowie, R. L., and Dansey, R. D. Features of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in South African goldminers. South African Medical Journal. 1990 Apr, 77, (8): 400-402. SILICA.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Crespo, L. D., Eberlein, T. J., O'Connor, N., Hergrueter, C. A., Pribaz, J. J., and Eriksson, E. Postmastectomy complications in breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 May, 32, (5): 452-456. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/reconstruction.

Crews, H. M. A decade of ICP-MS analysis. American Laboratory. 1993 Mar, 25, 34AA-34DD. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Crisp, A., de Juan, Jr. E., and Tiedeman, J. Effect of silicone oil viscosity on emulsification. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1987 Apr, 105, 546-550. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Crofford, L. J., and Demitrack, M. A. Evidence that abnormalities of central neurohormonal systems are key to understanding fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 1996 May, 22, (2): 267-284. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Croft, P., Rigby, A. S., Boswell, R., Schollum, J., and Silman, A. The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population. J. Rheumatol. 1993, 20, (4): 710-713. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Croft, P., Schollum, M., and Silman, A. Population study of tender point counts in pain as evidence of fibromyalgia. British Medical Journal. 1994, 309, 696-699. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Cronin, T. D., and Greenberg, R. L. Our experiences with the silastic gel breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1970 Jun, 46, (1): 1-7. GENERAL/local complications.

Cruz, G., Gillooley, J. F., and Waxman, M. Silicone granulomas of the breast. New York State Journal of Medicine. 1985 Oct, 85, (10): 599-601. SILICONE INJECTION.

Cucin, R. L., Guthrie, R. H., and Graham, M. Rate of diffusion of Solo-Medrol across the silastic membranes of breast prostheses—an in vitro study. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1982, 9, 228-229. STEROIDS.

Cuddihy, E. F., Moacanin, J., and Roschke, E. J. In vivo degradation of silicone rubber poppets in prosthetic heart valves. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1976, 10, 471-481. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Cuéllar, M. L., Gluck, I., Molina, J. F., Gutierrez, S., García, C., and Espinoza, R. Silicone breast implant-associated musculoskeletal manifestations. Clinical Rheumatology. 1995a, 14, (6): 667-672. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Cuéllar, M. L., Scopelitis, E., Tenenbaum, S. A., Garry, R. F., Silveira, L. H., Cabrera, G., and Espinoza, L. R. Serum antinuclear antibodies in women with silicone breast implants. J. Rheumatol. 1995b, 22, (2): 236-240. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Cukier, J., Beauchamp, R. A., Spindler, J. S., Spindler, S., Lorenzo, C., and Trentham, D. E. Association between bovine collagen dermal implants and a dermatomyositis or a polymyositis-like M30467 syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1993 Jun 15, 118, (12): 920-928. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Cumming, R., and Klineberg, R. Breastfeeding and other reproductive factors and the risk of hip fractures in elderly women. International J. Epidemiology. 1993, 22, 684-691. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Curz-Korchin, N. I. Effectiveness of silicone sheets in the prevention of hypertrophic breast scars. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996, 37, (4): 345-349. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Cutler, M. G., Collings, A. J., Kiss, I. S., and Sharratt, M. A lifespan study of polydimethylsiloxane in the mouse. Food and Cosmetic Toxicology. 1974, 12, 443-450. TOXICOLOGY.

Czerny, V. Plasticher Ersatz der Brust-druese durch ein Lipom. Zentrallbl. Chir. 1895, 27, 72. RECONSTRUCTION.

Dahl, C. H., Baccari, M. E., and Arfai, P. A silicone gel inflatable mammary prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974, 53, (2): 234-235. INFECTION/EXPANDER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Dalakis, M. C. Polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion-body myositis. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1991 Nov 21, 325, (21): 1487-1498. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Dale, P. S., and Wardlaw, J. C. Desmoid tumor occurring after reconstruction mammaplasty for breast carcinoma. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Nov, 35, (5): 515-518. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Dalinka, M. K., Rockett, J. F., and Kurth, R. J. Carcinoma of the breast following mastectomy and mammoplasty. Radiology. 1969 Oct, 93, 914. CANCER.

Dalton, E. W., Silverstein, P., and Kelly, J. M. Subcutaneous mastectomy by extended periareolar incisions. American Journal of Surgery. 1978 Dec, 136, 719-721. RECONSTRUCTION.

Darby, T. D., Johnson, H. J., and Northup, S. J. An evaluation of a polyurethane for use as a medical grade plastic. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1978, 46, 449-453. CARCINOGENICITY/polyurethane.

Das, S. K., Johnson, M., Ellsaesser, C., and et al. Macrophage interleukin 1 response to injected silicone in a rat model. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992 Jun, 28, (6): 535-537. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Das, S. K., Johnson, S. G., Brantley, S. K., and Johnson, M. The effects of injected silicone on DNA lymphocytic structure. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 1992, 1, (3): 285-291. SILICONE INJECTION/immune effects.

Dauber, J. H., Rossman, M. D., Pietra, G. G., Jimenez, S. A., and Daniele, R. P. Experimental silicosis: Morphologic and biochemical abnormalities produced by instillation of quartz into guinea pig lungs. American Journal of Pathology. 1980 Dec, 101, (3): 595-612. SILICA.

Davis, P. K., and Jones, S. M. The complications of silastic implants. Experience with 137 consecutive cases. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1971, 24, 405-411. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

De Angelis, G. A., de Lange, E. E., Miller, L. R., and Morgan, R. F. MR imaging of breast implants. Radiographics. 1994, 14, 783. MAMMOGRAPHY.

De Blecourt, R. A., and et al. Capsular contracture after augmentation mammaplasty—a retrospective study. Eur. J. Plast. Surg. 1989, 12, 83-86. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/ local complications.

De Bruhl, N. D., Gorczyca, D. P., Ahn, C. Y., Shaw, W. W., and Bassett, L. W. Silicone breast implants: US evaluation. Radiology. 1993, 189, 95-98. MAMMOGRAPHY.

De Camara, D. L., Sheridan, J. M., and Kammer, B. A. Rupture and aging of silicone gel breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Apr, 91, (5): 828-834. RUPTURE/local complications.

De Cholnoky, T. Augmentation mammaplasty: Survey of complication in 10,941 patients by 265 surgeons. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1970, 45, 573-577. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

De Fife, K. M., Jenney, C. R., McNally, A. K., Colton, E., and Anderson, J. M. Interleukin-13 induces human monocyte/macrophage fusion and macrophage mannose receptor expression. The Journal of Immunology. 1997, 158, 3385-3390. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

De Loach, E. D., Lord, S. A., and Ruf, L. E. Unilateral galactocele following augmentation mammoplasty. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994, 33, (1): 68-71. BREAST FEEDING/ local complications.

De Lorenzi, E., Massolini, G., Macchia, M., and Caccialanza, G. HPLC determination of urinary 2,4- and 2,6-toluendiamines as potential degradation products of polyurethane breast implants. Chromatographia. 1995 Dec, 41, (11-12): 661-664. TOXICOLOGY/ POLYURETHANE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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De Lustro, F., Fries, J., Kang, A., Katz, S., Kaye, R., and Reichlin, M. Immunity to injectable collagen and autoimmune disease: A summary of current understanding. Journal of Dermatology and Surgical Oncology. 1988, 14, (7 (Supplement 1)): 57-65. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

De Nicola, R. R. Permanent artifical (silicone) uretha. The Journal of Urology. 1950 Jan, 63, (1): 168-172. GENERAL.

De Saxe, B. M. Breast augmentation. Results in a series of 150 cases. South African Medical Journal. 1974, 48, 737-740. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

De Vlam, K., De Keyser, F., Verbruggen, G., Vandenbossche, M., Vanneuville, B., D'Hasese, D., and Veys, E. M. Detection and identification of antinuclear antibodies in the serum of normal blood donors. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 1993, 11, 393-397. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Dean, C., Chetty, U., and Forrest, A. P. M. Effects of immediate breast reconstruction on psychosocial morbidity after mastectomy. The Lancet. 1983 Feb 6, 1, 459-462. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Deapen, D. M., Bernstein, L., and Brody, G. S. Are breast implants anticarcinogenic? A 14-year follow-up of the Los Angeles study. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1997 Apr, 99, (5): 1346-1353. CANCER.

Deapen, D. M., and Brody, G. S. Augmentation mammaplasty and breast cancer: A five year update of the Los Angeles study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992, 89, (4): 660-665. CANCER.

Deapen, D. M., and Brody, G. S. Augmentation mammaplasty and breast cancer: A five year update of the Los Angeles study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 551-556. CANCER.

Deapen, D. M., Pike, M. C., Casagrande, J. T., and Brody, G. S. The relationship between breast cancer and augmentation mammaplasty: An epidemiologic study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Mar, 77, (3): 361-367. CANCER.

Decorato, D. Derogatis A. J. Prominent gallium uptake associated with silicone implants in an asymptomatic patient. Clinical Nuclear Medicine. 1994 Dec, 19, (12): 1107-1108. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Degiarmis, D., Seibold, J., Czarnecki, M., Raskova, J., and Raska, K. Soluble interleukin-2 receptors in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1990 Mar, 33, (3): 375-380. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Del Junco, D. More breast implant pros and cons. Contractures and confounding: The controversy continues. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1997 May 28, 277, (20): 1643-1644. GENERAL.

Del Rosario, A. D., Bui, H. X., Pastore, J., Singh, J., and Ross, J. S. True synovial metaplasia of breast implant capsules: A light and electron microscopic study. Ultrastructural Pathology. 1995 Jan 1, 19, 83-93. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Delclos, K. B., Blaydes, B., Heflich, R. H., and Smith, B. A. Assessment of DNA adducts and the frequency of 6-thioguanine resistant T-lymphocytes in F344 rats fed 2,4-toluenediamine or implanted with a toluenediisocyanate-containing polyester polyurethane foam. Mutation Research. 1996, 367, 209-218. TOXICOLOGY/Polyurethane.

Dellon, A. L., Cowley, R. A., and Hoopes, J. E. Blunt chest trauma: Evaluation of the augmented breast. The Journal of Trauma. 1980, 20, (11): 982-985. RUPTURE/local complications.

Dempsey, W. C., and Latham, W. D. Subpectoral implants in augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1968, 42, 515. RECONSTRUCTION.

Dempsey, W. C., and Latham, W. D. Subpectoral implants in augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977, 60, 325. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Den Braber, E. T., de Ruijter, and Jansen, J. A. The effect of a subcutaneous silicone rubber implant with shallow surface microgrooves on the surrounding tissues in rabbits. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997 Dec, 37, (4): 539-547. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Derby, K. A., Frankel, S. D., Kaufman, L., Kramer, D., Carlson, J., Miniyeve, M., Occhipinti, K, and Friedenthal, R. Differentiation of silicone gel from water and fat in MR phase imaging of protons at 0.064 T. Radiology. 1993 Nov, 189, (2): 617-620. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Derby, L. D., Sinow, J. D., Bowers, L. D., and Cunningham, B. Quantitative analysis of lidocaine HCI delivery by diffusion across tissue expander membranes. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992, 89, (5): 900-907. PAIN/expander.

DerHagopian, R. P., Zaworski, R. E., Sugarbaker, E. V., and Ketcham, A. S. Management of locally recurrent breast cancer adjacent to prosthetic implants. The American Journal of Surgery. 1981 May, 141, 590-592. CANCER.

Derman, G. H., Argenta, L. C., and Grabb, W. C. Delayed extrusion of inflatable breast prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1983 Feb, 10, (2): 154-158. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Dershaw, D. D. Evaluation of the breast undergoing lumpectomy and radiation therapy. Radiologic Clinics of North America. 1995 Nov, 33, (6): 1147-1160. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Dershaw, D. D., and Chaglassian, T. A. Mammography after prosthesis placement for augmentation or reconstructive mammoplasty. Radiology. 1989, 170, 69-74. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Destouet, J. M., Monsees, B. S., Oser, R. F., Nemecek, J. R., Young, V. L., and Pilgram, T. K. Screening mammography in 350 women with breast implants: prevalence and findings of implant complications. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1992 Nov, 159, 973-978. RUPTURE/capsule-contracture/mammography/local complications.

Devor, D. E., Waalkes, M. P., Goering, P., and Rehm, S. Development of an animal model for testing human breast implantation materials. Toxicologic Pathology. 1993, 21, (3): 261-273. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

Di Lorenzo, G., Mansueto, P., Melluso, M., Sangiorgi, G., Cigna, D., Candore, G., and Caruso, C. Morphea after silicone gel breast implantation for cosmetic reasons in an HLA-B8, DR3-positive woman. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1997, 112, 93-95. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Dick, A. C., Deans GT, Johnston L, and Spence RAJ. Ruptured silicone breast implant: A misleading chest X-ray. Ulster Med J. 1994, 63, (2): 238-240. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Dickson, M. G., and Sharpe, D. T. The complications of tissue expansion in breast reconstruction: A review of 75 cases. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1987, 40, 629-635. EXPANDER/local complications.

Dillon, J. G., and Hughes, M. K. Degradation of five polyurethane gastric bubbles following in vivo use: SEC, ATR-IR and DSC studies. Biomaterials. 1992, 13, (4): 240-248. POLYURETHANE.

Dinner, M. I., Labandter, H. P., and Dowden, R. V. The role of the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in breast reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1982 Feb, 69, (2): 209-214. RECONSTRUCTION.

Dobbie, J. W., and Smith, M. J. B. Silicate nephrotoxicity in the experimental animal: The missing factor in analgesic nephropathy. Scottish Medical Journal. 1982b, 27, 10-16. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Dobbie, J. W., and Smith, M. J. B. The silicon content of body fluids. Scottish Medical Journal. 1982a, 27, 17-19. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Dobke, M. K., Grzybowski, J., Stein, P., and et al. Fibroblast behavior in vitro is unaltered by products of staphylococcal cultured from silicone implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Feb, 32, (2): 118-125. INFECTION/local complications.

Dobke, M. K., and Middleton, M. S. Clinical impact of breast implant magnetic resonance imaging. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Sep, 33, (3): 241-246. MAMMOGRAPHY/ local complications.

Dobke, M. K., Svahn, J. K., Vastine, V. L., Landon, B. N., Stein, P. C., and Parsons, C. L. Characterization of microbial presence at the surface of silicone mammary implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Jun, 34, (6): 563. INFECTION/capsule contracture.

Dodd, L. G., Sneige, N., Reece, G. P., and Fornage, B. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of silicone granulomas in the augmented breast. Diagnostic Cytopathology. 1993, 9, (5): 498-502. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Dolezel, B., Adamírová, L., Vondrácek, P., and Náprstek, Z. In vivo degradation of polymers. Biomaterials. 1989 Aug, 10, 387-392. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Dolsky, R. L. Inserting the Même prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Mar, 73, (3): 466-468. POLYURETHANE.

Domanskis, E. J., and Owsley, J. Q. Histological investigation of the etiology of capsule contracture following augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976 Dec, 58, (6): 689-693. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Donahue, S. P., Friberg, T. R., and Johnson, B. L. Intraconjunctival cavitary inclusions of silicone oil complicating retinal detachment repair. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1992 Nov, 114, (5): 639-640. GENERAL.

Dong, D. E., Andrade, J. D., and Coleman, D. L. Adsorption of low density lipoproteins onto selected biomedical polymers. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1987 Jun, 21, (6): 683-700. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Dorfman, R. F., and Berry G.J. Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis: An analysis of 108 cases with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology. 1988 Nov, 5, (4): 329-345. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Dorne, L., Alikacem, N., Guidoin, R., and Auger, M. High resolution solid-state 29Si NMR spectroscopy of silicone gels used to fill breast prostheses. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 1995, 34, (4): 548-554. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Dorne, L., Stroman, P., Rolland, C., Auger, M., Alikacem, N., Bronskill, M., Grondin, P., King, M., and Guidoin, R. Magnetic resonance study of virgin and explanted silicone breast prostheses. Can proton relaxation times be used to monitor their biostability? ASAIO J. 1994, 40, (3): M625-M631. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/MAMMOGRAPHY.

Dougherty, S. H. Pathobiology of infection in prosthetic devices. Reviews of infectious diseases. 1988 Nov-1988 Dec 31, 10, (6): 1102-1117. INFECTION/local complications.

Douglas, K. P., Bluth, E. I., Sauter, E. R., McKinnon, W. M., Bergeron, R. B., Merritt, C. R. B., and Finley, J. M. Roentgenographic evaluation of the augmented breast. Southern Medical Journal. 1991 Jan, 84, (1): 49-51. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Dowden, R. V. Detection of gel implant rupture: A clinical test. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Mar, 91, (3): 548-550. RUPTURE/local complications.

Dowden, R. V. Mammography after implant breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Jul, 96, (1): 119-121. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Dowden, R. V. Periprosthetic bacteria and the breast implant patient with systemic symptoms. J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Aug, 94, (2): 300-305. INFECTION/local complications/connective tissue disease/immune effects.

Dowden, R. V., and Anain, S. Endoscopic implant evaluation and capsulotomy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Feb, 91, (2): 283-287. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Dowden, R. V., Blanchard, J. M., and Greenstreet, R. L. Breast reconstruction: Selection, timing and local recurrence. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1983 Apr, 10, (4): 265-269. RECONSTRUCTION.

Drake, D. B., Miller, L., Janus, C. L., DeLange, E. E., and Morgan, R. F. Magnetic resonance imaging of in situ mammary prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Sep, 33, (3): 258-262. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Dreyfuss, D. A., Singh, S., Dowlatshahi, K., and Krizek, T. J. Silicone implants as an anticarcinogen. Surg. Forum. 1987, 38, 587-589. CARCINOGENICITY.

Duffield, F. V. P., Yoakum, A., Bumgarner, J., and Moran, J. Determination of human body burden baseline data of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1976, 15, 131-134. PLATINUM.

Duffy, D. M. Silicone: a critical review. Adv Dermatol. 1990, 5, 93-110. SILICONE INJECTION.

Duffy, Jr. F. J., and May, J. W. Tissue expanders and magnetic resonance imaging: The hot breast implant. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Dec, 35, (6): 647-649. MAMMOGRAPHY/expander.

Duffy, M. J., and Woods, J. E. Health risks of failed silicone gel breast implants: A 30-year clinical experience. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Aug, 94, (2): 295-299. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/local complications.

Dugowson, C. E., Koepsell, T. D., Voigt, L. F., Bley, L., Nelson, J. L., and Daling, J. R. Rheumatoid arthritis in women: Incidence rates in group health cooperative, Seattle, Washington, 1987-1989. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1991 Dec, 34, (12): 1502-1507. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Duigan, G. E. Solicitation of implant patients. Medical Journal of Australia. 1994, 160, (11): 732. GENERAL.

Dumble, L. J. Dismissing the evidence: The medical response to women with silicone implant-related disorders. Health Care for Women International. 1996, 17, (6): 515-525. GENERAL.

Duna, G. F., and Wilke, W. S. Diagnosis, etiology, and therapy of fibromyalgia. Comprehensive therapy. 1993, 19, (2): 60-63. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Dunn, K. W., Hall, P. N., and Khoo, C. T. K. Breast implant materials: Sense and safety. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 45, 315-321. IMMUNE EFFECTS/silicone characterization.

Duvic, M., Moore, D., Menter, A., and Vonderheid, E. C. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in association with silicone breast implants. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1995 Jun, 32, (6): 939-942. IMMUNE EFFECTS/cancer.

Dylewski, J. R., and Beatty, C. L. In vitro characterization of silicone bleed from breast prostheses. Soc Biomat Transact. 1984, 7, 309. RUPTURE/local complications.

Eberlein, T. J., Carespo, L. P., Smith, B. L. Hergrueter C. A., Douville, L., and Eriksson, E. Prospective evaluation of immediate reconstruction after mastectomy. Annals of Surgery. 1993 Jul, 218, (1): 29-36. RECONSTRUCTION.

Eckardt, R. E., and Hindin, R. The health hazards of plastics. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1973 Oct, 15, (10): 808-819. TOXICOLOGY.

Eckhauser, F. E., Strodel, W. E., and Girardy, J. W. Turcotte J. G. Bizarre complications of peritoneovenous shunts. Annals of Surgery. 1981 Feb, 193, (2): 180-184. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Edelman, D. A., Grant, S., and Van Os, W. A. A. Autoimmune disease following the use of silicone gel-filled breast implants: A review of the clinical literature. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Dec, 24, (3): 183-189. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Edelman, D. A., Grant, S., and van Os, W. A. A. Breast cancer risk among women using silicone gel implants. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 1995 Sep, 40, (5): 274-280. CANCER.

Edgerton, M. T., and McClary, A. R. Augmentation mammaplasty: Psychiatric implications and surgical indications. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1958 Apr, 21, (4): 279. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Edgerton, M. T., Meyer, E., and Jacobson, W. A. Augmentation mammaplasty. II. Further surgical and psychiatric evaluation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1961 Mar, 27, (3): 279-302. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Edgerton, M. T., and Wells, J. H. Indications for and pitfalls of soft tissue augmentation with liquid silicone. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976 Aug, 58, (2): 157-165. SILICONE INJECTION.

Edney, J. J. Post mastectomy breast reconstruction 1995 recent advances. Nebraska Medical Journal. 1996, 81, (3): 70-72. RECONSTRUCTION.

Edwards, B. F. Teflon-silicone breast implants. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1963 Nov, 32, (5): 519-526. GENERAL.

Edworthy, S. M., Martin, L., Barr, S. G., Birdsell, D.C., Brant, R. F., and Fritzler, M. J. A clinical study of the relationship between silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease. J. Rheumatol. 1998, 25, (2): 254-260. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Ehrlich, H. P., and Wyler, D. J. Fibroblast contraction of collagen lattices in vitro: Inhibition by chronic inflammatory cell mediators. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 1983, 116, 345-351. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Ehrlich HP and Rajaratnam JB. Cell locomotion forces versus cell contraction forces for collagen lattice contraction: an in vitro model of wound contraction. Tissue Cell. 1990, 22, (4): 407-17. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Eisenberg, D. M., Kessler, R. C., Foster, C., Norlock, F. E., Calkins, D. R., and Delbanco, T. L. Unconventional medicine in the United States: Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1993 Jan 28, 328, (4): 246-252. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Eisenberg, H. C., and Bartels, R. J. Rupture of a silicone bag-gel breast implant by closed compression capsulotomy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Jun, 59, 849-850. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/local complications/rupture.

Eisenberg, R. A., Pisetsky, D. S., Craven, S. Y., Grudier, J. P., O'Donnell, M. A., and Cohen, P. L. Regulation of the anti-Sm autoantibody response in systemic lupus erythematosus mice by monoclonal anti-Sm antibodies. J. Clin. Invest. 1990, 85, 86-92. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Eklund, G. W., Busby, R. C., Miller, S. H., and Job, J. S. Improved imaging of the augmented breast. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1988, 151, 469-473. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Eklund, G. W., and Cardenosa, G. The art of mammographic positioning. Radiological Clinics of North America. 1992, 30, 21-53. MAMMOGRAPHY.

El-Hassan, N. D., Zaworski, R. E., Castro, A., and et al. Serum prolactin levels following augmentation mammaplasty. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1981, 68, (2): 215-217. BREAST FEEDING.

El-Jammal, A., and Templeton, D. M. Measurement of platinum in biomedical silicones by ICP-MS. Analytical Proceedings Including Analytical Communications. 1995 Aug, 32, 293-295. PLATINUM/toxicology.

El-Roeiy, A., and Gleicher, N. Definition of normal autoantibody levels in an apparently healthy population. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1988 Oct, 72, (4): 596-602. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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El Yousef, S. J., O'Connell, D. M., Duchnesneau, R. H., Smith, M. J., Hubay, C. A., and Guyton, S. P. Benign and malignant breast disease: Magnetic resonance and radiofrequency pulse sequences. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1985, 145, 1-8. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Elberg, J. J., Kjøller, K. H., and Krag, C. Silicone mammary implants and connective tissue disease. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1993, 27, (4): 243-248. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Elkowitz, A., Colen, S., Slavin, S., Seibert, J., Wenstein, M., and Shaw, W. Various methods of breast reconstruction after mastectomy: An economic comparison. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1993 Jul, 92, (1): 77-83. RECONSTRUCTION.

Ellenberg, A. H. Marked thinning of the breast skin flaps after the insertion of implants containing triamcinolone. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Nov, 60, (5): 755-758. STEROIDS/ local complications.

Ellenberg, A. H., and Braun, H. A 3 1/2-year experience with double-lumen implants in breast surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 Mar, 65, (3): 307-313. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Ellenberger, P., Graham, W. P., Mandwes, E. K., and Basrab, R. M. Labeled leukocyte scans for detection of retained polyurethane foam. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Jan, 77, (1): 77-79. POLYURETHANE/infection/local complications.

Ellenbogen, R., and Rubin, L. Injectable fluid silicone therapy: Human morbidity and mortality. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1975, 234, (3): 308-309. SILICONE INJECTION/granulomas/local complications.

Elliott, L. F., Eskenazi, L., Beegle, Jr. P. H., Podres, P. E., and Drazan, L. Immediate TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1993, 294, (2): 217-227. RECONSTRUCTION.

Ellis, T. M., Hardt, N. S., and Atkinson, M. A. Antipolymer antibodies, silicone breast implants, and fibromyalgia. The Lancet. 1997a Apr 19, 349, (9059): 1170-3. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Ellis, T. M., Hardt, N. S., Campbell, L., Delmar, A., Piacentini, A., and Atkinson, M. A. Cellular immune reactivities in women with silicone breast implants: A preliminary investigation. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. 1997b Aug, 79, (2): 151-154. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Emery, J. A., Spanier, S. S., Kasnic jr., G., and Hardt, N. S. The synovial structure of breast-implant-associated bursae. Modem Pathology. 1994, 7, (7): 728-733. SALINE/capsule-contracture/local complications/calcification.

Endo, L. P., Edwards, N. L., Longley, S., Corman, L. C., and Panush, R. S. Silicone and rheumatic diseases. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1987 Nov, 17, (2): 112-118. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Enestrom, S., Bengtson, A., Lindstrom, F., and Johan, K. Attachment of IgG to dermal extra-cellular matrix in patients with fibromyalgia. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 1990, 8, 127-135. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Engel, A., Lamm, S. H., and Lai, S. H. Human breast sarcoma and human breast implantation: A time trend analysis based on SEER data (1973-1990). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 539-544. CANCER.

Englert, H. J., and Brooks, P. Scleroderma and augmentation mammoplasty—A causal relationship? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine. 1994 Feb, 24, (1): 74-80. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Englert, H. J., Howe, G. B., Penny, R., and Brooks, P. Scleroderma and silicone breast implants. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1994, 33, (4): 397-399. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Englert, H. J., Morris, D., and March, L. Scleroderma and silicone gel breast prostheses—The Sydney study revisited. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Medicine. 1996, 26, 349-355. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Epstein, S. S. Implants pose poorly recognized risks of breast cancer. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995, 4, (3): 315-342. CARCINOGENICITY.

Erdmann, M. W. H., Asplund, O., and Bahnasy, H. Transcutaneous extravasation of silicone following breast augmentation. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 45, 479-480. RUPTURE/local complications/granulomas.

Ericsson, A. D. Syndromes associated with silicone breast implants: a clinical study and review. J. Nutr. Environ. Med. 1998, 8, 35-51. GENERAL.

Eriksson, L., and Westesson, P. Deterioration of the temporary silicone implant in the temporomandibular joint: A clinical and arthroscopic follow-up study. Oral Surgery. 1986 Jul, 62, (1): 2-6. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Ersek, R. A. Molecular impact surface textured implants (MISTI) alter beneficially breast capsule formation at 36 months. J. Long Term Eff. Med. Implants. 1991a, 1, 155. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Ersek, R. A. Prostheses for breast augmentation: Progress in materials and design of these implants continues. Travis County Medical Society Journal. 1989, 35, 8. GENERAL.

Ersek, R. A. Rate and incidence of capsular contracture: A comparison of smooth and textured silicone double-lumen breast prostheses. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1991b May, 87, (5): 879-883. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Ersek, R. A., Burroughs, J. R., Ersek, C. L., and Navarro, A. Interrelationship of capsule thickness and breast hardness confirmed by a new measurement methods. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1991 Jun, 87, (6): 1069-1073. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications.

Ersek, R. A., Ersek, G. A., Ersek, C. L., and Williams, J. A new biologically osmotically and oncotically balanced gel that shows calcifications blocked by silicone. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1993, 17, 331. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Ersek, R. A., Glacs, K. L., and Navarro, J. A. Results of reaugmentation with MISTI prostheses after failure of smooth silicone prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Jan, 89, (1): 83-87. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Ersek, R. A., and Salisbury, A. V. Textured surface, nonsilicone gel breast implants: Four years' clinical outcome. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1997 Dec, 100, (7): 1729-1739. SALINE.

Ersek, R. A., and Shelton, T. O. Radiolucent gel for breast prostheses. Travis County Medical Society Journal. 1991, 37, 8. GENERAL.

Espinoza, L. R. Serum antinuclear antibodies in women with silicone breast implants. J. Rheumatol. 1995, 22, 236-240. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Evans, G. R. D., and Baldwin, B. J. From cadavers to implants: Silicon tissue assays of medical devices. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997b Nov, 100, (6): 1459-1463. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Evans, G. R. D., and Baldwin, B. J. Silicon tissue assay: A measurement of capsular levels from chemotherapeutic Port-a-Catheter devices. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997a Apr, 99, (5): 1354-1358. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Evans, G. R. D., and Baldwin, B. J. Silicon tissue assay: Are there intracapsular variations? Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Dec, 37, (6): 592-595. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Evans, G. R. D., Netscher, D. T., Schusterman, M. A., Kroll, S. S., Robb, G. L., Reece, G. P., and Miller, M. J. Silicon tissue assays: A comparison of nonaugmented cadaveric and augmented patient levels. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 May, 97, (6): 1207-1214. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Evans, G. R. D., Schusterman, M. A., Kroll, S. S., Miller, M. J., Reece, G. P., Robb, G. L., and Ainslie, N. Reconstruction and the radiated breasts: Is there a role for implants? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Oct, 96, (5): 1111-1118. RADIATION/reconstruction.

Evans, G. R. D., Slezak, S., Rieters, M., and Bercowry, G. M. Silicon tissue assays in non-augmented cadaveric patients: Is there a baseline level? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 May, 93, (6): 1117—1122. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Evans, R. C. Effect of vancomycin hydrochloride on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm associated with silicone elastomer. Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy. 1987 Jun, 31, 889-894. INFECTION/local complications.

Everson, L. I., Parantainen, H., Detile, T., Stillman, A., Olson, P. N., Landis, G., Foshager, M. C., Cunningham, B., and Griffiths, H. J. Diagnosis of breast implant rupture: Imaging findings and relative efficacies of imaging. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994 Aug, 163, (1): 57-60. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Expert Panel on the Safety of Polyurethane-covered Breast Implants (Boyes, D.C., Adey, C. K., Bailar, J., Baines, C., Kerrigan, C., and Langlois, P. Safety of polyurethane-covered breast implants. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1991 Nov 1, 145, (9): 1125-1132. POLYURETHANE.

Eyssen, J. E., von Werssowetz, A. J., and Middleton, G. D. Reconstruction of the breast using polyurethane-coated prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Mar, 73, (3): 415-419. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications/reconstruction.

Fajardo, L. L., Harvey, J. A., McAleese, K. A., Roberts, C. C., and Granstrom, P. Breast cancer diagnosis in women with subglandular silicone gel-filled augmentation implants. Radiology. 1995, 194, 859-862. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Farago, M. E., Kavanagh, P., Blanks, R., Kelly, J., Kazantizis, G., Thornton, I., Simpson, P. R., Cook, J. M., Delves, H. T., and Gwendy, E. M. Platinum concentrations in urban road dust and soil, and in blood and urine in the United Kingdom. Analyst. 1998 Mar, 123, 451-454. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Fee-Fulkerson, K., Conaway, M. R., Winer, E. P., Fulkerson, C. C., Rimer, B. K., and Georgiade, G. Factors contributing to patient satisfaction with breast reconstruction using silicone gel implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Jun, 97, (7): 1420-1426. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Fee, T. E., and Caffee, H. H. Predictors of postoperative aesthetics following explantation of the augmented breast. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Mar, 38, (3): 217-222. EXPLANTATION.

Feig, S. A. Radiation risk from mammography: Is it clinically significant? Am J Roentgenol. 1984, 143, 469-475. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Feliberti, M. C., Arrillaga, A., and Colon, G. A. Rupture of inflated breast implants in closed compression capsulotomy. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1977, 59, (6): 848-849. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/rupture/local complications.

Felix, K., Lin, S., Bornkamm, G.-W., and Janz, S. Tetravinyl-tetramethylcyclo-tetrasiloxane (tetravinyl D4) is a mutagen in Rat21acl fibroblasts. Carcinogenesis. 1998, 19, (2): 315-320. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Feller, W. F., Holt, R., Spear, S., and Little, J. Modified radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction. The American Surgeon. 1986, 52, (3): 129-133. RECONSTRUCTION.

Fellner, M., and Rudikoff, D. Adverse reaction following silicone injections. Int. J. Dermatol. 1979 Jun, 18, (5): 375-376. SILICONE INJECTION.

Feng, L.-J., Mauceri, K., and Berger, B. E. Autogenous tissue breast reconstruction in the silicone-intolerant patient. Cancer. 1994 Jul 1, 74, (1 (Supplement)): 440-449. RECONSTRUCTION/neurologic disease/connective tissue disease.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Fenske, T. K., Davis, P., and Aaron, S. L. Human adjuvant disease revisited: A review of eleven post-augmentation mammaplasty patients. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 1994, 12, (5): 477-481. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Ferguson, J. H. Breast implants redux: this time with data. Neurology. 1998, 50, 849-852. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Ferguson, J. H. Silicone breast implants and neurologic disorders: Report of the Practice Committee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 1997, 48, 1504-1507. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Ferreira, J. A. The various etiological factors of hard capsule formation in breast augmentation. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1984, 8, 109-117. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline.

Ferreira, M. C., Spina, V., and Iriya, K. Changes in the lung following injections of silicone gel. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1975, 28, 173-176. SILICONE INJECTION.

Fessell, W. J. Systemic lupus erythematosus in the community: Incidence, prevalence, outcome, and first symptoms, the high prevalence in black women. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1974 Dec, 134, 1027-1035. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Fessenden, R. J., and Fessenden, J. The biological properties of silicone compounds. Adv. Drug Res. 1967, 4, 95-132. SILICONE INJECTION.

Fessenden, R. J., and Hartman, R. A. Metabolic fate of phenyltrimethylsilane and phenyldimethylsilane. J Med Chem. 1970 Jan, 13, (1): 52-54. TOXICOLOGY.

Fiala, T. G. S., Lee, W. P. A., and May, Jr. J. W. Augmentation mammoplasty: Results of a patient survey. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Jun, 30, (6): 503-509. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/sensation/local complications/capsule-contracture/psychosocial.

Filiberti, A., Tamburini, M., Murru, L., Lovo, G. F., Ventafridda, V., Arioli, N., and Grisotti, A. Psychologic effects and esthetic results of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Tumori. 1986, 72, 585-588. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Filsinger, D. H. Formaldehyde levels based on bulk and elevated temperature evolution rate measurements of silicone materials. Am Indust Hygiene Assoc J. 1995, 56, 1201-1207. TOXICOLOGY.

Finegold, I. Allergy to silicone: Is it real? Compr Ther. 1996, 22, (6): 393-398. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Fisher, A. A. Reactions at silicone-injected sites on the face associated with silicone breast implant inflammation or rejection. Cutis. 1990 Jun, 45, 393-395. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ silicone injection/local complications.

Fisher, J. C., and Brody, G. S. Breast implants under siege: An historical commentary. Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants. 1992, 1, (3): 243-253. GENERAL.

Fisher, J. C., and Hammond, D. C. The combination of expanders with autogenous tissue in breast reconstruction. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1994, 21, (2): 309-320. EXPANDER/ reconstruction.

Fisher, J. C., Hammond, D. C., Barone, F. E., and Maxwell, G. P. 170 notarized consecutive breast reconstructions with textured tissue expanders in 130 patients. Plastic Surgery Forum. 1991, 14, 15. RECONSTRUCTION/capsule-contracture/local complications/ expander.

Fisher, J. C., Potchen, E. J., and Sergent, J. Office communication with breast implant patients: Radiologic and rheumatologic concerns. Perspectives in Plastic Surgery. 1992, 6, (2): 79-89. GENERAL/psychosocial.

Fitzgerald, J. B., and Malette, W. G. The physiologic effects of intravascular Antifoam A. Journal of Surgical Research. 1961, 1, (2): 104-107. TOXICOLOGY.

Flick, J. A. Silicone implants and esophageal dysmotility: Are breast-fed infants at risk? J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Jan 19, 271, (3): 240-241. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Flick, J. A., Boyle, J. T., Tuchman, D. N., Athreya, B. H., and Doughty, R. A. Esophageal motor abnormalities in children and adolescents with scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease. Pediatrics. 1988 Jul, 82, (1): 107-111. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/ children's effects.

Flint, K. P. Fibromyalgia. The Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association. 1993 Nov, 89, (11): 511-515. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Fock, K. M., Feng, P. H., and Tey, B. H. Autoimmune disease developing after augmentation mammoplasty: Report of 3 cases. J. Rheumatol. 1984, 11, (1): 98-100. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Fodor, P. B., and Svistel, A. J. Chest wall deformity following expansion of irradiated tissue for breast reconstruction. NY State J. Med. 1989, 89, 419-429. RADIATION/reconstruction/local complications.

Foerster, D. W. False bursa concept in augmentation mammaplasty. Aesthet. Plast. Surg. 1978, 2, 419. GENERAL.

Foliart, D. E. Synovitis and silicone joint implants: A summary of reported cases. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jan, 99, (1): 245-252. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Folkman, J. Controlled drug release from polymers. Hospital Practice. 1978: 127-133. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Folkman, J., and Long, D. M. The use of Silicone rubber as a carrier for prolonged drug therapy. JSR. 1964 Mar, IV, (3): 139-142. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Foo, I. T. H., Coleman, D. J., Holmes, J. D., Palmer, J. H., and Sharpe, D. T. Delay between expansion and expander/implant exchange in breast reconstruction—A prospective study. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 45, (4): 279-283. EXPANDER/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Forman, D. L., Chiu, J., Restifo, R. J., Ward, B. A., Haffty, B., and Ariyan, S. Breast reconstructuion in previously irradiated patients using tissue expanders and implants: a potentially unfavorable result. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1998 Apr, 40, (4): 360-364. RADIATION/reconstruction.

Fornage, B. D., Sneige, N., and Singletary, S. E. Masses in breast with implants: Diagnosis with US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Radiology. 1994 May, 191, 339-342. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Forsberg, F., Conant, E. F., Russell, K. M., and Moore, Jr. J. H. Quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis of silicone breast implant rupture: An in vitro feasibility study. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 1996 Nov 1, 22, (1): 53-60. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Foster, W. C., Springfield, D. S., and Brown, K. L. B. Pseudotumor of the arm associated with rupture of silicone-gel breast prostheses: Report of two cases. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1983 Apr, 65-A, (4): 548-551. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/rupture/ migration/local complications.

Fowell, E., and Gibbons, D. F. Effect of implant compliance and surface texture on fibrous capsule morphology and myofibroblast population. Biol. Eng. Soc. 1982: 31-37. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Fox, R. I. Clinical features, pathogenesis and treatment of Sjögren's syndrome. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 1996, 8, 438-45. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Fox, R. I. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, animal models, and treatment of Sjogren's syndrome. Current Opinion in Rhematology. 1994, 6, 501-508. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Fox, R. I., Chan, E., and Kang, H. Laboratory evaluation of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. 1992 Jun, 25, 213-222. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Fox, R. I., Howell, F. V., Bone, R. C., and Michelson, P. Primary Sjögren syndrome: Clinical and immunopathologic features. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1984 Nov, 14, (2): 77-105. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Fraenkel, L., Zhang, Y., Chaisson, C. E., Maricq, H. R., Evans, S. R., Brand, F., Wilson, P. W. F., and Felson, D. T. Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1999 Feb, 42, (2): 306-310. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Francel, T. J., Ryan, J. J., and Manson, P. N. Breast reconstruction utilizing implants: A local experience and comparison of three techniques. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Oct, 92, (5): 786-794. RECONSTRUCTION/expander/psychosocial/saline/local complications.

Frank, C. J., McCreery, R. L., Redd, D.C., and Gransler, T. S. Detection of silicone in lymph node biopsy specimens by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Appl Spectrosc. 1993, 47, 387-390. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Frank, D. H., and Robson, M. C. A pneumatic tourniquet as an aid to release of capsular contracture around a breast implant. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1978, 61, (4): 612-613. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/closed capsulotomy/local complications.

Frankel, A. From pioneers to profits. American Lawyer. 1992 Jun: 82-91. GENERAL.

Frankel, S. D., Occhipinti, K. A., Kaufman, L., Hunt, T. K., and Kerley, S. M. MRI of a silicone breast implant surrounded by an enlarging hemorrhagic collection. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Nov, 94, (6): 865-868. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/ hematomas.

Frankel, S. D., Occhipinti, K., Kaufmam, L., Kramer, D., Carlson, J., Mineyev, M., Eshima, I., and Friedenthal, R. MRI findings in subjects with breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Sep, 96, (4): 852-857. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Frankel, S. D., Occhipinti, K., Kaufman, L., Kramer, D., Carlson, J., Mineyev, M., and Friedenthal, R. Characteristics of magnetic resonance sequences used for imaging silicone gel, saline, and gel-saline implants at low field strengths. Investigative Radiology. 1994, 29, (8): 781-786. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Frantz, P., and Herbs, C. A. Augmentation mammoplasty, irradiation, and breast cancer. Cancer. 1975, 36, 1147. CANCER/radiation.

Franz, F. P., Blocksma, R., Brundage, S. R., and Ringler, S. L. Massive injection of liquid silicone for hemifacial surgery. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1988 Feb, 20, (2): 140-145. SILICONE INJECTION.

Fraser, S., Phipps, R., and Perry, P. M. Breast carcinoma around a silicone prosthesis—Back to basics. J Royal College of Surgery Edinburgh. 1989 Jun, 34, 164. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Frazer, C. K., and Wylie, F. J. Mammographic appearances following breast prosthesis removal. Clinical Radiology. 1995, 50, (5): 314-317. MAMMOGRAPHY/explantation.

Freedman, A. M., and Jackson, I. T. Infections in breast implants. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 1989, 3, (2): 275-287. INFECTION/local complications.

Freeman, B. S. Complications of SQ mastectomy with prosthetic replacement, immediate or delayed. Southern Medical Journal. 1967, 6, 1277-1280. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/ RECONSTRUCTION.

Freeman, B. S. Reconstruction of the breast form by Silastic gel from breast prostheses. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1974 Jul, 27, 284-286. RUPTURE/local complications.

Freeman, B. S. Successful treatment of some fibrous envelope contractures around breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1972 Aug, 50, (2): 107-113. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Freeman, B. S., Bigelow, E. L., and Braley, S. A. Experiments with injectable plastic. Use of injectible silicone and Silastic rubber in animals and its clinical use in deformities of the head and neck. American Journal of Surgery. 1966, 112, 534-536. SILICONE INJECTION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Freeman, B. S., and Wiemer, D. R. Untoward results and complications following reconstruction after mastectomy. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1979 Jan, 6, (1): 93-105. RECONSTRUCTION/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Freundlich, B., Altman, C., Sandorfi, N., Greenberg, M., and Tomaszewski, J. A profile of symtomatic patients with silicone breast implants: a Sjögren's-like syndrome. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Aug, 24, (1 (Supplement 1)): 44-53. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/pain/rupture/local complications.

Friedland, J., Corraro, P., and Converse, J. Retrospective cephalometric analysis of man-dibular bone absorption under silicone rubber chin implants. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1976 Feb, 57, (2): 144-151. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Friedman, R. J. Silicone breast prostheses and implantation and explanation. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994, 24, (1): 8-10. GENERAL/explantation.

Friemann, J., Bauer, M., Golz, B., Rombeck, N., Hohr, D., Erbs, G., Steinau, H.-U., and Olbrisch, R. R. Physiological and pathological reaction patterns on silicone breast implants. Zentralbl Chir. 1997, 122, 551-564. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Friis, S., McLaughlin, J. K., Mellemkjær, L., Kjøller, K. H., Blot, W. J., Boice, Jr. J. D., Fraumeni, Jr. J. F., and Olsen, J. H. Breast implants and cancer risk in Denmark. International Journal of Cancer. 1997b, 71,956-958. CANCER.

Friis, S., Mellemkjær, McLaughlin J. K., Breiting, V., Kjør, S. K., Blot, W., and Olsen, J. H. Connective tissue disease and other rheumatic conditions following breast implants in Denmark. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997a Jul, 39, (1): 1-8. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Fritzler, M. J., Pals, J. D., Kinsella, T. D., and Bowen, T. J. Antinuclear, anticytoplasmic and anti-Sjögren's syndrome antigen A (SS-A/Ro) antibodies in female blood donors. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. 1985, 36, 120-128. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Frondoza, C., Jones, I., Rose, N. R., Hatakeyama A., Phelps, R., and Bona, C. Silicone does not potentiate development of the scleroderma-like syndrome in tight skin (TSK/+) mice. Journal of Autoimmunity. 1996, 9, 473-483. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Fuchs, D., Weiss, G., Reibnegger, G., and Wachter, H. The role of neopterin as a monitor of cellular immune activation in transplantation, inflammatory, infectious and malignant diseases. Critical Review of Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 1992, 29, 307-341. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Fujimoto, K., Minato, M., Tadokoro, H., and Ikada, Y. Platelet desposition onto polymeric surfaces during shunting. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1993, 27, 335-343. GENERAL.

Fujino, T., Harishina, T., and Enomoto, K. Primary breast reconstruction after a standard radical mastectomy by a free flap transfer: Case Report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976 Sep, 58, (3): 371-374. RECONSTRUCTION.

Fukuda, K., Straus, S. E., Hickie, I., Hickie, I., Sharpe, M. C., Dobbins, J. G., Komaroff, A., and International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group. The chronic fatigue syndrome: A comprehensive approach to its definition and study. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1994 Dec, 121, (12): 81-88. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Fung, K. P., Mahantayya, M. V., Ho, C. O., and Yap, K. M. Midazolam as a sedative in esophageal manometry: A study of the effect on esophageal motility. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 1992, 15, (1): 85-88. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS.

Funke, M., Fischer, U., and Grabbe, E. MR-mammography: Current status and perspectives. Akt. Radiol. 1996, 6, (3): 130-135. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Furey, P. C., Macgillivray, D.C., Castiglione, C. L., and Allen, L. Wound complications in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1994, 55, 194-197. INFECTION/local complications.

Gabriel, S. E., O'Fallon, W. M., Beard, C. M., Kurland, L. T., Woods, J. E., and Melton, III L. J. Trends in the utilization of silicone breast implants, 1964-1991, and methodology for a population-based study of outcomes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 527-537. PREVALENCE.

Gabriel, S. E., O'Fallon, W. M., Kurland, L. T., Beard, C. M., Woods, J. E., and Melton, L. J. Risk of connective-tissue diseases and other disorders after breast implantation. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1994 Jun 16, 330, (24): 1697-1702. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Gabriel, S. E., Woods, J. E., O'Fallon, M., Beard, C. M., Kurland, L. T., and Melton, III J. M. Complications leading to surgery after breast implantation. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1997 Mar 6, 336, (10): 677-682. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/rupture/hematomas/infection/pain.

Gaither, K. K., Fox, O. F., Yamagat, H., Mamula, M. J., Reichlin, M., and Harley, J. G. Implications of anti-Ro/Sjogren's syndrome antigen autoantibody in normal sera for autoimmunity. J. Clin. Invest. 1987, 79, 841-846. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Gamon, A. E. Weyenber, D. Midland, Mich.: 1983 Nov 28. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Ganczarczyk, L., Urowitz, M. B., and Gladman, D. D. Latent lupus. J. Rheumatol. 1989, 16, (4): 475-478. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Ganott, M. A., Kathleen, M. H., and Ilkhanipour, Z. S. Costa-Greco M. A. Augmentation mammoplasty: Normal and abnormal findings with mammography and ultrasound. Radiographics. 1992, 12, 281-295. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Garbers, S., Terry, M. B., and Toniolo, P. Accuracy of self-report of breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Mar, 101, (3): 695-698. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Garrido, L. 29Si NMR and blood silicon levels in silcone gel breast implant recipients. Mag. Res. Med. 1996, 36, 498-501. SILICONE INJECTION/silicon measurement.

Garrido, L., Pfleiderer, B., Jenkins, B. G., Hulka, C. A., and Kopans, D. B. Migration and chemical modification of silicone in women with breast prostheses. Magnetic Resonance Medicine. 1994, 31, 328-330. MIGRATION/local complications/silicon measurement.

Garrido, L., and Young, V. L. Analysis of periprosthetic capsular tissue from women with silicone breast implants by magic-angle spinning NMR. Mag. Res. Med. 1999. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/silicon measurement/silica.

Gasperoni, C., Salgarello, M., and Gargani, G. Polyurethane-covered mammary implants: A 12-year experience. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992 Oct, 29, (4): 303-308. POLYURETHANE/local complications/capsule-contracture/hematomas.

Gatti, J. E. Poland's deformity reconstruction with a customized, extrasoft silicone prosthesis. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Aug, 39, (2): 1-7. RECONSTRUCTION.

Gause, B. L., Sznol, M., Kopp, W. C., Janik, J. E., Smith, II J. W., Steis, R. G., Urba, W. J., Sharfman, W., Fenton, R. G., Creekmore, S. P., Holmlund, J., Conlon, K. C., VanderMolen, L. A., and Longo, D. L. Phase I study of subcutaneously administered interleukin-2 combination with interferon alfa-2a in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1996 Aug, 14, (8): 2234-2241. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Gayou, R. M. A histological comparison of contracted and noncontracted capsules around silicone breast implants. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1979, 63, (5): 700-707. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Gayou, R. M., and Rudolph, R. Capsular contracture around silicone mammary prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1979 Jan, 2, 62-71. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Geatch, DR, Ross DA, Heasman A, and Taylor JJ. Expression of T-cell receptor Vbeta2, 6 and 8 gene families in chronic adult periodontal disease. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997 Oct, 105, (5): 397-404. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Gedalia, A., Cuéllar, M. L., and Espinoza, L. R. Skin rash and anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies in an infant from a mother with silicone breast implants. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 1995, 13, (4): 521-523. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/ immune effects.

Genovese, M. C. Fever, rash, and arthritis in a woman with silicone gel breast implants. Western Journal of Medicine. 1997 Sep, 167, (3): 149-158. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Georgiade, G. S., Georgiade, N., McCarty, Jr. K. S., and Siegler, H. F. Rationale for immediate reconstruction of the breast following radical mastectomy. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1982 Jan, 8, (1): 20-28. RECONSTRUCTION/cancer.

Georgiade, G. S., Riefkohl, R., Cox, E., McCarty, K. S., Seigler, H. F., Georgiade, N. G., and Snowhite, J. C. Long-term clinical outcome of immediate reconstruction after mastectomy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985 Sep, 76, (3): 415-420. RECONSTRUCTION/cancer.

Georgiade, N. G., Serafin, D., and Barwich, W. Late development of hematoma around a breast implant, necessitating removal. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1979, 64, (5): 708-710. STEROIDS/hematomas/local complications.

Gerard, D. Sexual functioning after mastectomy: life vs. lab. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 1982 Winter, 8, (4): 305-315. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Gerashchenko, B. I. Adsorption of aerosil on erythrocyte surface by flow cytometry measurements. Cytometry. 1994, 15, 80-83. SILICA.

Germain, B. F. Silicone breast implants and rheumatic diseases. Bull Rheum Dis. 1991, 41, (6): 1-5. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Gersuny, R. Uber eine subcutane Prosthese. Z. Heilk. 1900, 1, 199. GENERAL.

Gibney, J. The long-term results of tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1987 Jul, 14, (3): 509-518. EXPANDER/capsule-contracture/local complications/rupture/reconstruction.

Gibney, J. Use of a permanent tissue expander for breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 Oct, 84, (4): 607. EXPANDER/local complications/infection/capsule-contracture/pain/reconstruction.

Giesecke, J., and Arnander, C. Toxic shock syndrome after augmentation mammoplasty. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1986 Dec, 17, (6): 532-533. INFECTION/local complications.

Gifford, G. H., Merrill, E. W., and et al. In vivo tissue reactivity of radiation cured silicone rubber implants. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1976, 10, 857-865. TOXICOLOGY/radiation.

Giles, Jr. A. L., Chung, C. W., and Kommineni, C. Dermal carcinogencity study by mouse-skin painting with 2,4-toluenediamine alone or in representative hair dye formulations. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1976, 1, 433-440. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Gilliland, M. D., Larson, D. L., and Copeland, E. M. Appropriate timing for breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Sep, 72, (3): 335-337. RECONSTRUCTION.

Giltay, E. J., Moens, H. J. B., Riley, A. H., and Tan, R. G. Silicone breast prostheses and rheumatic symptoms: A retrospective follow-up study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1994, 53, 194-196. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Ginsbach, G., Busch, L., and Kuhnel, W. The nature of the collagenous capsules around breast implants, light and electron microscopic investigations. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Oct, 64, (4): 456-464. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Gitelman, H. J., and Alderman, F. R. Silicon accumulation in dialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 1992 Feb, 14, (2): 140-143. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Glenn, E. M. Adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats: Biologic and histologic background. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1965 Sep, 26, (114): 1180-1194. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Glicksman, C. A., Glicksman, A. S., and Courtiss, E. H. Breast imaging for plastic surgeons. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Dec, 90, (6): 1106-1111. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Gnanadesigan, N., Pechter, E. A., and Mascola, L. Listeria infection of silicone breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Sep, 94, (3): 531-535. INFECTION/local complications.

Godfrey, P. M., and Godfrey, N. V. Response of locoregional and systemic symptoms to breast implant replacement with autologous tissues: Experience in 37 consecutive patients. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1996 ]an, 97, (1): 110-116. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/local complications/explantation.

Gogolewski, S. Leading contribution: selected topics in biomedical polyurethanes. A review. Colloid Polym Sci. 1989, 267, 757-785. POLYURETHANE.

Goin, J. M. High pressure injection of silicone gel into an axilla—a complication of closed compression capsulotomy of the breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Dec, 62, (6): 891-895. MIGRATION/closed capsulotomy/rupture/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Goin, M. K., and Goin, J. Psychological reactions to prophylactic mastectomy synchronous with contralateral breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Sep, 70, (3): 355-359. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Goin, M. K., and Goin, J. M. Midlife reactions to mastectomy and subsequent breast reconstruction. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1981 Feb, 38, 225-227. PSYCHOSOCIAL/ reconstruction.

Goin, M. K., Goin, J. M., and Gianini, M. H. The psychic consequences of a reduction mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Apr, 59, (4): 530-534. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Goldberg, P, Stolzman, M, and Goldberg, H. Psychological considerations in breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1984, 13, (1): 38-43. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Goldblum, R. M., Pelley, R. P., O'Donell, A. A., Pyron, D., and Heggers, J.P. Antibodies to silicone elastomers and reactions to ventriculoperitoneal shunts. The Lancet. 1992 Aug 29, 340, 510-513. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Goldenberg, D. L., Simms, R. W., Geiger, A., and Komaroff, A. K. High frequency of fibromyalgia in patients with chronic fatigue seen in a primary care practice. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1990, 33, (3): 381. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Goldman, J. A., Greenblatt, J., Joines, R., White, L., Aylward, B., and Lamm, S. H. Breast implants, rheumatoid arthritis, and connective tissue diseases in a clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 571-582. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Goldman, L. D., and Goldwyn, R. M. Some anatomical considerations of subcutaneous mastectomy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973 May, 51, (5): 501-505. GENERAL.

Goldsmith, H. S., and Alday, E. S. Role of the surgeon in the rehabilitation of the breast cancer patient. Cancer. 1971, 28, (6): 1672. RECONSTRUCTION/cancer.

Goldsmith, J. R., and Goldsmith, D. F. Fiberglass or silica exposure and increased nephritis or ESRD (end stage renal disease). American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1993, 23, 873-881. SILICA.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Goldstein, R., Duvic, M., Targoff, I. N., Reichlin, M., McMenemy, A.M., Reveille, J. D., Warner, N. B., Pollack, M. S., and Arnett, F. C. HLA-D region genes associated with autoantibody responses to histidyl-transfer RNA synthetase (Jo-1) and other translation-related factors in myositis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1990 Aug, 33, (8): 1240-1248. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Goldwyn, R. M. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1987 Dec 31, 317, (27): 1711-1714. GENERAL/reconstruction.

Goldwyn, R. M. An unusual complication of the use of the cronin implant for augmentation mammoplasty. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1969, 22, 167-168. RUPTURE/local complications.

Goodman, S. B., Fornasier, V. L., and Kei, J. The effects of bulk versus particulate polymethylmethacrylate on bone. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1988, 232, 255-262. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Gorczyca, D. P. MR imaging of breast implants. MRI Clinics of North America. 1994, 2, (4): 659-672. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Gorczyca, D. P., Debruhl, N. D., Ahn, C. Y., Hoyt, A., Sayre, J. W., Nudell, P., Mccombs, M., Shaw, W., and Bassett, L. W. Silicone breast implant ruptures in an animal model: Comparison of mammography, MR imaging, US, and CT. Radiology. 1994b, 190, 227-232. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Gorczyca, D. P., DeBruhl, N. D., Mund, D, F., and Bassett, L. W. Linguine sign at MR imaging: Does it represent the collapsed silicone implant shell? Radiology. 1994c May, 191, 576-577. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Gorczyca, D. P., Schneider, E., DeBruhl, N. D., Foo, T. K. F., Ahn, C. Y., Sayre, J. W., Shaw, W. W., and Bassett, L. W. Silicone breast implant rupture: Comparison between Three-Point Dixon and Fast Spin-Echo MR imaging. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994a Feb, 162, 305-310. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Gorczyca, D. P., Sinha, S., Ahn, C. Y., DeBruhl, N. D., Hayes, M. K., Gausche, VC. R., Shaw, W. W., and Bassett, L. W. Silicone breast implants in vivo: MR imaging. Radiology. 1992 Nov, 185, (2): 407-410. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Gorney, M. Justice and publicity: A question of responsibility. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Nov 16, 93, (7): 1500-1503. GENERAL.

Gottlieb, V., Muench, A. G., Rich, J. D., and Pagadala, S. Carcinoma in augmented breasts. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1984 Jan, 12, (1): 67-69. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Goulian, D. Current status of liquid injectable silicone. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1978 Jan. SILICONE INJECTION.

Gower, D. J., Lewis, J. C., and Kelly, D. L. Sterile shunt malfunction: A scanning electron microscopic perspective. J Neurosurg. 1984, 61, 1079-1084. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Grace, G. T., Roberts, C., and Cohen, I. K. The role of mammography in detecting breast cancer in augmented breasts. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990 Aug, 25, (2): 119-123. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Granchi, D., Cavadagna, D., Ciapetti, G., Stea, S., Shiavon, P., Giuliani, R., and Pizzoferrato, A. Silicone breast implants: The role of the immune system on capsular contracture formation. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1995, 29, 197-202. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/immune effects.

Grant, E., Mascatello, V. J., and Cigtay, O. Irregularity of silastic breast implants mimicking a soft tissue mass. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1978 Mar, 130, 461-462. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Grant, S., and Edelman, D. A. Pregnancy, lactation and the use of silicone breast implants. Advances in Contraception. 1994, 10, 187-193. BREAST FEEDING.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Grasso, P., Fairweather, F. A., and Golberg, L. A short-term study of epithelial and connective tissue reactions to subcutaneous injection of silicone fluid. Fd Cosmet Toxicol. 1965 Aug, 3, (2): 263-269. TOXICOLOGY/immune effects.

Green, J., and et al. Clinical cognitive impairment and brain mapping in a series of 93 patients exposed to silicone breast implants. Disability. 1996 Jan. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Greene, W. B., and Raso, D. et al. Migration of silicone gel from breast implants. USA Microscopy and Analysis. 1995b May, 12, (29). MIGRATION/local complications.

Greene, W. B., Raso, D. S., Walsh, L. G., Harley, R. A., and Silver, R. M. Electron probe microanalysis of silicon and the role of the macrophage in proximal (capsule) and distant sites in augmentation mammaplasty patients. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995a Mar, 95, (3): 513-519. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Greenland, S., and Finkle, W. D. A case-control study of prosthetic implants and selected chronic diseases. Annals of Epidemiology. 1996 Jan, 6, (6): 530-540. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Greenwald, D. P., Randolph, M., and May, Jr. J. W. Mechanical analysis of explanted silicone breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Aug, 98, (2): 269-272. RUPTURE/ local complications.

Groff, G. D., Schned, A. R., and Taylor, T. H. Silicone-induced adenopathy eight years after metacarpophalangeal arthroplasty. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1981 Dec, 24, (12): 1578-1581. LYMPHADENOPATHY/local complications.

Grossman, A. R. The current status of augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973 Jul 1, 52, (1): 1-7. GENERAL.

Gruber, A. D., Matthews, S., and Gruber, R. P. Attempted improvement in mammography by inducing a phase transition in silicone gel. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Sep, 31, (3): 283-285. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Gruber, R. P., and Friedman, G. The pressures generated by closed capsulotomies of augmented breasts. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery. 1978 Sep, 6, 379-380. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY.

Gruber, R. P., and Friedman, G. D. Periareolar subpectoral augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Apr, 67, (4): 453-457. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Gruber, R. P., and Jones, H. W. Review of closed capsulotomy complications. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1981 Apr, 6, (4): 271. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/closed capsulotomy.

Gruber, R. P., Kahn, R. A., Lash, H., Maser, M. R., Apfelberg, D. B., and Laub, D. R. Breast reconstruction following mastectomy: A comparison of submuscular and subcutaneous techniques. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981, 67, (3): 312-317. RECONSTRUCTION.

Guenther, J. M., Tokita, K. M., and Giuliano, A. E. Breast-conserving surgery and radiation after augmentation mammoplasty. Cancer. 1994 May 15, 73, (10): 2613-2618. RADIATION/reconstruction.

Guidoin, R. et al. A non-destructive investigation to identify the failure mechanisms of 313 retrieved mammary prostheses. Proc Soc Biomaterials. 1992: 48. RUPTURE/local complications.

Guidoin, R. et al. The polyurethane foam covering the Même breast prosthesis: A biomedical breakthrough or a biomaterial tar baby? Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 29, 477-478. POLYURETHANE.

Guillaume, J. C., Roujeau, J. C., and Touraine, R. Systemic lupus after breast prosthesis. Ann Dermatol Venerel. 1984, 111, 703-704. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Guldner, H. H., Lakomek, H. J., and Bautz, F. A. Anti-(U1)RNP and anti-Sm autoantibody profiles in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases: Differential detection of immunoglobulin G and M by immunoblotting. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. 1986, 40, 532-538. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Gumucio, C. A., Pin, P., Young, V. L., Destouet, J., Monsees, B., and Eichling, J. The effect of breast implants on the radiographic detection of microcalcification and soft-tissue masses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 Nov, 84, (5): 772-778. MAMMOGRAPHY/calcification.

Guo, W., Willen, R., Liu, X., Odelius, R., and Carlen, B. Splenic response to silicone drain material following intraperitoneal implantation. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1994 Dec, 28, (12): 1433-1438. TOXICOLOGY.

Gur, E. N., Hanna, W., Andrighetti, L., and Semple, J. L. Light and electron microscopic evaluation of the pectoralis major muscle following tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Sep, 102, (4): 1046-1051. EXPANDER.

Gurdin, M., and Carlin, G. A. Complications of breast implantations. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1967 Dec, 40, (6): 530-533. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/infection/hematomas/capsule-contracture.

Gussler, J., and Briesemeister, L. The insufficient milk syndrome: a biocultural explantation. Medical Anthropology. 1980, 4, (2): 145-174. BREAST FEEDING.

Guthrie, J. L., and McKinney, R. W. Determination of 2,4- and 2,6-diaminotoluene in flexible urethane foams. Annals of Chemistry. 1977, 49, (12): 1676-1680. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

Guthrie, R. H., and Cucin, R. L. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy: Problems in position, size and shape. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980, 65, (5): 595-602. RECONSTRUCTION/local complications/capsule contracture.

Gutierrez, F. J., and Espinoza, L. R. Progressive systemic sclerosis complicated by severe hypertension reversal after silicone implant removal. The American Journal of Medicine. 1990 Sep, 89, 390-392. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/explantation.

Gutowski, K. A., Mesna, G. T., and Cunningham, B. L. Saline-filled breast implants: A plastic surgery educational foundation multicenter outcomes study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Sep, 100, (4): 1019-1027. SALINE/local complications/capsule-contracture/ psychosocial / rupture.

Gylbert, L. O. Applanation tonometry for the evaluation of breast compressibility. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1989, 23, (3): 223-229. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Gylbert, L. O., Asplund, O., Berggren, A., Jurell, G., Ransjö, U., and Östrup, L. Preoperative antibiotics and capsular contracture in augmentation mammaplasty. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1990b Aug, 86, (2): 260-267. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection.

Gylbert, L. O., Asplund, O., and Jurell, G. Capsular contracture after breast reconstruction with siliocone-gel and saline-filled implants: a 6-year follow-up. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990a Mar, 85, (3): 373-377. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline.

Gylbert, L. O., Asplund, O., Jurell, G., and Olenius, M. Results of subglandular breast augmentation using a new classification method—18-year follow-up. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery. 1989, 23, (2): 133-136. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Gylbert, L. O., and Berggren, A. Constant compression caliper for objective measurement of breast capsular contracture. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1989, 23, (2): 137-142. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Habal, M. B. The biologic basis for the clinical application of the silicones: a correlate to their biocompatibility. Archives of Surgery. 1984 Jul, 119, 843-848. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/general.

Habal, M. B. Biophysical evaluation of the tumorigenic response to implanted polymers. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1980, 14, 447-454. CARCINOGENICITY.

Habal, M. B. Current status of biomaterial's clinical applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Biomat Med Devices Artif Organs. 1979, 7, 229-741. GENERAL.

Habal, M. B. Personal considerations on the long-term effects of enlargement of the woman's breast with silicone implants. J Long-Term Eff Med Imp. 1993, 3, 351-364. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Habal, M. B., Powell, M. L., and Schimpff, R. D. Immunological evaluation of the tumorigenic response to implanted polymers. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1980, 14, 455-466. IMMUNE EFFECTS/carcinogenicity.

Habal, M. B., Quigg, J. M., Peck, L. S., Lin, T. L., Martin, P., Hattori, H., Ohmstede, D., Farnworth, S., and Goldberg, E. P. Evaluation of silicone gel mammary prostheses in a rabbit implant model. Society for Biomaterials Transactions. 1993, 16, 230. SILICON MEASUREMENT/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Hagerty, R. F., and McIver, F. A. Subcutaneous mastectomy with delayed subpectoral reconstruction. Southern Medical Journal. 1978, 71, (5): 525-529. RECONSTRUCTION/ local complications.

Hagmar, L. H., Welinder, H., and Mikoczy, Z. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing industry. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1993, 50, 537-543. CANCER/polyurethane.

Hahn, R. A. The nocebo phenomenon: concept, evidence, and implications for public health. Preventive Medicine. 1997, 26, 607-611. GENERAL.

Hakelius, L., and Ohlsen, L. A clinical comparison of the tendency to capsular contracture between smooth and textured gel-filled silicone mammary implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Aug, 90, (2): 247-254. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Hakelius, L., and Ohlsen, L. Tendency to capsular contracture around smooth and textured gel-gilled silicone mammary implants: A five-year follow-up. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Nov, 100, (6): 1566-1569. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Haleblian, J., Runkel, R., Mueller, N., Christopherson, J., and Ng, K. Steroid release from silicone elastomer containing excess drug in suspension. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1971 Apr, 60, (4): 541-545. STEROIDS/local complications.

Hall, C. L., Colvin, R. B., Carey, K., and McCluskey, R. T. Passive transfer of autoimmune disease with isologous IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to the tubular basement membrane in strain XIII guinea pigs. Loss of self-tolerance induced by autoantibodies. J. Exp. Med. 1977, 146, 1246-1260. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Hallock, G. Maximum overinflation of tissue expanders. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1987 Oct, 80, (4): 567-569. EXPANDER/saline.

Hallock, G., and Rice, D. C. Objective monitoring for safe tissue expansion. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986, 77, (3): 416-420. EXPANDER.

Halpern, J., McNeese, M. D., Kroll, S. S., and Ellerbroek, N. Irradiation of prosthetically augmented breasts: A retrospective study on toxicity and cosmetic results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1990, 18, 189-191. RADIATION/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Hameed, M. R., Erlandson, R., and Rosen, P. P. Capsular synovial-like hyperplasia around mammary implants similar to detritic synovitis: A morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 15 cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 1995, 19, 433-438. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Hammar, C.-G., Freij, G., Strömberg, S., and Vessman, J. Mass fragmentographic determination of 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in human serum. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975 Jan 1, Vol 36, Supp. III, 33-39, Chapter IV. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Hammer, M., and Krippner, H. Three cases of chronic polyarthritis after silicone implantation (breast augmentation): Causal relationship? Immun. Infekt. 1991, 19, (2): 62-63. IMMUNE EFFECTS/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hammerstad, M., Dahl, B. H., Rindal, R., Kveim, M. R., and Roald, H. E. Quality of the capsule in reconstructions with textured or smooth silicone implants after mastectomy. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery. 1996 Mar, 30, (1): 33-36. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE.

Hammond, E. Some preliminary findings on physical complaints from a perspective survey of 1,064,004 men and women. American Journal of Public Health. 1964 Jan, 54, (1): 11-23. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Handel, N., Jensen, J. A., Black, Q., Waisman, J. R., and Silverstein, M. J. The fate of breast implants: A critical analysis of complications and outcomes. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Dec, 96, (7): 1521-1533. GENERAL/capsule-contracture/rupture/infection/connective tissue disease/local complications.

Handel, N., Lewinsky, B., Jensen, J. A., and Silverstein, M. J. Breast conservation therapy after augmentation mammaplasty: Is it appropriate? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Dec, 98, (7): 1216-1224. RADIATION/mammography/cancer.

Handel, N., Lewinsky, B., Silverstein, M. J., Gordon, P., and Zierk, K. Conservation therapy for breast cancer following augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991b May, 87, (5): 873-878. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/radiation/ cancer.

Handel, N., Silverstein, M. J., Gamagami, P., and Collins, A. An in vivo study of the effect of various breast implant filler materials on mammography. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1993b May, 91, (6): 1057-1062. MAMMOGRAPHY/general.

Handel, N., Silverstein, M. J., Gamagami, Jensen, J. A., and Collins, A. Factors affecting mammographic visualization of the breast after augmentation mammaplasty. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1992 Oct 14, 268, (14): 1913-1917. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Handel, N., Silverstein, M. J., Jensen, J. A., Collins, A., and Zierk, K. Comparative experience with smooth and polyurethane breast implants using the Kaplan-Meier Method of Survival Analysis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1991a Sep, 88, (3): 475-481. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications/infection.

Handel, N., Silverstein, M. J., Waisman, E., and Waisman, J. R. Reasons why mastectomy patients do not have breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Dec, 86, (6): 1118-1122. RECONSTRUCTION/psychosocial.

Handel, N., Wellisch, D., Silverstein, M. J., Jensen, J. A., and Waisman, E. Knowledge, concern, and satisfaction among augmentation mammaplasty patients. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993a Jan, 30, (1): 13-20. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Hanson, L., Ahlstedt, S., Anderson, B., Carlsson, B., Fallstrom, S., Melander, L., Porras, O., Soderstrom, T., and Eden, C. Protective factors in milk and the development of the immune system. Pediatrics. 1985, 75 (supplement), 172-176. BREAST FEEDING.

Harbut, M. R., and Churchill, B. C. Asthma in patients with silicone breast implants: Report of a case series and identification of hexachloroplantinate contaminant as a possible etiologic agent. Israel Journal of Occupational Health. 1999, 3, 73-82. TOXICOLOGY/ platinum.

Hardin, J. R. The lupus autoantibodies and pathogenesis of system lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1986 Apr, 29, (4): 456-460. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Hardt, N. S., Emery, J. A., Steinbach, B. G., Latorre, G., and Caffee, H. Cellular transport of silicone from breast prostheses. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995b, 4, 127-133. MIGRATION.

Hardt, N. S., Yu, L. T., Latorre, G., and Steinbach, B. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy used to identify foreign materials related to breast implants. Methods in Pathology. 1994 Aug, 7, (6): 669-676. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/silicon measurement.

Hardt, N. S., Yu, L., LaTorre, G., and Steinbach, B. Complications related to retained breast implant capsules. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995a Feb, 95, (2): 364-371. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications/explantation.

Hardy, T. S., and Weill, H. Crystalline silica: Risks and policy. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1995 Feb, 103, (2): 152-155. SILICA.

Harman-Boehm, I., and Boehm, R. Breast augmentation: a new therapeutic use for insulin. Diabetes Care. 1989 Sep, 12, (8). GENERAL.

Harms, S. E., Flamig, D. P., Evans, W. P., Harries, S. A., and Bown, S. MR imaging of the breast: Current status and future potential. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994, 163, 1039-1047. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Harms, S. E., Flamig, D. P., Hesley, K. I., Meiches, M. D., Jensen, R. A., Evans, W. P., Savino, D. A., and Wells, R. V. MR imaging of the breast with rotating delivery of excitation off resonance: Clinical experience with pathologic correlation. Radiology. 1993, 187, (2): 493-501. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Harms, S. E., Jensen, R. A., Meiches, M. D., Flamig, D. P., and Evans, W. P. Silicone-sup-pressed 3D MRI of the breast using rotating delivery of off-resonance excitation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1995, 19, (3): 394-399. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Harris, H. I. Augmentation of the breast with silicone injections or prostheses. Journal of the International College of Surgeons. 1965 Feb, 43, (2): 202-210. SILICONE INJECTION.

Harris, H. I. Survey of breast implants from the point of view of carcinogenesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1961 Jul, 28, (1): 81. CANCER.

Harris, K. M., Ganott, M. A., Shestak, K. C., Losken, H. W., and Tobon, H. Silicone implant rupture: Detection with US. Radiology. 1993 Jun, 187, (3): 761-768. RUPTURE/mammography/local complications.

Hartley, J. H., and Shatten, W. E. Postoperative complications of lactation after augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1971 Feb, 47, (2): 150-153. BREAST FEEDING/local complications.

Hartley Jr., J. H. Specific applications of double lumen prosthesis. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1976 Apr, 3, (2): 247. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Hartrampf, C. R., Scheflan, M., and Black, P. W. Breast reconstruction with a transverse abdominal island flap. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982, 69, (2): 216-224. RECONSTRUCTION.

Hartrampf Jr., C. R. Abdominal wall competence in transverse abdominal island flap operations. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1984 Feb, 12, (2): 139-146. RECONSTRUCTION.

Hartwell Jr., S. W., Anderson, R., Hall, M.D., and Esselstyn Jr., C. Reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy for cancer. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976 Feb, 57, (2): 152-157. RECONSTRUCTION.

Harving, S., Ravnsbæk, J., and Johansen, L. V. Salvage of exposed implants. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1989, 23, (2): 143-144. INFECTION/expander/local complications.

Hatcher, C., Brooks, L., and Love, C. Breast cancer and silicone implants: Psychological consequences for women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1993 Sep, 85, (17): 1361-1365. GENERAL/cancer/psychosocial.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Hattevig, G., and Kjellman, B. Bjorksten B. Clinical symptoms and IgE responses to common food proteins and inhalants in the first 7 years of life. Clinical Allergy. 1987, 17, 571-578. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS.

Hausner, R. J., Schoen, F. J., Mendez-Fernandez, M. A., Henly, W. S., and Geis, R. C. Migration of silicone gel to auxiliary lymph nodes after prosthetic mammoplasty. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 1981, 105, 371-372. MIGRATION/local complications/lymphadenopathy.

Hausner, R. J., Schoen, F. J., and Pierson, K. K. Foreign-body reaction to silicone in axillary lymph nodes after augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Sep, 62, 381-384. MIGRATION/local complications/lymphadenopathy.

Haustein, U.-F., Ziegler, V., and Hermann, K. Chemically induced scleroderma. Hautartzt. 1992, 43, 469-474. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Hawthorne, G. A., Ballantyne, D., Rees, T., and Seidman, I. Hematological effects of dimethylpolysiloxane fluid in rats. Journal of Reticuloendothelial Society. 1970, 7, (5): 586-593. TOXICOLOGY.

Hayashi, K., Matsuda, T., Takano, H., and Umezu, M. Effects of immersion in cholesterol-lipid solution on the tensile and fatigue properties of elastomeric polymers for blood pump applications. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1984 Oct, 18, (8): 939-951. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Hayashi, N., Tamaki, N., Senda, M., Yammamoto, K., Yonekura, Y., Torizuka, K., Ogawa, T., Katakura, K., Umemura, C., and Kodama, M. A new method of measuring in vivo sound speed in the reflection mode. J Clin Ultrasound. 1988 Feb, 16, 87-93. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Hayden, J. F., and Barlow, S. A. Structure-activity relationships of organosiloxanes in the female reproductive system. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1972 Jan, 21, (1): 68-79. TOXICOLOGY.

Hayes Jr., H., and McLeod, P. Indentation tonometry of the breasts. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Jan, 63, (1): 13-18. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Hayes Jr., H., Vandergrit, J., and Diner, W. C. Mammography and breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988 Jul, 82, (1): 1-6. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Hayes, M. K., Gold, R. H., and Basseft, L. W. Mammographic findings after the removal of breast implants. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1993 Mar, 160, 487-490. MAMMOGRAPHY/explantation.

Heggers, J. P., Kossovsky, N., Parsons, R. W., Robson, M. C., Pelley, R. P., and Raine, T. J. Biocompatibility of silicone implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1983 Jul, 11, (1): 38-45. GENERAL.

Helal, B., Cozen, L., and Kramer, L. Silicone injection of joints: experimental and clinical trials. International Surgery. 1970 Nov, 54, (5): 317-322. TOXICOLOGY/silicone injection.

Helbich, T. H., Wunderbaldinger, P., Plenk, H., Deutinger, M., Bretenseher, M., and Mostbeck, G. H. The value of MRI in silicone granuloma of the breast. European Journal of Radiology. 1997, 24, (2): 155-158. MAMMOGRAPHY/granulomas/silicone injection.

Henderson, I. C. Appropriate timing for breast reconstruction [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Sep, 72, (3): 338-339. RECONSTRUCTION.

Henderson, J., Culkin, D., Mata, J., Wilson, M., and Venable, D. Analysis of immunological alterations associated with testicular prostheses. The Journal of Urology. 1995 Nov, 154, 1748-1751. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Henly, D. R. et al. Particulate silicone for use in periurethral injections: Local tissue effects and search for migration. Journal of Urology. 1995 Jun 1, 153, (6): 2039-2043. TOXICOLOGY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Hennekens, C. H., Lee, I.-M., Cook, N. R., Hebert, P. R., Karlson, E. W., LaMotte, F., Manson, J. E., and Buring, J. E. Self-reported breast implants and connective tissue diseases in female health professionals. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1996 Feb 28, 275, (8): 616-621. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Henriksson, K. G., and Linvall, B. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis 1990—diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Progress in Neurobiology. 1990 Jan, 35,181-193. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Henrotte, J.-G., Viza, D., Vich, J. M., and Gueyne, J. The regulatory role of silicon on the cell cycle. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 1988, 306, 525-528. SILICA.

Heredero, F. X. S., and Semper, E. M. Polyarthralgia after augmentation mammaplasty with saline-filled implants. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 15, 1-8. SALINE/ connective tissue disease/immune effects.

Herman, S. The Même implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Mar, 73, (3): 411-414. POLYURETHANE.

Hester, Jr. T. R. The polyurethane-covered mammary prosthesis: Facts and fiction. Perspect. Plastic Surg. 1988, 2, 135. POLYURETHANE.

Hester, Jr. T. R., and Cukic, J. Use of stacked polyurethane-covered mammary implants in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Sep, 88, (3): 503-509. POLYURETHANE.

Hester, Jr. T. R., Ford, N. F., Gale, P. J., Hammett, J. L., Raymond, R., Turnbull, D., Frankos, V. H., and Cohen, M. B. Measurement of 2,4-toluenediamine in urine and serum samples from women with Même or Replicon breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Oct, 100, (5): 1291-1298. CARCINOGENICITY/polyurethane/toxicology.

Hester, Jr. T. R., Nahai, F., Bostwick, J., and Cukic, J. A 5-year experience with polyurethane-covered mammary prostheses for treatment of capsular contracture, primary augmentation mammoplasty, and breast reconstruction: Plastic and reconstructive breast surgery. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1988 Oct, 15, (4): 569-585. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Hetter, G. P. Satisfactions and dissatisfactions of patients with augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979, 64, (2): 151-155. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Hetter, GP. Improved patient satisfaction with augmentation mammoplasty: the transaxillary subpectoral approach. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1991 Spring, 15, 123-127. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Heywang-Köbrunner, S. H. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast. Investigative Radiology. 1994, 29, (1): 94-104. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Heywang-Köbrunner, S. H., Viehweg, P., Heinig, A., and Küchler, Ch. Contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: Accuracy, value, controversies, solutions. European Journal of Radiology. 1997, 24, (2): 94-108. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Heywang, S. H., Eiermann, W., Bassermann, R., and et al. Carcinoma of the breast behind a prosthesis—A comparison of ultrasound, mammography, and MRI (case report). Computerized Radiology. 1985, 9, (5): 283-286. MAMMOGRAPHY/CANCER.

Heywang, S. H., Fenzl, G., Hahn, D., Krischke, I., Edmaier, M., Eiermann, W., and Basserman, R. MR imaging of the breast: Comparison with mammography and ultrasound. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 1986, 10, (4): 615-620. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Heywang, S. H., Hilbertz, T., Beck, R., Bauer, W. M., Eiermann, W., and Permanetter, W. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging of the breast in patients with postoperative scarring and silicon implants. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 1990 May-1990 Jun 30, 14, (3): 348-356. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Hicken, N. F. Mastectomy: A clinical pathologic study demonstrating why most mastectomies result in incomplete removal of the mammary gland. Archives of Surgery. 1940, 40, 6-14. CANCER.

Higuchi, H., and et al. Abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system in chemically sensitive patients with silicone breast implants. Intl. J. Occup. Med. Immunol. Toxicol. 1996, 5, (1): 11-23. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Hill, P., and Schatten, W. Potential indicators of insufficient milk supply syndrome. Research in Nursing and Health. 1991, 14, 11-19. BREAST FEEDING.

Hillemeier, C. Esophageal manometrics in children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 1986, 5, (6): 840-842. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS.

Hinderer, U. T., and Escalona, J. Dermal and subdermal tissue filling with fetal connective tissue and cartilage, collagen, and silicone: Experimental study in the pig compared with clinical results. A new technique of dermis mini-autograft injections. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1990, 14, 239-248. RECONSTRUCTION/silicone injection.

Hine, C. H., Elliott, E. W., Wright, R. R., Cavalli, R. D., and Porter, C. D. Evaluation of a silicone lubricant injected spinally. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1969, 15, (3): 566-573. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Hipps, C. J., Raju, D. R., and Straith, R. E. Influence of some operative and post operative factors on capsular contracture around breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 61, (3): 384-389. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection/steroids/ closed capsulotomy.

Hirakawa, K., Bauer, T. W., Culver, J. E., and Wilde, A. H. Isolation and quantitation of debris particles around failed silicone orthopedic implants. The Journal of Hand Surgery. 1996 Sep, 21A, (5): 819-827. GENERAL.

Hirmand, H., Hoffman, L. A., and Smith, J. P. Silicone migration to the pleural space associated with silicone-gel augmentation mammaplasty. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Jun, 32, (6): 645-647. MIGRATION/local complications/rupture.

Hirmand, H., Latrenta, G. S., and Hoffman, L. A. Autoimmune disease and silicone breast implants. Journal of Oncology. 1993 Jul, 7, (7): 17-30. GENERAL/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hirohata, T., Nomura, A. M. Y., and Kolonel, L. N. Breast size and cancer. British Medical Journal. 1977 Sep 3, 2, 641. CANCER.

Hitoshi, S., Ito, Y., Takehara, K., Fujita, T., and Ogata, E. A case of malignant hypertension and scleroderma after cosmetic surgery. Japanese Journal of Medicine. 1991, 30, 97-100. SILICONE INJECTiON/connective tissue disease.

Hobbs, E. J., Fancher, O. E., and Clandra, J. C. Effect of selected organopolysiloxanes on male rat and rabbit reproductive organs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1972, 21, (1): 45- 54. TOXICOLOGY.

Hobbs, E. J., Keplinger, M. L., and Calandra, J. C. Toxicity of polydimethylsiloxanes in certain environmental systems. Environmental Research. 1975, 10, (3): 397-406. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/silicone characterization/toxicology.

Hochberg, M. C. Adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Current epidemiologic concepts. Epidemiologic Review. 1981, 3, 27-41. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Hochberg, M. C. Cosmetic surgical procedures and connective tissue disease: the Cleopatra Syndrome revisited. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1993 Jun 15, 118, (12): 981-983. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hochberg, M. C., Miller, R., and Wigley, F. M. Frequency of augmentation mammoplasty in patients with systemic sclerosis: data from the Johns Hopkins-University of Maryland Scleroderma Center. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 565-569. PREVALENCE/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Hochberg, M. C., Perlmutter, D. L., Medsger Jr., T. A., Nguyen, K., Steen, V., Weisman, M. H., White, B., and Wigley, F. M. Lack of association between augmentation mammoplasty and systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996 Jul, 39, (7): 1125-1131. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hoefflin, S. M. Extensive experience with polyurethane breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Jul, 86, (1): 166-167. POLYURETHANE.

Hoffman, et al. Neurocognitive symptoms and quantitative EEG results in women presenting with silicone-induced autoimmune disorder. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Hoffman, J. P., Kusiak, J., Bornas, M., and et al. Risk factors for immediate prosthetic postmastectomy reconstruction. Am Surg. 1991, 57, 514-521. RECONSTRUCTION.

Hoffman, S. Correction of established capsular contractures with polyurethane implants. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1989, 13, (1): 33-40. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Hoffman, S. The management of severe capsular contractures following breast augmentation. Aesth. Plast. Surg. 1983, 7, 109-112. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Hoffman, S. Treatment of breast contractures with open capsulotomy and replacement of gel prostheses with polyurethane-covered implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991, 97, (4): 808. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/polyurethane.

Hoflehner, H., Pierer, G., and Rehak, P. Mammacompliance: An objective technique for measuring capsular fibrosis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Nov, 92, (6): 1078-1084. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Holcombe, R, Baethge, B., Wolf, R., Betzing, K., Stewart, R., Hall, V., and Fukuda, M. Correlation of serum interleukin-8 and cell surface lysosome-associated membrane protein expression with clinical disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1994, 3, 97-102. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Holley, D. T., Tourarkissian, B., Vasconez, H. C., and et al. The ramifications of immediate reconstruction in the management of breast cancer. The American Surgeon. 1995 Jan, 61, (1): 60-65. RECONSTRUCTION.

Hollos, P. Breast augmentation with autologous tissue: An alternative to implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Aug, 96, (2): 381-384. GENERAL.

Holm, C., and Mühlbauer, W. Toxic shock syndrome in plastic surgery patients: Case report and review of the literature. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1998, 22, 180-184. INFECTION/local complications.

Holmes, J. D. Capsular contracture after breast reconstruction with tissue expansion. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1989, 42, 591-594. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/reconstruction/expander.

Holt, R. W., and Spear, S. L. Cancer in the augmented breast: Diagnosis and treatment. Breast Dis Breast. 1984, 10, (3): 16. CANCER.

Holten, I. W. R., and Barnett, R. A. Intraductal migration of silicone from intact gel breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Mar, 95, (3): 563-566. MIGRATION/local complications.

Hong, R. Autoimmunity: Present-day concepts and future prospects. Current Problems in Pediatrics. 1991 Jul, 21, 253-258. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Hooper, B., Whittingham, S., Matthews, J. D., Mackay, I. R., and Curnow, D. H. Autoimmunity in a rural community. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1972, 12, 79-87. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Hoopes, J. E., Edgerton, M. T., and Shelly, W. Organic synthetics for augmentation mammoplasty: Their relation to breast cancer. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1967, 39, (3): 263. CANCER/carcinogenicity.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Horning, P., and Alexander, E. S. Observations on the Oppenheimer method of inducing tumors by subcutaneous implantation of plastic films. In. Symposium on Carcinogenesis Mechanisms of Action. 1959, p. 12-25. CARCINOGENICITY.

Hørven, S., Stiles, T. C., Holst, A., and Moen, T. HLA antigens in primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Journal of Rheumatology. 1992, 19, 1269-1270. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Hosokawa, S., and Yoshida, O. Silicon transfer during haemodialysis. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 1990, 22, 373-378. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Houpt, K. R., and Sontheimer, R. D. Automimmune connective tissue disease and connective tissue-disease-like illnesses after silicone gel augmentation mammoplasty. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1994 Oct, 31, (4): 626-642. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Houpt, P., Dijkstra, R., and Storm van Leeuwen, J. B. The result of breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer in 109 patients. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1988, 21, 516-525. RECONSTRUCTION.

Howie, P. W., Forsyth, J. S., Ogston, S. A., Clark, A., and Florey, C. D. Protective effect of breast feeding against infection. Brit. Med. J. 1990, 300, (6716): 11-16. BREAST FEEDING.

Hsieh, C. C., and Trichopoulos, D. Breast size, handedness and breast cancer risk. European Journal of Cancer. 1991, 27, (2): 131-135. GENERAL/cancer.

Huang, T. T. Breast and subcapsular pain following submuscular placement of breast pros-theses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Aug, 86, (2): 275-280. PAIN/local complications.

Huang, T. T., Blackwell, S., and Lewis, S. Migration of silicone gel after the 'squeeze technique' to rupture a contracted breast capsule: Case report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Feb, 61, (2): 277-280. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/MIGRATION/local complications/ closed capsulotomy.

Huang, T. T., Parks, D. H., and Lewis, S. R. Outpatient breast surgery under intercostal block anesthesia. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 Feb: 239-240. PAIN.

Hubbard, A. K. Role for T-lymphocytes in silica-induced pulmonary inflammation. Laboratory Investigation. 1989, 61, (1): 46-51. SILICA.

Hudson, J. I., Hudson, M. S., Pliner, L. F., Goldenberg, D. L., and Pope, H. G. Jr. Fibromyalgia and major affective disorder: A controlled phenomenology and family history study. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1985, 142, 441. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Hueper, W. C. Cancer induction by polyurethane and polysilicane plastics. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1964 Dec, 33, (6): 1005-1027. CARCINOGENICITY/polyurethane.

Hueper, W. C. Carcinogenic studies on water-insoluble polymers. Path. Microbiol. 1961, 24, 77-106. TOXICOLOGY/carcinogenicity.

Hueper, W. C. Carcinogenic studies on water-soluble and insoluble macromolecules. A.M.A. Arch. Path. 1959, 67, 589. TOXICOLOGY/carcinogenicity.

Hueper, W. C. Experimental production of cancer by means of implanted polyurethane plastic. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1960 Oct, 34, (4): 328-333. POLYURETHANE/carcinogenicity/toxicology.

Hueper, W. C. Polyurethane plastic foam for fractures. J. Amer. Med. Assoc.. 1960 Jun 18: 196. POLYURETHANE.

Hueston, J. T., and Hare, W. S. C. Rupture of subpectoral prostheses during closed compression capsulotomy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery. 1979 Oct, 49, (5): 564-567. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/closed capsulotomy/ rupture.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Hueston, J. T., and McKenzie, G. Breast reconstruction after radical mastectomy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery. 1970 May, 39, (4): 367-370. RECONSTRUCTION.

Hughes, K. C. Unusual masses found within ruptured silicone gel prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Aug, 100, (2): 525-528. HEMATOMAS/local complications/rupture.

Humphrey, L. J. Subcutaneous mastectomy is not a prophylaxis against carcinoma of the breast: Opinion or knowledge? The American Journal of Surgery. 1983 Mar, 145, (3): 311-312. CANCER.

Hunter, J. G., Padilla, M., and Cooper-Vastola, S. Late Clostridium perfringens breast implant infection after dental treatment. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Mar, 36, (3): 309-312. INFECTION/local complications.

Hurst, N. M. Lactation after augmentation mammoplasty. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996 Jan, 87, (1): 30-34. BREAST FEEDING/local complications.

Hutson, M. M., and Blaha, J. D. Patients' recall of preoperative Instruction for Informed Consent for an Operation. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1991 Feb, 73-A, (2): 160-162. GENERAL.

Hyams, K. C. Developing case definitions for symptom-based conditions: the problem of specificity. Epidemiologic Reviews. 1998, 20, 148-156. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hyde, J. F. Chemical background of silicones. Science. 1965 Feb 19, 147, (3660): 829-836. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/silicone chemistry.

Iannello, S., and Belfiore, F. Silicone breast prosthesis and rheumatoid arthritis: a new systemic disease: siliconosis. A case report and a critical review of the literature. Minerva Med. 1998, 89, (4): 117-130. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Imai, M., Yamada, C., Saga, S., Nagayoshi, S., and Hoshino, M. Immunological cross reaction between sera from patients with breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor virus. Gann. 1979 Feb, 70, (1): 63-74. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Imber, G., Schwager, R. G., Guthrie, R. H. Jr., and Gray, G. F. Fibrous capsule formation after subcutaneous implantation of synthetic materials in experimental animals. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974 Aug, 54, (2): 183-186. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Inoue, U., Wanibuchi, Y., and Nishi, T. Is foreign body calcification a late reaction after augmentation mammaplasty? Fortschr. Roentgenstr. 1983, 138, 74-80. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. World Health Organization, 1985. TOXICOLOGY.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans: Silica, Some Silicates, Coal Dust and para-Aramid Fibrils. Vol. 68 ed. United Kingdom: World Health Organization, 1997. SILICA/cancer.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans: Some Chemicals Used in Plastics and Elastomers. Vol. 39 ed. Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1986. CANCER/ toxicology/polyurethane.

Irving, I., Hall, C., Castilla, P., and Rickham, P. P. Tissue reaction to pure and impregnated silastic. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 1971 Dec, 6, (6): 724-729. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Irwin, M., Mascovich, A., Gillin, J. C., and et al. Partial sleep derivation reduces natural killer cell activity in humans. Psychosom. Med. 1994, 56, 493-498. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Irwin, M., McClintick, J., Costlow, C., and et al. Partial night sleep deprivation reduces natural killer and cellular immune responses in human. FASEB J. 1996, 10, 643-653. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Ishii, Jr. C. H., Bostwick, III J., Raine, T. J., and Coleman, III J. J. Hester T. R. Double-pedicle transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for unilateral breast and chest-wall reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985, 76, (6): 901-907. RECONSTRUCTION.

Isobe, T., and Osserman, E. F. Pathologic conditions associated with plasma cell dyscrasias: a study of 806 cases. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 1971 Dec 31, 190, 507-518. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Isquith, A. J., Matheson, D., and Slesinski, R. Genotoxicity studies on selected organosilicon compounds: In vitro assays. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. 1988, 26, (3): 255 -261. TOXICOLOGY.

Ito, N., Hiasa, Y., Konishi, Y., and Marugami, M. The development of carcinoma in liver of rats treated with m-toluylenediamine and the synergistic and antagonistic effects with other chemicals. Cancer Res. 1969, 29, 1137-1145. POLYURETHANE.

Iverson, G. L., Anderson, K. W., and McCracken, L. M. Research methods for investigating causal relations between SLE disease variables and psychiatric symptomatology. Lupus. 1995, 4, (4): 349-354. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/psychosocial.

Iwuagwu, F. C., and Frame, J. D. Silicone breast implants: complications. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1997, 50, 632-636. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Jabaley, M. E., and Das, S. K. Late breast pain following reconstruction with polyurethane-covered breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Sep, 78, (3): 390-395. POLYURETHANE/pain/local complications.

Jacobs, J. C., Hensle, T. W., Kwan, D., Imundo, L. F., Hauser, A., and Tan, E. M. Do silicone testicular implants increase the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in children? (1) Do boys with silicone implants develop antinuclear antibodies with greater frequency than age/sex matched healthy controls? [abstract]. Pediatric Research. 1995, 39, (4): 393A. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Jacobs, J. C., Imundo, L., Robinson, O. G., Bradley, E. L., and Wilson, D. S. Analysis of explanted silicone implants: A report of 300 patients. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995, 34, 1-7. RUPTURE/local complications/explantation.

Jacobson, G. M., Sause, W. T., Thomson, J. W., and Plenk, H. P. Breast irradiation following silicone gel implants. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biol Phys. 1986, 12, 835-838. RADIATION/general.

Jacobsson, L., Axell, T., Hansen, B., Henricsson, V., Larsson, A., Lieberking, K., Lilja, B., and Manthorpe, R. Dry eyes or mouth—An epidemiological study in Swedish adults, with special reference to primary Sjögren's syndrome. Journal of Autoimmunity. 1989, 2, (4): 521-527. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

James, R. T. Psychiatric aspects of mastectomy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery. 1979 Oct, 49, (5): 519-520. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

James, S. J., Pogribna, M., Miller, B. J., Bolon, B., and Muskhelishvili, L. Characterization of cellular response to silicone implants in rats: Implications for foreign-body carcinogenesis. Biomaterials. 1997, 18, (9): 667-675. TOXICOLOGY/carcinogenicity/immune effects.

Janson, R. A. Implant arm: Axillary compression from breast prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985 Mar, 75 (3), 420-422. PAIN/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Jarrett, J. R., Cutler, R. G., and Teal, D. Subcutaneous mastectomy in small, large, or ptotic breasts with immediate submuscular placement of implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 62,'(5): 702-705. RECONSTRUCTION.

Jarrett, J. R., Cutler, R. G., and Teal, D. F. Aesthetic refinements in prophylactic subcutaneous mastectomy with submuscular reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Apr, 69, (4): 624-631. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/expander/reconstruction.

Jasty, M., and Smith, E. Wear particles of total joint replacements and their role in periprosthetic osteolysis. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 1992, 4, 204-209. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/general.

Jenkins, M. E., Friedman, H. I., and von Recum, A. F. Breast implants: Facts, controversy, and speculations for future research. Journal of Investigative Surgery. 1996, 9, (1): 1-12. GENERAL.

Jennings, D. A., Morykwas, M. J., Burns, W. W., Crook, M. E., Hudson, W. P., and Argenta, L. C. In vitro adhesion of endogenous skin microorganism to breast prostheses. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1991a, 27, (3): 216-220. INFECTION.

Jennings, D. A., Morykwas, M. J., DeFranzo, A. J., and Argenta, L. C. Analysis of silicon in human breast and capsular tissue surrounding prostheses and expanders. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1991b, Dec, 27, (6): 553-558. SILICON MEASUREMENT/expander.

Jennings, T. A., Peterson, L., Axiotis, C. A., Friedlaender, G. E., Cooke, R. A., and Rosai, J. Angiosarcoma associated with foreign body material. A report of three cases. Cancer. 1988 Dec 1, 62, (11): 2436-2444. CANCER.

Jenny, H., and Smahel, J. Clinicopathological correlations in pseudocapsule formation after breast augmentation. Aesth Plast Surg. 1981, 5, (1): 63-68. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Jensen, S and Mackey, J. Xeromammography after augmentation mammoplasty. Am. J. Roentgenol. 1985, 144, 629-633. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Jewett, S. T., and Mead, J. H. Extra-abdominal desmoid arising from a capsule around a silicone breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Apr, 63, (4): 577-579. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Jimenez, D. F. Silicone allergy in ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Child's Nervous System. 1994, 10, 59-63. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Johanson, T. R. M., Lowe, L., Brown, M. D., Sullivan, M. J., and Nelson, B. R. Histology and physiology of tissue expansion. J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 1993, 19, 1074. EXPANDER.

Johnson, C. H., van Heerden, J. A., Donohue, J. H., Marlin, J. K., Jackson, I. T., and Ilstrup, D. M. Oncological aspects of immediate breast reconstruction following mastectomy for malignancy. Archives of Surgery. 1989 Jul, 124, 819-824. CANCER/reconstruction.

Johnson, H. A. Silastic breast implants: Coping with complications. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1969 Dec, 44, (6): 588-591. GENERAL/local complications.

Johnson, M., and Lloyd, H. E. D. Bilateral breast cancer 10 years after an augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974, 55, 88-90. CANCER.

Johnson, P. E., and Hanson, K. D. Acute puerperal mastitis in the augmented breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Sep, 98, (4): 723-725. BREAST FEEDING/infection.

Jones, R. N., Turner-Warwick, M., and et al. High prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in sandblasters' silicosis. American Review of Respiratory Disease. 1976, 113, 393-395. SILICA.

Jonsson, C.-O., Engman, K., and Asplund, O. Psychological aspects of breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1984, 18, (3): 317-325. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Jordan, D. R., and Nerad, J. A. An acute inflammatory reaction to silicone stents. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1987, 3, 147. IMMUNE EFFECTS/general.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Jovanovic-Peterson, L., Sparks, S., Palmer, J. P., and Petterson, C. M. Jet-injected insulin is associated with decreased antibody production and postpranial glucose variability when compared with needle-injected insulin in gestational diabetic women. Diabetes Care. 1993 Nov, 16, (11): 1479-1484. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Juby, A. G., Davis, P., McElhaney, J. E., and Gravenstein, S. Prevalence of selected auto antibodies in different elderly subpopulations. Br. J. Rheumatol. 1994, 33, 1121-1124. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Kacew, S. Adverse effects of drugs and chemical in breast milk on the nursing infant. J Clin Pharmacol. 1993, 33, 213-221. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Kacew, S. Current issues in lactation: Advantages, environment, silicone. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 1994, 7, (4): 307-319. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Kacprzak, J. L. Atomic absorption spectroscopic determination of dimethylpolysiloxane in juices and beer. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1982, 65, (1): 148-150. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Kagan, H. D. Sakurai injectable silicone formula. Archives of Otolaryngology. 1963 Nov, 78, 53-58. SILICONE INJECTION.

Kahn, P., and Carmen, R. Reduction of ball variance in silicone rubber occluders. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1989, 48, S10-S11. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/general.

Kaiser, J. Breast-implant ruling sends a message. Science. 1997 Jan, 275, (5296): 21. GENERAL.

Kaiser, W. A., Biesenbach, G., Stuby, U., Grafinger, P., and Zazgornik, J. Human adjuvant disease: Remission of silicone induced autoimmune disease after explantation of breast augmentation. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 1990, 49, 937-938. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE / explantation.

Kaiser, W. A., and Zargornik, J. Does silicone induce automimmune diseases? Review of the literature and case reports. Z Rheumatol. 1992, 51, (1): 31-34. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Kaiser, W. A., and Zeitler, E. MR imaging of the breast: Fast imaging sequences with and without Gd-DTPA: Preliminary observations. Radiology. 1989 Mar, 170, 681-686. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Kala, S. V., and et al. Low molecular weight silicones are widely distributed after a single subcutaneous injection in mice. Am. J. Pathol. 1998, 152, 645-649. TOXICOLOGY.

Kala, S. V., Lykissa, E. D., and Lebovitz, R. M. Detection and characterization of poly(dimethylsiloxane)s in biological tissues by GC/AED and GC/MS. Analytical Chemistry. 1997 Apr 1, 69, (7): 1267-1272. SILICON MEASUREMENT/toxicology.

Kallenberg, C. G. M. Overlapping syndromes, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, and other fibrosing conditions. Current Opinions in Rheumatology. 1994, 6, 650-654. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Kalman, P. G., Ward, C. A., McKeown, N. B., and et al. Improved biocompatability of silicone rubber by removal of surface entrapped air nuclei. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1991 Feb, 25, 199-211. TOXICOLOGY.

Kao, C. C., Rand, R. P., Holt, C. A., Pierce, R. H., Timmons, J. H., and Wood, D. E. Internal mammary silicone lymphadenopathy mimicking recurrent breast cancer. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jan, 99, (2): 225-229. LYMPHADENOPATHY/local complications.

Kao, W. J., McNally, A. K., Hiltner, A., and Anderson, J. M. Role for interleukin-4 in foreign-body giant cell formation on a poly(etherurethane urea) in vivo. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1995, 29, 1267-1275. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Kao, W. J., Zhao, Q. H., Hiltner, A., and Anderson, J. M. Theoretical analysis of in vivo macrophage adhesion and foreign body giant cell formation on polydimethylsiloxane, low density polyethylene, and polyurethanes. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1994, 28, (1): 73-79. IMMUNE EFFECTS/general.

Kamel, M., Fornasier, V.L., and Peters, W. Cartilaginous metaplasia in the capsule of a Dacron-backed silicone gel breast prosthesis. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1999 Feb, 42, (2): 202-206. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Kaplan, H. S. A neglected issue: The sexual side effects of current treatments for breast cancer. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 1992, 18, (1): 3-19. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Karfík, V., and Šmahel, J. Subcutaneous silicone granuloma. Acta Chirugiae Plasticae. 1968, 10, (4): 328-332. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Karimeddini, M. K., and Spencer, R. P. Silicone breast implants and renal contrast agent: Iatrogenic sources of increased bone density. Clinical Nuclear Medicine. 1996 Nov, 21, (11): 889-890. GENERAL.

Karlson, E. W., Hankinson, S. E., Liang, M. H., Sanchez-Guerrero, J., Colditz, G. A., Rosenau, B. J., Speizer, F. E., and Schur, P. H. Association of silicone breast implants with immunologic abnormalities: a prospective study. Am J Med. 1999, 106, 11-19. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Karlson, E. W., Sanchez-Guerrero, J., Wright, E. A., Lew, R. A., Daltroy, L. H., Katz, J. N., and Liang, M. H. A connective tissue disease screening questionnaire (CSQ) for population studies. Annals of Epidemiology. 1995 Jul, 5, (4): 297-302. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Kasper, C. S. Histologic features of breast capsules reflect surface configuration and composition of silicone bag implants. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1994 Nov, 102, (5): 655-659. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Kasper, C. S., and Chandler, Jr. P. J. Talc deposition in skin and tissues surrounding silicone gel-containing prosthetic devices. Arch Dermatol. 1994 Jan, 130, 48-53. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Kasper, M. E., Harrell, E. H., Jones, W. B., and Krusz, J. C. Neuropsychological profile associated with silicone-gel breast implants. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine. 1998, 8, 7-17. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Katzin, W. E., Feng, L.-J., Abbuhl, M., and Klein, M. A. Phenotype of lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory reaction to silicone gel breast implants. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1996 Mar, 3, (2): 156-161. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kaufman, L. D., Varga, J., Gomez-Reino, J. J., Jimenez, S., and Targoff, I. N. Autoantibodies in sera from patients with 1-tryptophan-associated eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. 1995 Aug, 76, (2): 115-111. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Kaufman, R. L., Tong, I., and Beardmore, T. D. Prosthetic synovitis: Clinical and histologic characteristics. J. Rheumatol. 1985, 12, (6): 1066-1074. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Keesey, J., Lindstrom, J., Cokely, H., and Herrmann, C. Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody in neonatal myasthenia gravis. N. Engl. J. Med. 1977, 296, 55. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Kelly Jr., A. P., Jacobson, H. S., Fox, J. I., and Jenny, H. Complications of subcutaneous mastectomy and replacement by the Cronin silastic mammary prosthesis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1966, 37, (5): 438-445. RECONSTRUCTION.

Kelsey, J. L. Breast cancer epidemiology: Summary and future directions. Epidemiologic Reviews. 1993, 15, 256-263. CANCER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Kennan, J. J., Peters, Y. A., Swarthout, D. E., Owen, M. J., Namkanisorn, A., and Chaudhury, M. K. Effect of saline exposure on the surface and bulk properties of medical grade silicone elastomers. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997, 36, 487-497. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/toxicology.

Kennedy, C., and Swinger, H. Eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid: Late reaction to a silicone shunt. Developmental Medicine Child Neurology. 1988, 30, 378-390. IMMUNE EFFECTS/neurologic disease/children's effects.

Kennedy, G. L., Keplinger, M. L., and Calandra, J. C. Reproductive, teratologic and mutagenic studies with some polydimethylsiloxanes. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1976 Jul, 1, 909-920. TOXICOLOGY/children's effects.

Kent, K., Ziegel, R. F., Kent, K., Frost, A. L., and Schaaf, N. G. Controlling the porosity and density of silicone rubber prosthetic materials. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 1983 Aug, 50, (2): 230-236. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Kerlikowske, K. Efficacy of screening mammography among women 48-49 years and 50-59 years: Comparison of relative and absolute benefit. Natl. Cancer Inst., Monogr. 1997, 22, 79-86. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Kern, K. A., Flannery, J. T., and Kuehn, P. G. Carcinogenic potential of silicone breast implants: A Connecticut statewide study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Sep, 100, (3): 737-747. CANCER.

Kern, S. F., Anderson, R. C., and Harris, P. N. Observations on the toxicity of methyl-silicone. Journal of Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1949, 38, (10): 575-576. TOXICOLOGY.

Kessler, D. A. Special Report: The basis of the FDA's decision on breast implants. New England Journal of Medicine. 1992 Jun 18, 326, (25): 1713-1715. GENERAL.

Khan, A., Hill, J. M., Grater, W., Loeb, E., MacLellan, A., and Hill, N. Atopic hypersensitivity to cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) and other platinum complexes. Cancer Research. 1975 Oct, 35, 2766-2770. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Khoo, A., Kroll, S. S., Reece, G. P., Miller, M. J., Evans, G. R. D., Robb, G. L., Baldwin, B. J., Wang, B., and Schusterman, M. A. A comparison of resource costs of immediate and delayed breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Apr, 101, (4): 964-968. RECONSTRUCTION.

Kidder, L. H., Kalasinsky, V. F., Luke, J. L., Levin, I. W., and Lewis, E. N. Visualization of silicone gel in human breast tissue using new infrared imaging spectroscopy. Nature Medicine. 1997 Feb, 3, (2): 235-237. SILICON MEASUREMENT/migration.

Kilodny, R. C., Jacobs, L. S., and Daughaday, W. H. Mammary stimulation causes prolactin secretion in non-lactating women. Nature. 1972, 238, 284. BREAST FEEDING/local complications.

Kim, D. W., and Harris, J. P. Risk of progressive sensorineural hearing loss and Menier's disease after breast implantation. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 1998 Jun, 118, (6): 747-750. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Kim, K. S., Hong, C., and Futress, J. W. Histomorphologic changes in expanded skeletal muscle in rats. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993, 92, 710. EXPANDER.

Kimura, W. K., Treon, J. F., and Bensen, T. R. Therapeutic use of methylpolysiloxane. Cur. Ther. Res. 1964, 6, 202. TOXICOLOGY.

Kincaid, S. B. Breast reconstruction: A Review. Annals of Plastic Surgery. May1984, 12, (5): 431-448. GENERAL.

King, E. J., Mohanty, G. P., Harrison, C. V., and Nagelschmidt, G. The action of different forms of pure silica on the lungs of rats. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1953, 10, 9017. SILICA.

Kircher, T. Silicone lymphadenopathy: A complication of silicone elastomer finger joint prostheses. Human Pathology. 1980 May, 11, (3): 240-244. LYMPHADENOPATHY/ local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Kirsner, R. S., and Falanga, V. Features of an autoimmune process in mid-dermal elastolysis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1992, 27, (5 (Part 2)): 832-834. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kissin, M. W., and Kark, A. E. Late leakage of saline-filled breast prosthesis. Archives of Surgery. 1983 Jun, 118, (6): 769. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/rupture/local complications.

Kitazawa, T., Shuman, H., and Somlyo, A. P. Quantitative electron probe analysis: Problems and solutions. Ultramicroscopy. 1983, 11, 251-262. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Kitchen, S. B., Paletta, C. E., Shehadi, S. I., and Bauer, W. C. Epithelialization of the lining of a breast implant capsule. Cancer. 1994 Mar 1, 73, (5): 1449-1452. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications/granulomas/cancer.

Kjøller, K. H., Krag, C., and Friis, S. Silicone breast implants and breast cancer. Ugeskr Laeger. 1997, 159, (12): 1744-1748. CANCER.

Kjoller, K., McLaughlin, J. K., Friis, S., Blot, W. J., Mellemkjar, L., Hogsted, C., Winther, J. F., and Olsen, J. H. Health outcomes in offspring of mothers with breast implants. Pediatrics. 1998 Nov, 102, (5): 1112-1115. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS.

Klajman, A., Kafri, B., Shobat, J., Drucher, I., Moalem, T., and Jaretzky, A. The prevalence of antibodies to histones induced by procainamide in old people, in cancer patients, and in rheumatoid-like disease. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1983, 27, (1): 1-83. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Klamer, T. W., Donegan, W. L., and Max, M. H. Breast tumor incidence in rats after partial mammary resection. Archives of Surgery. 1983 Aug, 118, 933-935. CANCER.

Klein, E. E., and Kuske, R. R. Changes in photon dose distributions due to breast prostheses. I. J. Radiation Oncology. 1993, 25, (3): 541-549. RADIATION.

Kling, E., Bieg, S., Boehme, M., and Scherbaum, W. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 as a new activity marker in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The Clinical Investigator. 1993, 71, 299-304. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Klockars, M., Koskela, R-S., Jarvinen, E., Kolari, P. J., and Rossi, A. Silica exposure and rheumatoid arthritis: A follow up study of granite workers 1940-81. British Medical Journal. 1987 Apr 18, 294, 997-1000. SILICA.

Kneafsey, B., Crawford, D. S., Khoo, C. T., and Saad, M. N. Correction of developmental breast abnormalities with a permanent expander/implant. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Jul, 49, (5): 302-306. EXPANDER.

Knize, D. M. Silicone breast implants—a cancer threat? Colorado Medicine. 1988 Dec 1: 487. CANCER.

Ko, C. Y., Ahn, C. Y., Ko, J., Chopra, W., and Shaw, W. W. Capsular synovial metaplasia as a common response to both textured and smooth implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Jun, 97, (7): 1427-1433. PAIN/capsule-contracture/local complications/polyurethane.

Ko, C. Y., Ahn, C. Y., and Markowitz, B. L. Injected liquid silicone, chronic mastitis, and undetected breast cancer. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Feb, 34, (2): 176-179. SILICONE INJECTION/cancer.

Kobayashi, S., Isase, H., Karamatsu, S., and et al. A case of stromal sarcoma of the breast occurring after augmentation mammaplasty. Japanese Journal of Cancer Clinics. 1988, 34a, 467-472. CANCER.

Koch, A., Kunkel, S., Burrows, J., Evanoff, H., Haines, G., Pope, R., and Strrieter, R. Synovial tissue macrophage as a source of the chemotactic cytokine IL-8. Journal of Immunology. 1991 Oct 1, 147, (7): 2187-2195. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Koeger, A. C., Alcaix, D., Milleron, B., and et al. Silica and connective tissue diseases: A study of twenty-four cases. Medicine. 1995, 74, 221. SILICA.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Koeger, A. C., and Bourgeois, P. Systemic manifestations after silicone breast implants. Revue du Rhumatisme. 1993 Feb, 60, 120-126. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Koeger, A.-C., Lang, T., Alcaix, D., Milleron, B., Rozenberg, S., Chaibi, P., Arnaud, J., Mayaud, C., Camus, I.-P., and Bourgeois, P. Silica-associated connective tissue disease. Medicine. 1995, 74, (5): 221-237. SILICA/connective tissue disease.

Koeger, A. C., Wrona, N., Sitbon, E., and Nicoletis, C. Maladies auto-immunes associees aux protheses mammaires en silicone. Chirurgie. 1993, 119, 618-625. IMMUNE EFFECTS/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Koide, T., and Katayama, H. Calcification in augmentation mammoplasty. Radiology. 1979 Feb, 130, (2): 337-338. CALCIFICATION/mammography.

Kolodny, R. C., Jacobs, L. S., and Daughaday, W. H. Mammary stimulation causes prolactin secretion in non-lactating women. Nature. 1972 Aug 4, 238, 284-286. BREAST FEEDING/local complications.

Konstantinov, K., von mikecz, A., Buchwald, D., Jones, J., Gerace, L., and Tan, E. M. Autoantibodies to nuclear envelope antigens in chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal Of Clinical Investigation. 1996 Oct, 98, (8): 1888-1896. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Kopans, D. B. Problems with the American College of Radiology Standard for Diagnostic Mammography. AIR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1995 Dec, 165, 1367-1369. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Kopans, D. B. Screening for breast cancer and mortality reduction among women 40-49 years of age. Cancer. 1994 Jul 1, 74, (1 (Supplement)): 311-322. CANCER/mammography.

Kopans, D. B., Meyer, J. E., and Lindfors, K. K. Whole breast US imaging: Four-year follow-up. Radiology. 1985, 157, (2): 505-507. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Kopans, D. B., Moore, R. H., McCarthy K. A., Hall, D. A., Hulka, C. A., Whitman, G. J., Slanetz, P. J., and Halpern, E. F. Should women with implants or a history of treatment for breast cancer be excluded from mammography screening programs? AIR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1997 Jan, 168, (1): 29-31. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Kopf, E. H. Injectable silicones. Rocky Mountain Medical Journal. 1966 Mar, 63, (3): 34-36. SILICONE INJECTION.

Kopf, E. H., Vinnik, C. A., and Bongiovi, J. J. et al. The complications of silicone injections. Rocky Mountain Medical Journal. 1976, 22, 281-285. SILICONE INJECTION.

Korman, N. J., Sudilovsky, O., and Gibbons, D. F. A model for the production of large volume exudate from the implant-tissue interface. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1982, 16, 87-91. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/toxicology.

Kossoff, G., Fry, E. K., and Jelllins, J. Average velocity of ultrasound in the human female breast. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 1973, 53, (6): 1730-1736. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Kossovsky, N. The demise of the non-specific foreign body giant cell reaction. Trends in Polymer Science. 1993, 1, 190-191. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N. Ventricular shunt failure: Evidence of immunologic sensitization. Surgical Forum. 1983, 34, 527-528. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., Cole, P., and Zackson, D. A. Giant cell myocarditis associated with silicone: an unusual case of biomaterials pathology discovered at autopsy using X-ray energy spectroscopic techniques. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990, 93, (1): 148-152. TOXICOLOGY.

Kossovsky, N., and Dujovny, M. Reporting the failure of medical devices. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1985 Feb, 312, (7): 447. GENERAL.

Kossovsky, N., Freeman, C. J., Stassi, J. B., and Mena, E. Cytokine expression in response to biomaterials. Immunomethods. 1993, 3, 43-49. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Kossovsky, N., and Freiman, C. J. Immunology of silicone breast implants. Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 1994, 8, (3): 237-246. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., and Freiman, C. J. Physicochemical and immunological basis of silicone pathophysiology. Journal of Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 1995, 7, (2): 101-113. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., and Freiman, C. J. Review—physiochemical and immunological basis of silicone pathophysiology. Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition. 1995, 7, (2): 101-113. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., and Freiman, C. J. Silicone breast implant pathology: Clinical data and immunologic consequences. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1994 Jul, 118, (7): 686-693. GENERAL/immune effects.

Kossovsky, N., Gornbein, J. A., Zeidler, M., Stassi, J., Chun, G., Papasian, N., Nguyen, R., Ly, K., and Rajguru, S. Self-reported signs and symptoms in breast implant patients with novel antibodies to silicone surface associated antigens [anti-SSAA(x)]. Journal of Applied Biomaterials. 1995, 6, (4): 153-160. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Kossovsky, N., Heggers, J. P., Parsons, R. W., and Robson, M. C. Acceleration of capsule formation around silicone implants by infection in a guinea pig model. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Jan, 73, (1): 91-96. INFECTION/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Kossovsky, N., Heggers, J. P., and Robson, M. C. Experimental demonstration of the immunogenicity of silicone-protein complexes. J Biomed Materials Research. 1987, 21, 1125-1133. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., Heggers, J. P., Robson, M. C., and Ellis, J. T. Delayed hypersensitivity to silicone products. Materials Sciences and Implant Orthopedic Surgery. 1998, 116, 283-305. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., and Papasian, N. Mammary implants: A clinical review. Journal of Applied Biomaterials. 1992 Sep, 3, 239-242. GENERAL.

Kossovsky, N., and Stassi, J. A pathophysiologic examination of the biophysics and bioreactivity of silicone breast implants. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Aug, 24, (1 (Supplement 1)): 18-21. GENERAL.

Kossovsky, N., and Zeidler, M. Protein denaturation by silicone adjuvant in humans: Human serum IgG show high avidity to matrix proteins following in vivo exposure to silicone. 1993 Apr 19. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., Zeidler, M., Chun, G., and et al. Surface dependent antigens identified by high binding avidity of serum antibodies in a subpopulation of patients with breast prostheses. J Appl Biomaterials. 1993 Dec, 4, 281-288. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kotzin, B. L. Twins and t-cell responses. Nature 364:(15):187-188. 1993 Jul. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kozeny, G. A., Barbato, a. L., Bansal, V. K., Vertuno, L. L., and Hano, J. E. Hypercalcemia associated with silicone-induced granulomas. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1984 Oct 25, 311, (17): 1103-1105. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Kraemer, O., Andersen, M., and Siim, E. Breast reconstruction and tissue expansion in irradiated versus not irradiated women after mastectomy. Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Hand Surg. 1996, 30, 201-206. RADIATION/reconstruction.

Krishnan, L., and Krishnan, E. C. Electronic beam irradiation after reconstruction with silicone gel implant in breast cancer. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1986, 9, (3): 223-226. RADIATION/cancer/reconstruction.

Krishnan, L., Krishnan, E. C., Wolf, C. D., and Jewell, W. R. Preservation of augmented breasts in patients with breast cancer. RadioGraphics. 1993, 13, (4): 831-839. RADIATION / reconstruction.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Krishnan, L., St. George, F. J., Mansfield, C. M., and Krishnan, E. C. Effect of silicone gel breast prosthesis on electron and photon dose distribution. Medical Physics. 1983 Jan-1983 Feb 28, 10, (1): 96-99. RADIATION/reconstruction.

Kroll, S. S., and Baldwin, B. A. A comparison of outcomes using three different methods of breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Sep, 90, (3): 455-462. RECONSTRUCTION/expander.

Kroll, S. S., Evans, G. R. D., Reece, G. P., Miller, M. J., Robb, G., Baldwin, B. J., and Schusterman, M. A. Comparison of resource costs between implant-based and TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Feb, 97, (2): 364-373. RECONSTRUCTION.

Kroner, K., Knudsen, U. B., Lundby, L., and Hvid, H. Long-term phantom breast syndrome after mastectomy. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 1992, 8, 346-350. PAIN.

Ksander, G. A. Effects of diffused soluble steroid on capsules around experimental breast prostheses in rats. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 May, 63, (5): 708. STEROIDS/local complications / capsule-contracture.

Ksander, G. A., and Gray, L. Reduced capsule formation around soft silicone rubber pros-theses coated with solid collagen. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1985, 14, 351-358. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Ksander, G. A., and Vistnes, L. M. Collagen and glycosaminoglycans in capsules around silicone implants. Journal of Surgical Research. 1981, 31, 433-439. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Ksander, G. A., and Vistnes, L. M. The incidence of experimental contracture varies with the source of the prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985 May, 75, (5): 668-676. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE / local complications.

Ksander, G. A., Vistnes, L. M., and Fogarty, D.C. Experimental effects on surrounding fibrous capsule formation from placing steroid in a silicone bag-gel prosthesis before implantation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 62, (6): 873-884. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/steroids.

Ksander, G. A., Vistnes, L. M., and Kosek, J. Effect of implant location on compressibility and capsule formation around miniprostheses in rats, and experimental capsule contracture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1981 Mar, 6, 182-193. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications.

Kuhn, D. C., and Demers, L. M. Influence of mineral dust surface chemistry on eicosanoid production by the alveolar macrophage. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 1992, 35, 39-50. SILICA.

Kuiper, D. H. Silicone granulomatous disease of the breast simulating cancer. Michigan Medicine. 1973 Mar: 215-218. SILICONE INJECTION/cancer/granulomas/local complications.

Kulber, D. A., Mackenzie, D., Steiner, J. H., Glassman, H., Hopp, D., Hiatt, J. R., and Hoffman, L. Monitoring the axilla in patients with silicone gel implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Dec, 35, (6): 580-584. MIGRATION/local complications/mammography/lymphadenopathy.

Kumagai, Y., Abe, C., Hirano, T., Fukuda, Y., and Shiokawa, Y. Mixed connective tissue disease after breast augmentation which terminated in scleroderma kidney: an autopsy case report of human adjuvant disease. The Ryumachi. 1981, 21 (Suppl), 171-176. CONNECTWE TISSUE DISEASE.

Kumagai, Y., Abe, C., and Shiokawa, Y. Scleroderma after cosmetic surgery: Four cases of human adjuvant disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1979 May, 22, (5): 532-537. SILICONE INJECTION/connective tissue disease.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Kumagai, Y., Shiokawa, Y., Medsger Jr., T. A., and Rodnan, G. P. Clinical spectrum of connective tissue disease after cosmetic surgery: Observations on eighteen patients and a review of the Japanese literature. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1984 Jan, 27, (1): 1-12. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/silicone injection.

Kuske, R. R., Schuster, R., Klein, E., Young, L., Perez, C. A., and Fineberg, B. Radiotherapy and breast reconstruction: Clinical results and dosimetry. Int J Radiation Oncology Biol Phys. 1991 Jul, 21, (2): 339-346. RADIATION/pain/capsule-contracture/local complications/reconstruction.

Kyle, R. A. Benign monoclonal gammopathy—After 20 to 35 years of follow-up. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1993, 68, 26-36. MYELOMA.

Laban, E., and Kon, M. Lesion of the long thoracic nerve during the axillary breast augmentation: An unusual complication. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1990, 24, 445-446. SENSATION/local complications.

Labow, R. S., Meek, E., and Santerre, J. P. Differential synthesis of cholesterol esterase by monocyte-derived macrophages cultured on poly(ether or ester)-based poly(urethanes)s. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998, 39, 469-477. TOXICOLOGY.

Ladin, D. A., Saed, G. M., and Fivenson, D. P. T-cell response in silicone gel breast implant capsules. Surgical Forum. 1994, 45, 730-731. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Lafreniere, R., and Ketcham, A. S. Breast carcinoma post-augmentation mammaplasty: Therapy with limited surgery and radiation. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1987, 35, 99-103. CANCER.

Lahey, F. H. Further experiences with injured bile ducts. Journal of Medicine. 1949, 240, (5): 161-168. GENERAL.

Lai, Y-F, Chao, T-Y, and Wong, S-L. Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone for augmentation mammaplasty. Chest. 1994, 106, (4): 1152-1155. SILICONE INJECTION.

Laitung, J. K. G., McClure, J., and Shuttleworth, C. A. The fibrous capsules around static and dynamic implants: Their biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural characteristics. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1987 Sep, 19, (3): 208-214. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications.

Lamm, S. H. Silicone breast implants and long-term health effects: When are data adequate? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 507-511. GENERAL.

Lamm, S. H. Silicone breast implants, breast cancer and specific connective tissue diseases: A systematic review of the data in the epidemiological literature. International Journal of Toxicology. 1998, 17, 497-527. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/cancer.

Lamm, S. H., and Engel, A. Human breast sarcoma incidence and silicone breast implantation rates: A comparison. J Clin Res Drug Dev. 1989, 3, 218-219. CANCER/prevalence.

Landon, B. N., Dobke, M. K., Grzybowski, J., Virden, C. P., Dobak, J., and Steinsapir, E. S. Enhanced activity of lyosomal beta-galactosidase following silicone implantation: An experimental study in rats. J Lab Clin Med. 1993, 121, (6): 742-750. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Lantieri, L. A., Roudot-Thoraval, F., Collins, E. D., Raulo, Y., and Baruch, J. P. Influence of underfilling on breast implant deflation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Dec, 100, (7): 1740-1744. RUPTURE/local complications/saline.

Lapin, R., Daniel, D., Hutchins, H., and Justice, G. Primary breast reconstruction following mastectomy using a skin-expander prosthesis. Diseases of the Breast. 1980, 6, (2): 20-24. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Lappe, M. A. Causal inference in syndromes associated with silicone breast implants: Psychogenic and environmental factors. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995, 4, (1): 165-175. IMMUNE EFFECTS/PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Lappe, M. A. Silicone-reactive disorder: A new autoimmune disease caused by immunostimulation and superantigens. Medical Hypotheses. 1993, 41, 348-352. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Lappert, M. F., and Scott, F. P. A. Preliminary communication. The reaction pathway from Speier's to Karstedt's hydrosilylation catalyst. The Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 1995, 492, C11-C13. PLATINUM.

Larson, D. L., Anderson, R. C., Maksud, D., and Grunert, B. K. What influences public perceptions of silicone breast implants? Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1994 Aug, 94, (2): 318-325. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Laughlin, R. A., Raynor, A. C., and Habal, B. M. Complications of closed capsulotomies after augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977, 60, (3): 362-363. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/local complications.

Lavey, E. B., and Pearl, R. M. Inflammation in a silicone-induced granuloma caused by a tuberculosis skin test. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1981 Aug, 7, (2): 152-154. SILICONE INJECTION/immune effects/granulomas.

Lavine, D. M. Saline inflatable prostheses: 14 years' experience. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1993, 17, 325-330. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/hematomas/rupture/saline.

Lawrence, R. Breastfeeding and medical disease. Medical Clinics of North America. 1989, 73, 583-603. BREAST FEEDING.

Lawrence, R. C., Hochberg, M. C., Kelsey, J. L., and et al. Estimates of the prevalence of selected arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases in the United States. Journal of Rheumatology. 1989, 16, (4): 427-441. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Lawrie, S., and Pelosi, A. Chronic fatigue syndrome in the community. Prevalence and associations. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1995, 166, (6): 793-797. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Lazaro, M. A., Morteo, D. G., DeBenyacar, M. A., Paira, S. O., Lema, B., Morteo, O. G., and Cocco, M. Lymphadenopathy secondary to silicone hand joint prostheses. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 1990, 8, 17-22. LYMPHADENOPATHY/local complications.

Le Fevre, R., Coulston, F., and Goldberg, L. Action of a copolymer of mixed phenylmethylcyclosiloxanes on reproduction in rats and rabbits. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1972, 21, 29-44. TOXICOLOGY.

Le Vier, R. R., Bennett, D. R., and Hunter, M. J. Effects of oral 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane on the reproductive system of the male Macaca mulatta. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975 Jan 1, Vol 36, Supp. HI, 68-80, Chapter VIII. TOXICOLOGY.

Le Vier, R. R., and Jankowiak, M. E. The hormonal and antifertility activity of 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in the female rat. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975 Jan 1, Vol 36, Supp. III, 81-92, Chapter Viii. TOXICOLOGY.

Lebovic, G. S. Silicone autoimmune disease. Diseases of the Breast. 1996: 620-628, Ch. 19. GENERAL/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Lee, C. L., Polmanteer, K. E., and King, E. G. Flow behavior of narrow-distribution poly-dimethylsiloxane. J. Polymer. Sci. A2. 1970, 8, 1909. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Lee, D., Goldstein, E. J., and Zarem, H. A. Localized Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare mastitis in an immunocompetent woman with silicone breast implants. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1995, 95, (1): 142-144. INFECTION/local complications.

Lee, S.-L., Tsay, G. J., and Tsai, R.-T. Anticentromere antibodies in subjects with no apparent connective tissue diseases. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1993, 52, 586-589. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Lees-Haley, P. R. Contamination of neuropsychological testing by litigation. Forensic Reports. 1990, 3, 421-426. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

LeFevre, R., Coulston, F., and Goldberg, L. Action of a copolymer of mixed phenylmethylcyclosiloxanes on reproduction in rats and rabbits. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1972, 21, 29-44. TOXICOLOGY.

Leff, R. L., Burgess, S. H., Miller, F. W., Love, L. A., Targoff, I. N., Dalakas, M. C., Joffe, M. M., and Plotz, P. H. Distinct seasonal patterns in the onset of adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathy in patients with anti-Jo-1 and anti-signal recognition particle autoantibodies. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1991, 34, (11): 1391-1396. IMMUNE EFFECTS/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Lefkowitz, D. L., Mills, K., Lefkowitz, S. S., Bollen, A., and Moguilvesky, N. Neutrophilmacrophage interaction: A paradigm for chronic inflammation. Medical Hypotheses. 1995 Jan, 44, 58-62. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Leibman, A. J. Imaging of complications of augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 May, 93, (6): 1134-1139. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Leibman, A. J., Kossoff, M. B., and Kruse, B. D. Intraductal extension of silicone from a ruptured breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992, 89, (3): 546-547. RUPTURE/local complications/closed capsulotomy/migration.

Leibman, A. J., and Kruse, B. Breast cancer: Mammographic and sonographic findings after augmentation mammoplasty. Radiology. 1990, 174, 195. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Leibman, A. J., and Kruse, B. D. Imaging of breast cancer after augmentation mammaplasty. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Feb, 30, (2): 111-115. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Leibman, A. J., and Sybers, R. Mammographic and sonographic findings after silicone injection. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Oct, 33, (4): 412-414. SILICONE INJECTION/ mammography.

Leighton, W. D., Russel, R. C., Feller, A. M., Eriksson, E., Mathur, A., and Zook, D. G. Experimental pretransfer expansion of free-flap donor sites: II physiology, histology, and clinical correlation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988, 82, 76. EXPANDER.

Leininger, R. I., Mirkovitch, V., Peters, A., and Hawks, W. A. Change in properties of plastics during implantation. Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Int. Organs. 1964, 10, 320-322. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Lemen, J. K. Rabbit Teratology Study via Surgical Implant. Vienna, Va.: 1991 Apr 29. TOXICOLOGY.

Lemperle, G. Unfavorable results after breast reconstruction with silicone breast. Acta Chirurgica Belgica. 1980 Mar, 79, (2): 159-160. STEROIDS/local complications/reconstruction.

Letuperie, G., and Exner, K. Effect of cortisone on capsular contracture in double-lumen breast implants: Ten years' experience. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1993 Jan, 17, 317-323. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/steroids.

Leong, A. Pathologic findings in silicone spallation: Autopsy and biopsy studies. Annals Academy of Medicine. 1983 Apr, 12, (2): 304-310. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Leong, A. S. Y., Disney, A. P. S., and Gove, D. W. Spallation and migration of silicone from blood-pump tubing in patients on hemodialysis. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1982 Jan 21, 306, (3): 135-140. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/granulomas/ local complications/general.

Lerner, M. R., and Steitz, J. A. Antibodies to small nuclear RNAs complexed with proteins are produced by patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 1979, 76, 5495-5497. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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LeRoy, E. C., Maricq, H. R., and Kahaleh, M. B. Undifferentiated connective tissue syndromes. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1980 Mar, 23, (3): 341-343. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Lesesne, C. B. Textured surface silicone breast implants: Histology in the human. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1997, 21, (2): 93-96. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Lesser, M. Silicones in medicine and pharmacy. Drug Cosmetic Ind. 1953, 72, (5): 516. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Letterman, G. S., and Schurter, M. Total mammary gland excision with immediate breast reconstruction. The American Surgeon. 1955, 21, (8): 835-844. RECONSTRUCTION.

Leung, F. Y., and Edmond, P. Determination of silicon in serum and tissue by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Clinical Biochemistry. 1997 Jul, 30, (5): 399-403. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Levenson, T., Greenberger, P. A., and Murphy, R. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, hyperimmunoglobulinemia A and fatigue: Possible complications following rupture of silicone breast implants. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1996 Aug, 77, (2): 119-122. CONNECTWE TISSUE DISEASE/rupture/local complications.

LeVier, R. R. Distribution of silicon in the adult rat and rhesus monkey. Bioinorganic Chemistry. 1975, 4, 109-115. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

LeVier, R. R., Bennett, D. R., and Hunter, M. J. Effects of oral 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane on the reproductive system of the male Macaca mulata. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975, 36, (Supplement III): 68-80. TOXICOLOGY.

LeVier, R. R., and Boley, W. F. The antigonadotrophic activity of an organosiloxane in the male rat: 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975, 36, (Supplement III): 55-67. TOXICOLOGY.

LeVier, R. R., Harrison, M. C., Cook, R. R., and Lane, T. H. What is Silicone? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Jul, 92, (1): 163-167. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/silica.

LeVier, R. R., Harrison, M. C., Cook, R. R., and Lane, T. H. What is Silicone? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 513-517. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/ silica.

LeVier, R. R., and Jankowiak, M. E. The hormonal and antifertility activity of 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in the female rat. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975, 36, (Supplement III): 81-92. TOXICOLOGY.

Levine, J. J., and Ilowite, N. T. Sclerodermalike esophageal disease in children breast-fed by mothers with silicone breast implants. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Jan 19, 271, (3): 213-216. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding/connective tissue disease.

Levine, J. J., Ilowite, N. T., Pettei, M. J., and Trachtman, H. Increased urinary No(3)- + No(2)- and Neopterin excretion in children breast fed by mothers with silicone breast implants: Evidence for macrophage activation. The Journal of Rheumatology. 1996, 23, (6): 1083-1087. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Levine, J. J., Lin, H. C., Rowley, M., Cook, A., Teuber, S. S., and Illowite, N. T. Lack of autoantibody expression in children born to mothers with silicone breast implants. Pediatrics. 1996 Feb, 97, (2): 243-245. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/immune effects/breast feeding.

Levine, J. J., Trachtman, H., Gold, D. M., and Pettei, M. J. Esophageal dysmotility in children breast-fed by mothers with silicone breast implants. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 1996 Aug, 41, (8): 1600-1603. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS.

Levine, N. S., and Buchanan, R. T. Decreased swimming speed following augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Feb, 72, (2): 255-256. GENERAL.

Levine, R. A., and Collins, T. L. Definitive diagnosis of breast implant rupture by ultrasonography. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Jun, 87, (6): 1126-1128. MAMMOGRAPHY/ local complications/rupture.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Lewin, S. L., and Miller, T. A. A review of epidemiologic studies analyzing the relationship between breast implants and connective tissue diseases. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Oct, 100, (5): 1309-1313. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Lewis, C. M. Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast following silicone injections. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 Jul, 66, (1): 134-136. CANCER/silicone injection.

Lewis, Jr. J. R. The augmentation mammoplasty (with special reference to alloplastic materials). Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1965 Jan, 35, (1): 51-59. GENERAL/silicone injection.

Lewis, L. N. On the mechanism of metal colloid catalyzed hydrosilylation: Proposed explanations for electronic effects and oxygen cocatalysis. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1990, 112, 5998-6004. SILICONE CHEMISTRY.

Lewis, L. N. Platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation—colloid formation as the essential step. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1986, 108, (23): 7228-7231. PLATINUM/ silicone chemistry.

Lewis, L. N. et al. The effect of metal colloid morphology on catalytic activity: Further proof of the intermediacy of colloids in the rhodium-catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction. Journal of Molecular Catalysis. 1991, 66, 105-113. PLATINUM/silicone chemistry.

Lewis, L. N. et al. Platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation of alkynes. Organometallics. 1991, 10, 3750-3759. PLATINUM/silicone chemistry.

Lewis, L. N. et al. Platinum catalyzed hydrosilylation of alkynes: Comparison of rates of addition of terminal olefins to internal alkynes. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 1992, 427, 165-172. PLATINUM/silicone chemistry.

Lewis, L. N., and Lewis, N. Preparation and structure of platinum group metal colloids: Without solvent. Chemistry of Materials. 1989, 1, 106-114. PLATINUM/silicone chemistry.

Lewis, L. N., Stein, J., Gao, Y., Colborn, R. E., and Hutchines, G. Platinum catalysts used in the silicones industry, their synthesis and activity in hydrosilation. Platinum Metals Review. 1997, 41, (2): 66-75. PLATINUM/toxicology/silicone chemistry.

Lewis, L. N., Uriarte, R. J., and Lewis, N. Metal colloid morphology and catalytic activity: Further proof of the intermediacy of colloids in the platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction. Journal of Catalysis. 1991, 127, 67-74. SILICONE CHEMISTRY/PLATINUM.

Lewis, L. N., and Uriate, R. J. Hydrosilylation catalyzed by metal colloids: a relative activity study. Organometallics. 1990, 9, 621-625. SILICONE CHEMISTRY/platinum.

Lewold, S., Olsson, H., Gustafson, Rydholm A., and Lidgren, L. Overall cancer incidence not increased after prosthetic knee replacement: 14,551 Patients followed for 66,662 person-years. Int. J Cancer. 1996, 68, 30-33. CANCER.

Liang, M. D., Narayanan, K., Ravilochan, K., and Roche, K. The permeability of tissue expanders to bacteria: An experimental study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993, 92, 1294. INFECTION/local complications/expander.

Lieberman, M. W., Lykissa, E. D., Barrios, R., Ou, C. N., Kala, G., and Kala, S. V. Cyclosiloxanes produce fatal liver and lung damage in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Feb, 107, (2). TOXICOLOGY.

Lilla, J. A., and Vistnes, L. M. Long-term study of reactions to various silicone breast implants in rabbits. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976 May, 57, (5): 637-649. POLYURETHANE/ toxicology.

Lin, K., Bartlett, S. P., Matsuo, K., LiVolsi, V. A., Parry, C., Hass, B., and Whitaker, L. A. Hyaluronic acid-filled mammary implants: An experimental study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Aug, 94, (2): 306-315. GENERAL.

Lin RP, DiLeonardo M, and Jacoby RA. Silicone lymphadenopathy. A case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 1993 Feb, 15, (1): 82-84. LYMPHADENOPATHY/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Lindbichler, F., Hoflehner, H., Schmidt, F., Pierer, G. R., Raith, J., Umschaden, J., and Preidler, K. W. Comparison of mammographic image quality in various methods of reconstructive breast surgery. European Radiology. 1996, 6, (6): 925-928. MAMMOGRAPHY/reconstruction.

Lipshutz, H. A clinical evaluation of subdermal and subcutaneous silicone implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1966 Mar, 37, (3): 249-250. GENERAL.

Liston, J. C., Malata, C. M., Varma, S., Scott, M., and Sharpe, D. T. The role of ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of breast implant rupture: A prospective study. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1994, 47, 477-482. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Little, G., and Baker, J. L. Results of closed compression capsulotomy for treatment of contracted breast implant capsules. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 Jan, 65, (1): 30-33. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/closed capsulotomy.

Little, J. W. III, Golembe, E. V., and Fisher, J. B. The living bra in immediate and delayed reconstruction of the breast following mastectomy for malignant and nonmalignant disease. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Sep, 68, (3): 392-403. RECONSTRUCTION.

Little, J. W., Munasifi, T., and McCulloch, D. T. One-stage reconstruction of a projecting nipple: the quadrapod flap. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Jan, 71, (1): 126-132. RECONSTRUCTION.

Little, K., and Parkhouse, S. Tissue reactions to polymers. The Lancet. 1962 Oct 27, 2, 857-861. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/toxicology.

Liu, Le-Wen and Truong, L. D. Morphologic characterization of polyvinyl sponge (Ivalon) breast prosthesis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 1996 Sep, 120, 876-878. GENERAL.

Lloyd, A. R. Chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: shifting boundaries and attributions. The American Journal of Medicine. 1998 Sep 28, 105, (3A): 7S-10S. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Loeng, A. S. Y., and Gove, D. W. Pathological findings in silicone spallation in vitro studies. Pathology. 1983, 15, 189-192. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Loeser, E. Long-term toxicity and carcinogencitiy studies with 2,4/2,6-toluene-diisocyanate (80/20) in rats and mice. Toxicology Letters. 1983, 15, 71-81. TOXICOLOGY/carcinogenicity.

Logothetis, M. L. Women's reports of breast implant problems and silicone-related illness. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1995 Sep, 24, 609-616. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/psychosocial.

Looney, R. J., Frampton, M. W., Byam, J., Kenaga, C., Speers, D. M., Cox, C., Mast, R., Klykken, P. C., Morrow, P. E., and Utell, M. J. Acute respiratory exposure of human volunteers to octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4): absence of immunological effects. Toxicological Sciences. 1998, 44, 214-220. TOXICOLOGY.

Lorenz, R. The value of sonography for the discovery of complications after the implantation of silicone gel prostheses for breast augmentation or reconstruction. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr. 1997, 166, (3): 233-237. MAMMOGRAPHY/ rupture/local complications.

Lossing, C., Elander, A., and Holmström, H. Capsular contracture after breast reconstruction with the lateral thoracodorsal flap. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1989, 13, 81-84. RECONSTRUCTION/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Lossing, C., and Hansson, H. A. Peptide growth factors and myofibroblasts in capsules around human breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Jun, 91, 1277-1286. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Lu, L. B., Ostermeyer Shoaib, B., and Patten, B. M. Atypical chest pain syndrome in patients with breast implants. Southern Medical Journal. 1994 Oct, 87, (10): 978-984. PAIN/ local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Ludgate, S. M. Silicone gel breast implants. Br J Theatre Nurs. 1994 Feb 1, 3, (11): 25. GENERAL.

Lugano, E. M., Dauber, J. H., Elias, J. A., Bashey, R. I., Jimenez, S. A., and Daniele, R. P. The regulation of lung fibroblast proliferation by alveolar macrophages in experimental silicosis. American Review of Respiratory Diseases. 1984, 129, 767-771. SILICA.

Lugowski, S. J., Smith, D.C., Lugowski, J. Z., Peters, W., and Semple, J. A review of silicon and silicone determination in tissue and body fluids—a need for standard reference materials. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 1998, 360, 486-488. SILICON MEASUREMENT/children's effects/breast feeding.

Luhan, J. E. Giant galactoceles, one month after bilateral augmentation mammoplasty, abdominoplasty, and tubal ligation: case study. Aesthetic. Plast. Surg. 1979, 3, 161-164. BREAST FEEDING.

Luke, J. L., Kalasinsky, V. F., Turnicky, R. P., Centeno, J. A., Johnson, F. B., and Mullick, F. G. Pathological and biophysical findings associated with silicone breast implants: A study of capsular tissues from 86 cases. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Nov, 100, (6): 1558-1565. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline/polyurethane.

Lund, K., Ewertz, M., and Schou, G. Breast cancer incidence subsequent to surgical reduction of the female breast. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1987, 21, 209-212. CANCER.

Luo, Z.-J., and Lu, S.-B. Selective reinnervation of regenerating mixed nerve fibers across a silicone tube gap. Journal of Hand Surgery. 1996, 21, (5): 660-663. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/neurologic disease.

Luria, L. W., Carter, W. L., Kent, K., Mician, M., and Habal, M. B. Regarding the safety of silicone implants. Journal of the Florida Medical Association. 1991 Jun, 78, (6): 349-350. GENERAL.

Luster, A. D. Chemokines—chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1998 Feb 12, 338, (7): 436-445. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Luu, H., Biles, J., and White, K. D. Characterization of polyesterurethane degradation products. J. Appl. Biomat. 1994, 5, 1-7. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

Lykissa, E. D., Kala, S. V., Hurley, J. B., and Lebovitz, R. M. Release of low molecular weight silicones and platinum from silicone breast implants. Analytical Chemistry. 1997 Dec, 69, (23): 4912-4916. PLATINUM/toxicology/silicon measurement.

Lyon, M. G., Bloch, D. A., Hollak, B., and Fries, J. F. Predisposing factors in polymyositisdermatomyositis: Results of a nationwide survey. J. Rheumatol. 1989, 16, (9): 1218-1224. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

MacDonald, K. L., Osterholm, M. T., LeDell, K. H., White, K. E., Schenck, C. H., Chao, C. C., Persing, D. H., Johnson, R. C., Barker, J. M., and Peterson, P. K. A case-control study to assess possible triggers and cofactors in chronic fatigue syndrome. American Journal of Medicine. 1996, 100, (5): 548-554. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Macdonald, P., Plavac, N., Peters, W., Lugowski, S., and Smith, D. Failure of 29Si NMR to detect increased blood silicone levels in silicone gel breast implant recipients. Analytical Chemistry. 1995, 67, 3799-3801. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

MacDonald, W. B., Lanier, G. E., and Deichmann, W. B. The subacute oral toxicity to the rat of certain polydimethylsiloxanes. Arch Indust Health. 1960 Jun, 21, 514. TOXICOLOGY.

Mackel, A., Delustro, F., Harper, F., and Leroy, E. C. Antibodies to collagen in scleroderma. Arthritis And Rheumatism. 1982 May. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Maddison, P. J., Skinner, R. P., Pereira, R. S., Black, C. B., Ansell, B. M., Jayson, IV M., Rowell, N. R., and Welsh, K. I. Antinuclear antibodies in the relatives and spouses of patients with systemic sclerosis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1986, 45, 793-799. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Maddox, A., Schoenfeld, A., Sinnett, H. D., and Shousha, S. Breast carcinoma occuring in association with silicone augmentation. Histopathology. 1993, 23, 379-382. CANCER.

Maekawa, A., Ogiu, T., Onodera, H., Furuta, K., Matsuoka, C., Ohno, Y., Tanigawa, H., Salmo, G. S., Matsuyama, M., and Hayashi, Y. Foreign-body tumorigenesis in rats by various kinds of plastics—induction of malignant fibrous histiocytomas. Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 1984, 9, 263-272. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Maekawa, A., Ogiu, T., Onondera, H., Furuta, K., Matsuoka, C., Ohno, Y., Tanigawa, H., Salmo, G. S., Matsuyama, M., and Hayashi, Y. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas induced in rats by polymers. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. 1984, 108, (3): 364-365. CARCINOGENICITY.

Magid, S. K., and Kagen, L. J. Serologic evidence for acute toxoplasmosis in polymyositisdermatomyositis: Increased frequency of specific antitoxoplasma IgM antibodies. American Journal of Medicine. 1983 Aug, 75, 313-320. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Maguire, G. P., Lee, E. G., Bevington, D. J., Kuchemann, C. S., Crabtree, R. J., and Cornell, C. E. Psychiatric problems in the first year after mastectomy. British Medical Journal. 1978, 15, 963-965. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Mahdi, S., Jones, T., and McGeorge, D. D. Expandable anatomical implants in breast reconstructions: a prospective study. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1998, 51, 425-430. RECONSTRUCTION.

Mahler, D., and Hauben, D. J. Retromammary versus retropectoral breast augmentation. A comparative study. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1981 May, 8, (5): 370-374. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Mäkelä, M., and Heliövaara, M. Prevalence of primary fibromyalgia in the Finnish population. British Medical Journal. 1991, 303, 216-219. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Malata, C. M., Feldberg, L., Coleman, D. J., Foo, I. T., and Sharpe, D. T. Textured or smooth implants for breast augmentation. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1997, 50, (2): 99-105. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Malata, C. M., and Sharpe, D. T. On the safety of breast implants. The Breast. 1992, 1, 62-75. GENERAL.

Malata, C. M., Varma, S., Scott, M., Liston, J. C., and Sharpe, D. T. Silicone breast implant rupture: Common/serious complication? Medical Progress through Technology. 1994a, 20, 251-260. RUPTURE/granulomas/local complications/silicon measurement.

Malia, R. G., Greaves, M., Rowlands, L. M., Lawrence, A. C. K., Hume, A., Rowell, N. R., Moult, J., Holt, C. M., Lindsey, N., and Hughes, P. Anticardiolipin antibodies in systemic sclerosis immunological and clinical associations. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 1988, 73, 456-460. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Mancino, D., and Bevilacqua, N. Adjuvant effects of amorphous silica on the immune response to various antigens in guinea pigs. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology. 1977, 53, 97-103. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology/silica.

Mancino, D., Buono, G., Cusano, M., and Minucci, M. Adjuvant effects of a crystalline silica on IgE and IgGl antibody production in mice and their prevention by the macrophage stabilizer poly-2-vinylpyridine N-oxide. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology. 1983, 71,279-281. SILICA/toxicology.

Mandel, M. A., and Gibbons, D. F. The presence of silicone in breast capsules. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1979, 3, 219-225. SILICON MEASUREMENT/capsule-contracture/ local complications.

Manders, E. K., Schenden, M. J., Furrey, J. A., Hetzler, P. T., Davis, T. S., and Graham, W. P. Soft tissue expansion: Concepts and complications. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984, 74, (4): 493-507. EXPANDER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Mandrekas, A. D., Zambacos, G. J., and Katsanton, P. N. Immediate and delayed breast reconstruction with permanent tissue expanders. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1995, 48, (8): 572-578. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Mann, L. C. Physical examination of the augmented breast: Description of a displacement technique. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995 Feb, 85, (2): 290-292. CANCER.

Mansel, R. E., Horgan, K., Webster, D. J. T., Sarotria, S., and Hughes, L. E. Cosmetic results of immediate breast reconstruction post-mastectomy: A follow-up study. British Journal of Surgery. 1986, 73, 813-816. RECONSTRUCTION.

Mansel, R. E., Horgan, K., Webster, D. J. T., Shrotria, S., and Hughes, L. E. Mastectomy: A follow-up study. British Journal of Surgery. 1986, 73, (10): 813-816. CANCER/reconstruction.

Marceau, D., Rolland, C., Bronskill, M., Cardou, A., Paynter, R., and Guidoin, R. Non-destructive testing of virgin mammary prostheses: first step in an attempt to characterize the changes that occur with these implants in vivo. 125-139. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION / rupture.

Marco-Franco, J. E., Torres, V. E., Nixon, D. E., Wilson, D. M., James, E. M., Bergstralh, E. J., and McCarthy, J. T. Oxalate silicon and vanadium in acquired cystic kidney disease. Clin Nephrol. 1991, 35, (2): 52-58. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Marcus, D. M. An analytical review of silicone immunology. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996 Oct, 39, (10): 1619-1626. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Marder, W. D., Meenan, R. F., Felson, D. T., and et al. The present and future adequacy of rheumatology manpower: A study of health care needs and physician supply. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1991 Oct, 34, (10): 1209-1217. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Margolis, R. E. Medical device regulation: Silicone breast implant dangers. Health Span. 1991 Jan, 8, (1): 20. GENERAL.

Maricq, H. R., Weinrich, M. C., Keil, J. E., Smith, E. A., Harper, F. E., Nussbaum, A. I., LeRoy, C., McGregor, A. R., Diat, F., and Rosal, E. J. Prevalence of scleroderma spectrum disorders in the general population of South Carolina. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1989 Aug, 32, (8): 998-1006. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Marik, P. E., Kark, A. L., and Zabakides, A. Scleroderma after silicone augmentation mammoplasty: A report of 2 cases. South African Medical Journal. 1990 Feb, 77, 212-213. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Mark, R. J., Zimmerman, R. P., and Greif, J. M. Capsular contracture after lumpectomy and radiation therapy in patients who have undergone uncomplicated bilateral augmentation mammoplasty. Radiology. 1996 Sep, 200, (3): 621-625. RADIATION/capsule contracture.

Marks, M. W., Argenta, L. C., and Thornton, J. W. Rapid expansion: Experimental and clinical experience. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1987, 14, 455-463. EXPANDER.

Marotta, J.S., Widenhouse, C.W., Habal, M.B., Goldberg, E.P. Silicone gel breast implant failure and frequency of additional surgeries: Analysis of 35 studies reporting examination of more than 8,000 explants. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (Appl. Biomater.) 1999, 48, 354-64 RUPTURE/local complications.

Marpeau, L., Rhimi, Z., Jault, T., Barrat, J., and Milliez, J. The local and general long-term risks of silicone breast implants. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 1993, 22, 351-355. GRANULOMAS/migration/local complications.

Marques, A. F., Brenda, E., Saldiva, P. H. N., and Andrews, J. M. Capsular hematoma as a late complication in breast reconstruction with silicone gel prosthesis. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery. 1992 Mar, 89, (3): 543-545. HEMATOMAS/local complications/ reconstruction.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Marques, A., Brenda, E., Amarante, MTJ, Pereira, M.D., and Castro, M. Haddad A. Findings in the removal of silicone gel breast implants: A correlation between time of implantation and rupture. European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1997, 20, (1): 15-18. EXPLANTATION / rupture.

Marshall, T. C., Clark, C. R., Brewster, D. W., and Henderson, R. R. Toxicological assessment of heat transfer fluids proposed for use in solar energy applications, II. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1981, 58, 31-38. TOXICOLOGY.

Marshall, W. R. Amelioration of capsular contracture by motion restriction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1986 Mar, 16, (3): 211-218. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Marshall, W. R., Godfrey, M., Hollister, D. W., Balkocich, M. E., and Lindgren, V. V. Types of collagen in breast capsules. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1989 Nov, 23, (5): 401-405. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Marshall, W. R., and Leggett, J. E. Misdiagnosis: A timely reminder. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 29, 444-445. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/local complications/infection.

Martinazzoli, A., Cangemi, V., Cammarata, A., Ceccobelli, M., Costanzo, F., Lombardi, A., Gazzanelli, S., and Spallone, G. Breast reconstruction with the use of tissue expanders in outpatient treatment. Giorn. Chir. 1996, 17, (4): 195-196. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Marzoni, F. A., Upchurch, S. E., and Lambert, C. J. An experimental study of silicone as a soft tissue substitute. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1959 Dec, 24, (6): 600-608. TOXICOLOGY.

Mason, J. C., Kapahi, P., and Haskard, D. O. Detection of increased levels of circulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Apr, 36, (4): 519-527. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Mason, J., and Apisarnthanarax, P. Migratory silicone granuloma. Archives of Dermatology. 1981 Jun, 117, 366-367. GRANULOMAS/local complications/migration.

Mason, T. C. Hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea associated with mammary prostheses and unresponsive to bromocriptine. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 1991 Jul, 36, (7): 541-542. BREAST FEEDING/local complications.

Mason, T., Rabinovich, C., Fredrickson, D., and et al. Breast feeding and the development of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology. 1995 Jun, 22, (6): 1166-1170. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/breast feeding/children's effects.

Masson, C. L., Dessapt, B., and Rochet, M. Migration of silicone gel following rupture of a breast implant during closed compression capsulotomy. Ann Chir Plast. 1982, 27, (4): 369-373. MIGRATION/local complications/rupture/closed capsulotomy.

Mathew, O., and Bhatia, F. Sucking and breathing patterns in breast- and bottle-feeding in term neonates: effects of nutrient delivery and composition. American Journal of Diseases in Children. 1989, 143, 588-592. BREAST FEEDING.

Matlaga, B. F., Yasenchak, L. P., and Salthouse, T. N. Tissue response to implanted polymers: The significance of sample shape 1. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1976, 10, 391-397. TOXICOLOGY.

Matory, W. E., D'Orsi, C., and Moss, L. Improved mammographic imaging using tissue expanders for breast augmentation. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Aug, 33, (2): 119-127. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/capsule-contracture/saline/expander.

Matsushima, K., and Oppenheim, J. J. Interleukin 8 and MCAF: Novel inflammatory cytokines inducible by IL 1 and TNF. Cytokine. 1989, 1, (1): 2-13. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Matti, B. A., and Nicolle, F. V. A simple technique for removing a silastic gel-filled breast implant through the axillary approach. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1989, 42, 613-614. EXPLANTATION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Mattioli, M., and Reichlin, M. Heterogeneity of RNA protein antigens reactive with sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Description of a cytoplasmic nonribosomal antigen. Arthritis Rheum. 1974 Jul-1974 Aug 31,17, (4): 421-429. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Mauras, Y., Riberi, P., and Cartier, F. Increase in blood silicon concentration in patients with renal failure. Biomedicine. 1980, 33, 228-230. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Maxwell, G. P., and Tornambe, R. Management of mammary subpectoral implant distortion. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1988, 15, (4): 601-611. RECONSTRUCTION.

May, J. W., Atwood, J., and Bartlett, S. Staged use of soft-tissue expansion and lower thoracic advancement flaps in breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987 Feb, 79, (2): 272-275. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

May Jr., J. W., Bucky, L. P., Sohoni, S., and Ehrlich, H. P. Smooth versus textured expander implants: A double-blind study of capsule quality and discomfort in simultaneous bilateral breast reconstruction patients. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Mar, 32, (3): 225-232. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline/reconstruction.

Mayer, E., Hamman, R., Gay, E., Lezotte, D., Savitz, D., and Klingensmith, G. Reduced risk of IDDM among breast fed children. Diabetes. 1988, 37, 1625-1632. BREAST FEEDING.

McCarthy, E. J., Merkatz, R. B., and Bagley, G. P. A descriptive analysis of physical complaints from women with silicone breast implants. Journal of Women's Health. 1993, 2, 111-115. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

McCauley, R. L., Riley, Jr. W. B., Juliano, R. A., Brown, P., Evans, M. J., and Robson, M. C. In vitro alterations in human fibroblast behavior secondary to silicone polymers. Journal of Surgical Research. 1990 Jul, 49, (1): 103. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

McConnell, J. P., Moyer, T. P., Nixon, D. E., Schnur, P. L., Salomao, D. R., Crotty, T. B., Weinzweig, J., Harris, J. B., and Petty, P. M. Determination of silicon in breast and capsular tissue from patients with breast implants performed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy: Comparison with tissue histology. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1997 Feb, 107, (2): 236-246. SILICON MEASUREMENT/saline/ capsule contracture/local complications.

McCoy, B. J., Person, P., and Cohen, I. K. Collagen production and types in fibrous capsules around breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Jun, 73, (6): 924-927. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

McCraw, J. B., Horton, C. E., Grossman, J. A., Kaplan, I., and McMellin, A. An early appraisal of the methods of tissue expansion and the transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flap in reconstruction of the breast following mastectomy. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1987 Feb, 18, (2): 93-113. RECONSTRUCTION/expander.

McCraw, J. B., and Maxwell, G. P. Early and late capsular deformation as a cause of unsatisfactory results in the latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1988 Oct, 15, (4): 717-726. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/reconstruction.

McCurdy, H. H and Solomons, E. T. Forensic examination of toxicological specimens for dimethylpolysiloxane (silicone oil). Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 1977, 1, 221-223. SILICONE INJECTION/silicon measurement/toxicology.

McCurdy, Jr. J. A. Relationships between spherical fibrous capsular contracture and mammary prosthesis type: A comparison of smooth and textured implants. The American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery. 1990, 7, (4): 235-239. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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McDermott, M. M., Dolan, N. C., Huang, J., Reifler, D., and Rademaker, A. W. Lump detection is enhanced in silicone breast models simulating postmenopausal breast tissue. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 1996 Feb 11, 11, 112-114. GENERAL/cancer.

McDermott, M., and McDevitt, H. The immunogenetics of rheumatic diseases. Bulletin on Rheumatic Diseases. 1988, 38, (1): 1-10. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

McDonald, A. H., Weir, K., Schneider, M. M., Gudenkauf, L., and Sanger, J. R. Silicone gel enhances the development of autoimmune disease in New Zealand black mice but fails to induce it in BALB/cAnPt mice. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. 1998 Jun, 87, (3): 248-255. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

McDonald, J. W., Roggli, V. L., and Shelburne, J. D. Microprobe analysis: Diagnostic applications in pulmonary medicine. Microbeam Analysis. 1995, 4, 261-276. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

McDowell. Complications with silicones— What grade of silicone? How do we know it was silicone? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Jun, 61, (6): 892-895. GENERAL.

McEwen, B. S. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. Seminars in Medicine of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. 1998 Jan 15, 338, (3): 171-179. GENERAL.

McFayden, P. Determination of free toluene diisocyanate in polyurethane prepolymers by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography. 1976, 123, 468-473. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

McGeorge, D. D., Mahdi, S., and Tsekouras, A. Breast reconstruction with anatomical expanders and implants: Our early experience. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1996, 49, 352-357. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

McGinley, P. H., Powell, W. R., and Bostwick, J. Dosimetry of a silicone breast prosthesis. Radiology. 1980, 135, 223-224. RADIATION.

McGrath, M. H., and Burkhardt, B. R. The safety and efficacy of breast implants for augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Oct, 74, (4): 550-560. GENERAL.

McGrath, M. H., and Hundahl, S. A. The spatial and temporal quantification of myofibroblasts. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982, 69, 975. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

McGregor, R. R. Toxicology of certain silicone fluids. Bull Dow Corning Cent. 1960, 2, 15. TOXICOLOGY.

McHenry, M. M., Smeloff, E. A., Fong, W. Y., Miller, G. E., and Ryan, P. M. Critical obstruction of prosthetic heart valves due to lipid adsorption by Silastic. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 1970 Mar, 59, (3): 413-425. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

McHugh, N. J., Whyte, J., Harvey, G., and Haustein, U. F. Anti-topoisomerase I antibodies in silica-associated systemic sclerosis: A model for autoimmunity. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Aug, 37, (8): 1198-1205. SILICA.

McKim, Jr. J. M., Kolesar, G. B., and Dochterman, L. W. et al. Effects of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) on liver size and cytochrome P450 in Fisher rats. A 28 day whole body inhalation study. Toxicologist. 1995, 15, 17. TOXICOLOGY.

McKinney, P., Edelson, R., Terrasse, A., and Zukowski, M. Chest-wall deformity following soft tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987, 80, (3): 442-444. EXPANDER/local complications.

McKinney, P., and Tresley, G. Long-term comparison of patients with gel and saline mammary implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Jul, 72, (1): 27-29. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection/saline.

McLaughlin, J. K., Nyrén, O., Blot, W. J., Yin, L., Josefsson, S., Fraumeni Jr., J. F, and Adami, H.-O. Cancer risk among women with cosmetic breast implants: A population-based cohort study in Sweden. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1998 Jan, 90, (2): 156-158. CANCER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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McNally, A. K., and Anderson, J. M. Complement C3 participation in monocyte adhesion to different surfaces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1994 Oct, 91, 10119-10123. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

McNally, A. K., and Anderson, J. M. Interleukin-4 induces foreign body giant cells from human monocytes/macrophages. American Journal of Pathology. 1995 Nov, 147, (5): 1487-1499. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

McTiernan, A., and Thomas, D. Evidence for a protective effect of lactation on risk of breast cancer in young women: results from a case control study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1986, 124, 353-358. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Medot, M., Landis, G. H., McGregor, C. E., Gutowski, K. A., Foshager, M. C., Griffiths, H. J., and Cunningham, B. L. Effects of capsular contracture on ultrasonic screening for silicone gel breast implant rupture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Oct, 39, (4): 337-341. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/capsule-contracture/rupture.

Meester, W. D., and Swanson, A. B. In vivo testing of silicone rubber joint implants for lipid absorption. J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 1972, 6, 193-199. SILICONE CHEMISTRY/silicone characterization.

Megumi, Y. Immediate breast reconstruction with subpectoral implantation after transaxillary subcutaneous mastectomy for siliconoma. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1989, 13, 27-32. SILICONE INJECTION/reconstruction/granulomas.

Meier, L. G., Barthel, H. R., and Seidl, C. Development of polyarthritis after insertion of silicone breast implants followed by remission after implant removal in 2 HLA-identical sisters bearing rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility genes. J. Rheumatol. 1997, 24, (9): 1838-1841. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/explantation.

Melloni, B. Partial characterization of the proliferative activity for fetal lung epithelial cells produced by silica-exposed alveolar macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 1994 May, 55, 574-580. SILICA.

Melmed, E. P. Polyurethane implants: A 6-year review of 416 patients. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988 Aug, 82, (2): 285-290. POLYURETHANE.

Melmed, E. P. A review of explantation in 240 symptomatic women: A description of ex-plantation and capsulectomy with reconstruction using a periareolar technique. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Apr, 101, (5): 1364-1373. EXPLANTATION/polyurethane/capsule-contracture / local complications/rupture.

Melmed, E. P. Silicone implants: Aesthetic triumph or surgical disaster? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Nov, 98, (6): 1071-1073. GENERAL.

Melmed, E. P. Treatment of breast contractures with open capsulotomy and replacement of gel prostheses with polyurethane-covered implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Aug, 86, (2): 270-274. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/polyurethane.

Melnikow, J. K., and Bedinghaus, J. Management of common breast-feeding problems. J. Family Practice. 1994, 39, (1): 56-64. BREAST FEEDING.

Mena, E. A., Kossovsky, N., Chu, C., and Hu, C. Inflammatory intermediates produced by tissues encasing silicone breast prostheses. Journal of Investigative Surgery. 1995, 8, (1): 31-42. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Mendelson, E. B. Silicone implants present mammographic challenge. Diagnostic Imaging. 1992, 14, 70. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Mendes Filho, A., and Ludovici, C. O. Importancia demammographiu nos plasticas mamarios. Rev. Lat. Am. Cis. Plast. 1968, 12, 131. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Mendez-Fernandez, M. A. Subacute torsion of periprosthetic capsular tissue presenting as a painful breast tumor. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Sep, 100, (3): 750-752. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Mendez-Femandez, M. A., Henly, W. S., Geis, R. C., Schoen, F. J., and Hausner, R. J. Paget's Disease of the breast after subcutaneous mastectomy and reconstruction with a silicone prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 May, 65, (5): 683-685. CANCER.

Mendlovic, S., Segal, R., Shoenfeld, Y., and Mozes, E. Anti-DNA idiotype- and anti-idiotype-specific T cell responses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and their first-degree relatives. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1990, 82, 504-508. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Menendez-Graino, F, Fernandez, C. P., and Burrieza, P. L. Galactorrhea after reduction mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990, 85, 645-646. BREAST FEEDING.

Merkatz, R. B., Bagley, G. P., and McCarthy, J. E. A qualitative analysis of self-reported experiences among women encountering difficulties with silicone breast implants. Journal of Women's Health. 1993, 2, (2): 105-108. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Merle, M., Dellon, A. L., Campbell, J. N., and Chang, P. S. Complications from silicon-polymer intubation of nerves. Microsurgery. 1989 Jan, 10, (2): 130-133. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Merritt, K., Shafer, J. W., and Brown, S. A. Implantation site infection rates with porous and dense materials. J. Biomat. Res. 1979, 13, 101-112. INFECTION.

Merwin, R. M., and Redmon, L. W. Induction of plasma cell tumors and sarcomas in mice by diffusion chambers placed in the peritoneal cavity. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1963, 31, (4): 997-1017. MYELOMA.

Meydan, D., Lambert, B., and Hellgren, D. Frequency and cell specificity of t-cell receptor interlocus recombination in human cells. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 1997, 30, 245-253. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Meyer, J. E., Kopans, D. B., Stomper, P. C., and Linfors, K. K. Occult breast abnormalities: Percutaneous needle localization. Radiology. 1984 Feb, 150, (2): 335-337. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Middleton, M. S. Magnetic resonance evaluation of breast implants and soft-tissue silicone. Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 1998b, 9, (1 & 2): 1-45/92-137. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Middleton, M. S., and McNamara, Jr. M. P. Increased rupture rate of polyurethane-coated breast implants. Radiology. 1995 Nov, 197(P), 371. RUPTURE/local complications/ polyurethane.

Mikuz, G., Hastings, G. W., and Ducheyne, P. Tissue reactions with silicone rubber implants (morphological, microchemical and clinical investigations in humans and laboratory animals). Macromolecular Biomaterials. 1984: 239-249. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Mikuz, G., Hoinkes, G., Propst, A., and Wilflingseder, P. Silicone lymphadenopathy following augmentation mammoplasty. Chir Plast. 1982, 6, 209. LYMPHADENOPATHY/ local complications.

Milauskas, A. T. Posterior capsule opacification after silicone lens implantation and its management. Journal of Cataract Refract. Surg. 1987 Nov, 13, (6): 644-648. GENERAL.

Millard, D. R., and Maisels, D. Silicon granuloma of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. American Journal of Surgery. 1966 Jul, 112, 119-123. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Miller, A. Talc pneumoconiosis-significance of sublight microscopic mineral particles. American Journal of Medicine. 1971 Mar, 50, (3): 395-402. SILICA.

Miller, A. B., Baines, C. J., To, T., and Wall, C. Canadian national breast screening study 2. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 50-59 years. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1992, 147, (10): 1477-1488. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Miller, A. S., Willard, V., Kline, K., Tarpley, S., Guillott, J., Lawler, F. H., and Pendell, G. M. Absence of longitudinal changes in rheumatologica parameters after silicone breast implantation: a prospective 13-year study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Dec, 102, (7): 2299-2303. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Miller, E. J. Biochemical characteristics and biological significance of the genetically-distinct collagens. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 1976 Dec 10, 13, (3): 165-192. GENERAL.

Miller, F. Classification and prognosis of inflammatory muscle disease. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 1994 Nov, 20, (4): 811-826. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Miller, K. M., and Anderson, J. In vitro stimulation of fibroblast activity by factors generated from human monocytes activated by biomedical polymers. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1989, 23, (9): 1007-1026. IMMUNE EFFECTS/capsule contracture.

Miller, K. M., Rose-Caprara, V., and Anderson, J. M. Generation of IL-l-like activity in response to biomedical polymer implants: A comparison of in vitro and in vivo models. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1989, 23, 1007-10026. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Miller, M. J., Rock, C. S., and Robb, G. L. Aesthetic breast reconstruction using a combination of free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps and breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Sep, 37, (3): 258-264. RECONSTRUCTION.

Miller, T. A. Capsulectomy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998, 102, (3): 882-883. RUPTURE/capsule contracture/local complications.

Miller, T. A. Silicone and plastic surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Oct, 100, (5): 1307-1308. GENERAL.

Milojevic, B. Complications after silicone injection therapy in aesthetic plastic surgery. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1982, 6, 203-206. SILICONE INJECTION.

Milojevic, B. Unilateral fibrous contracture in augmentation mammoplasty. Aesth. Plast. Surg. 1983, 7, 117-119. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Miranda, R. Peritoneal silicosis. Arch. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1996 Mar, 120, 300-302. SILICA.

Missotten, F. E. M. Giant cyst formation in a fibrous capsule following breast augmentation: A case report. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1985, 38, 579. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Mitnick, J. S., Harris, M. N., and Roses, D. F. Mammographic detection of carcinoma of the breast in patients with augmentation prostheses. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics. 1989 Jan, 168, 30-33. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Mitnick, J. S., Vazquez., M. F., Colen, S. R., Plesser, K., and Roses, D. F. Localization of nonpalpable masses in patients with breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Sep, 31, (3): 238-240. GRANULOMAS/local complications/mammography/rupture.

Mitnick, J. S., Vazquez., M. F., Plesser, K., Pressman, P., Harris, M. N., and Roses, D. F. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with augmentation prostheses and a palpable mass. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Sep, 31, (3): 241-244. GRANULOMAS/mammography/cancer/local complications/rupture.

Mitnick, J. S., Vazquez, M. F., Roses, D. F., Harris, M. N., Colen, S. R., and Colen, H. S. Stereotactic localization for fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with augmentation prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992 Jul, 29, (1): 31-35. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Miyoshi, K., Miyamura, T., and Kobayashi, Y. Hypergammaglobulinemia by prolonged adjuvanticity in man: Disorders developed after augmentation mammaplasty. Jpn J Med. 1964, 9, 2122. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Miyoshi, K., Shiragami, H., and Yoshida, K. Adjuvant disease of man. Clin Immunol. 1973, 5, 785-794. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Mladick, R. A. No-touch submuscular saline breast augmentation technique. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1993, 17, 183-192. SALINE/capsule-contracture/rupture/infection/local complications.

Mladick, R. A. Treatment of the firm augmented breast by capsular stripping and inflatable implant exchange. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Nov, 60, (5): 720-724. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Moacanin, J., Lawson, D. D., Chin, H. P., Harrison, E. C., and Blankenhorn, D. H. Prediction of lipid uptake by prosthetic heart valve poppets from solubility parameters. Biomater Med Devices Artif Organs. 1973, 1, 183-190. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/general.

Modzelewski, J., Greene, W., Sobieski, M., and Raso, D. Silicon detection in fat globules in pericapsular tissue of women and rats augmented with silicone gel. Breast Journal 2(4): 275-280. 1996 Nov 4, 2, (4): 275-280. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/capsule contracture.

Mofid, M. M., Thompson, R. C., Pardo, C. A., Manson, P. N., and Vander Kolk, C. A. Biocompatibility of fixation materials in the brain. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jul, 100, (1): 14-20. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/general.

Mohr, C., Gemsa, D., Graebner, C., Hemenway, D. R., Leslie, K. O., Absher, F. M., and Davis, G. S. Systemic macrophage stimulation in rats with silicosis: Enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor-a from alveolar and peritoneal macrophages. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 1991 Jan, 5, 395-402. SILICA.

Moizhess, T. G., and Vasiliev, J. M. Early and late stages of foreign-body carcinogenesis can be induced by implants of different shapes. International Journal of Cancer. 1989, 44, 449-453. CARCINOGENICITY.

Mokuno, K., Kiyosawa, K., Honda, H., Hirose, Y., Murayama, T., Yoneyama, S., and Kato, K. Elevated serum levels of manganese superoxide dismutase in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Neurology. 1996 May, 46, (5): 1445-1447. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Mongey, A.-B., and Hess, E. V. Antinuclear antibodies and disease specificity. Advances in Internal Medicine. 1991, 36, 151-169. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ai-ctd background.

Monsees, B. S., and Destouet, J. M. Mammography in aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery. Perspect Plast Surg. 1991, 5, 103-119. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Monticciolo, D. L., Nelson, R. C., Dixon, W. T., Bostwick, III J., Mukundan, S., and Hester, T. R. MR detection of leakage from silicone breast implants: Value of a silicone-selective pulse sequence. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994 Jul, 163, 51-56. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Moor, E. V., Wexler, M. R., Bar-Ziv, Y., Weinberg, A., Chaouat, M., Ad-El, D., Raveh, T., Alfie, M., Caspi, R., and Neuman, A. Chest wall deformity following maximal tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Feb, 36, (2): 129-132. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/expander.

Moore, J. R. Applanation tonometry of breasts. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979, 63, (1): 9-12. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Morain, W. D., and Vistnes, L. M. Iondinated silicone—an antibacterial alloplastic material. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977, 59, (2): 216-222. INFECTION/local complications.

Morgan, D. E., Kenney, P. J., Meeks, M. C., and Pile, N. S. MR imaging of breast implants and their complications. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1996 Nov, 167, (5): 1271-1275. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Morgan, R. W., and Elcock, M. Artificial implants and soft tissue sarcomas. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 545-549. CANCER.

Morgenstem, L., Gleischman, S. H., Michel, S. L., and et al. Relation of free silicone to human breast carcinoma. Archives of Surgery. 1985 May, 120, 573. CANCER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Mori, T. Superoxide anions in the pathogenesis of talc-induced cerebral vasocontraction. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 1995 Jan, 21, 378-385. GENERAL.

Morse, J. H., Fotino, M., Zhang, Y., Flaster, E. R., Peebles, C. L., and Spiera, H. Position 26 of the first domain of the HLA-DQB1 allele in post-silicone implant scleroderma. J. Rheumatol. 1995, 22, (10): 1872-1875. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Morykwas, M. J., Argenta, L. C., Oneal, R. M., and Kaiser, D. G. The fate of soluble steroids within breast prostheses in humans. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990 May, 24, (5): 427-430. STEROIDS/local complications.

Morykwas, M. J., and Rouchard, R. A. Argenta L. C. Silicon levels in treated drinking water. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991, 88, (5): 925-926. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Moucharafieh, B. C., and Wray Jr., R. C. The effects of steroid instillations and hematomas on the pseudosheaths of miniature breast implants in rats. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 May, 59, (5): 720-723. STEROIDS/capsule-contracture/local complications/hematomas.

Moufarrege, R., Beauregard, G., Bosse, J. P., Pappillon, J., and Perras, C. Outcome of mammary capsulotomies. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1987, 19, 62-64. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS / capsule-contracture.

Muir, V. Y., and Dumonde, D.C. Different strains of rats develop different clinical forms of adjuvant disease. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 1982, 41, 538-543. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Mukundan, S., Dixon, W. T., Nelson, R. C., Kruse, B. D., Monticciolo, D. L., and Nelson, R. C. MR imaging of silicone gel-filled breast implants ill vivo with a method that visualizes silicone selectively. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 1993, 3, 713-718. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Mulder, J. W., and Nicolai, J-P. A. Breast Tonometry—a practical device for accurate measurement of capsule-formation. Eur. J. Plast. Surg. 1990, 13, 274-277. CAPSULE CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Mullison, E.G. Current status of silicones in plastic surgery. Archives Otolaryng. 1966 Jan, 83, 85-89. GENERAL.

Mund, D. F., Farria, D. M., Gorczyca, D. P., DeBruhl, N. D., Ahn, C. Y., Shaw, W. W., and Bassett, L. W. MR imaging of the breast in patients with silicone-gel implants: Spectrum of findings. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1993, 161, 773-778. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Murakata, L. A., and Rangwala, A. F. Silicone lymphadenopathy with concomutant malignant lymphoma. J. Rheumatol. 1989, 16, (11): 1480-1483. LYMPHADENOPATHY/ local complications/cancer.

Murphy, E. J. Cytotoxicity of aluminum silicates in primary neuronal cultures. Neuroscience. 1993 Jan, 57, (2): 483-490. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE/silica.

Nachbar, J. M., and Orrison, W. W. Validation of quantification of breast implant capsule surface area and volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1991 Oct, 27, (4): 321-326. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/ mammography.

Naidu, S. H., Beredjiklian, P., Adler, L., Bora, Jr. F. W., and Baker, D. G. In vivo inflammatory response to silicone elastomer particulate debris. The Journal of Hand Surgery. 1996 May, 21, (3): 496-500. IMMUNE EFFECTS/general/local complications.

Naim, J. O., Ippolito, K. M. L., Lanzafame, R. J., and van Oss, C. J. The effect of molecular weight and gel preparation of humoral adjuvancy of silicone oil and silicone gel. Immunological Investigations. 1995c, 24, (3): 537-547. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Naim, J. O., Ippolito, K. M. L., and van Oss, C. J. Adjuvancy effect of different types of silicone gel. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997 Dec, 37, (4): 534-538. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Naim, J. O., Ippolito, K. M., Lanzafame, R. J., and van Oss, C. J. Induction of type H collagen arthritis in the DA rat using silicone gels and oils as adjuvant. Journal of Autoimmunity. 1995b, 8, 751-761. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Naim, J. O., Lanzafame, R. J., and van Oss, C. J. The effect of silicone-gel on the immune response. J Biomaterials Sci. 1995a, 7, 123-132. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Naim, J. O., and van Oss, C. J. The effect of hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity and solubility on the immunogenicity of some natural and synthetic polymers. Immunological Investigations. 1992, 21, (7): 649-662. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Naim, J. O., van Oss, C. J., Ippolito, K. M. L., Shang, J.-W., Jin, L. P., Fortuna, R., and Buehner, N. A. In vitro activation of human monocytes by silicones. Colloids and Surface Biointerfaces. 1998, 11, 79-86. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Naim, J. O., van Oss, C. J., and Lanzafame, R. J. The induction of autoantibodies to thyroglobulin in rats with silicone gel as adjuvant. Surg Forum. 1993, 44, 676-678. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Nakamura, A., Kawasaki, Y., Takada, K., Aida, Y., Kurokama, Y., Kojima, S., Shintani, H., Matsui, M., Nohmi, T., Matsuoka, A., Sofuni, T., Kurihara, M., Miyata, N., Uchima, T., and Fujimaki, M. Difference in tumor incidence and other tissue responses to polyesterurethanes and polydimethysiloxane in long-term subcutaneous implantation into rats. Journal of Biomed. Mater. Res. 1992, 26, 631-650. CARCINOGENICITY/connective tissue disease/polyurethane.

Nakamura, K., Refojo, J. F., and Crabtree, D. V. Factors contributing to the emulsification of intraocular silicone and fluorosilicone oils. Investigative Ophthamology and Visual Science. 1990 Apr, 31, (4): 647-656. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/toxicology/ general.

Nakamura, K., Refojo, J. F., and Crabtree, D. V. Leong F. Analysis and fractionation of silicone and fluorosilicone oils for intraocular use. Investigative Ophthamology and Visual Science. 1990 Oct, 31, (10): 2059-2069. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/toxicology/general.

Nanki T, Kohsaka H, and Miyasaka N. Development of human peripheral TCRBJ gene repertoire. J Immunol. 1998 Jul, 161, (1): 228-33. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Narini, P. P., Semple, J. L., and Hay, J. B. Repeated exposure to silicone gel can induce delayed hypersensitivity. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Aug, 96, (2): 371. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

National Institutes of Health. Treatment of early-stage breast cancer: NIH Consensus Conference. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1991 Jan 16, 265, (3): 391-395. CANCER.

Nedelman, C. I. Oral and cutaneous tissue reactions to injected fluid silicones. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1968, 2, 131-143. TOXICOLOGY.

Needelman, L. The microscopic interaction between silicone and the surrounding tissues. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery. 1995, 12, (3): 415-423. CAPSULE-CON-TRACTURE/local complications.

Needleman, B., Wigley, F., and Stair, R. Interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon-g levels in sera from patients with scleroderma. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1992 Jan, 35, (1): 67-72. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ai-ctd background.

Neifert, M., DeMarzo, S., Seacat, J., Young, D., Leff, M., and Orleans, M. The influence of breast surgery, breast appearance, and pregnancy-induced breast changes in lactation sufficiency as measured by infant weight gain. Birth. 1990 Mar, 17, (1): 31-38. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Neill, K. M., Armstrong, N., and Burnett, C. B. Choosing reconstruction after mastectomy: a qualitative analysis. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1998, 25, (4): 743-750. PSYCHOSOCIAL/ reconstruction.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Nelson, G. D. A comparative study of complications of open capsulotomies versus closed compression rupture of augmentation mammoplasties. Plastic Surg Forum. 1980b, 3, 78. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/capsule-contracture/rupture/local complications.

Nelson, G. D. Complications from the treatment of fibrous capsular contracture of the breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Dec, 68, (6): 969-970. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/closed capsulotomy/rupture.

Nelson, G. D. Complications of closed compresssion after augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980a Jul, 66, (1): 71-73. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/closed capsulotomy/local complications/rupture.

Nelson, J. L., Furst, D. E., Maloney, S., Gooley, T., Evans, P. C., Smith, A., Bean, M. A., Ober, C., and Bianchi, D. W. Microchimerism and HLA-compatible relationships of pregnancy in scleroderma. The Lancet. 1998 Feb 21, 351, 559-541. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Nemecek, J. A. R., and Young, V. L. How safe are silicone breast implants? Southern Medical Journal. 1993 Aug, 86, (8): 932-944. GENERAL.

Netscher, D. T., Sharma, S., Thornby, J., Peltier, M., Lyos, A., Fater, M., and Mosharrafa, A. Aesthetic outcome of breast implant removal in 85 consecutive patients. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jul, 100, (1): 206-219. EXPLANTATION/local complications.

Netscher, D. T., Walker, L. E., Weizer, G., Thornby, J., Wigoda, P., and Bowen, D. A review of 198 patients (389 implants) who had breast implants removed. Journal of Long Term Effects of Medical Implants. 1995a, 5, (1): 11-18. RUPTURE/explantation/local complications.

Netscher, D. T., Weizer, G., Wigoda, P., Walker, L. E., Thornby, J., and Bowen, D. Clinical relevance of positive breast periprosthetic cultures without overt infection. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995b Oct, 96, (5): 1702-1708. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection.

Neu, T. R., Van Der Mei, H. C., and Busscher, H. J. Biodeterioration of medical-grade silicone rubber used for voice prostheses: A SEM study. Biomaterials. 1993 May, 14, (6): 459. GENERAL.

Newcomb, P., Storer, B., Longnecker, M., and et al. Lactation and a reduced risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. New England J. Medicine. 1994, 330, 81-87. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Newton, N., and Newton, M. Psychologic aspects of lactation. New England Journal of Medicine. 1967, 277, 1179-1188. BREAST FEEDING.

Ng, T. P., Ng, Y. L., Lee, H. S., Chia, K. S., and Ong, H. Y. A study of silica nephroroxicity in exposed silicone and non-silicone workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1992, 49, 35-37. SILICA.

Niazi, Z. B. M., Salzberg, C. A., and Montecalvo, M. Candida albicans infection of bilateral polyurethane-coated silicone gel breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996, 37, 91-93. INFECTION/polyurethane/local complications.

Nicander, L. Changes produced in the male genital organs of rabbits and dogs by 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (KABI 1774). Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975, 36, Supp. III, 40-54. TOXICOLOGY.

Nicholson III, J. J., Hill, S. L., Frondoza, C. G., and Rose, N. R. Silicone gel and octamethylcylotetrasiloxane (D4) enhances antibody production to bovine serum albumin in mice. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1996, 31, (3): 345-353. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Nicolle, F. V. Capsular contracture and ripple deformity of breast implants Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1996 Jul, 20, (4): 311-314. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Niezborala, M., and Garnier, R. Allergy to complex platinum salts: A histological prospective cohort study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1996, 53, (4): 252-257. PLATINUM/toxicology/immune effects.

Nobunaga, M., Oribe, K., and Ohishi, S. A case of scleroderma with Sjögren's syndrome developed after mammoplasty. Clinical Rheumatology. 1984, 3, (3): 375-379. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Noone, R. B., Frazier, T. G., Hayward, C. Z., and Skiles, M. S. Patient acceptance of immediate reconstruction following mastectomy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Apr, 69, (4): 632-638. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Noone, R. B., Frazier, T. G., Noone, G. C., Blanchet, N. P., Murphy, J. B., and Rose, D. Recurrence of breast carcinoma following immediate reconstruction: A 13-year review. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994a, 93, (1): 96-104. CANCER.

Noone, R. B., Murphy, J. B., Spear, S. L., and Little, J. W. A 6-year experience with immediate reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985 Aug, 76, (2): 258-269. RECONSTRUCTION.

Nordström, R. E. A., Pietilä, J. P., Voutilainen, P. E. J., Lilius, G. P. S., Virkkunen, P. J., and Rintala, A. E. Tissue expander injection dome leakage. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988, 81, (1): 26-29. EXPANDER/local complications.

Nosanchuk, J. S. Injected dimethylpolysiloxane fluid: A study of antibody and histologic response. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1968a Dec, 42, (6): 562-566. IMMUNE EFFECTS/silicone injection.

Nosanchuk, J. S. Silicone granuloma in breast. Archives of Surgery. 1968b Oct, 97, 583-585. INFECTION/granulomas/local complications.

Nose, Y. Do breast implants really produce negative impacts to recipients. Artificial Organs. 1994, 18, (10): 717. GENERAL.

NRC Committee on Toxicology. ZnCdS Report. National Academy Press, Washington DC. 1997. TOXICOLOGY.

Nyrén, O., Josefsson, S., McLaughlin, J. K., Blot, W. J., Engquist, M., Hakelius, L., Boice, Jr. J. D., and Adami, H.-O. Risk of connective tissue disease and related disorders among women with breast implants: A nation-wide retrospective cohort study in Sweden. British Medical Journal. 1998a, 31, (7129): 417-421. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Nyrén, O., McLaughlin, J. K., Gridley, G., Ekbom, A., Johnell, O., Fraumeni, J. F., and Adami, H. O. Cancer risk after hip replacement with metal implants: A population-based cohort study in Sweden. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1995 Jan 4, 87, (1): 28-33. CANCER.

Nyrén, O., McLaughlin, J. K., Yin, L., Josefsson, S., Engquist, M., Hakelius, L., Blot, W. J., and Adami, H.-O. Breast implants and risk of neurologic disease. Neurology. 1998c Apr, 50, 956-961. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

O'Boyle, M. K., Wechsler, R. J., Conant, E. F., Lev-Toaff, A. S., and Sagerman, J. Breast implants: Incidental findings on CT. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994, 162, 311-313. MAMMOGRAPHY.

O'Brien, W., Hasselgren, P. O., Hummel, R. P., Coith, R., Huam, D., Kurtzman, L., and Neale, H. W. Comparison of postoperative wound complications and early cancer recurrence between patients undergoing mastectomy with or without immediate breast reconstruction. American Journal of Surgery. 1993, 166, 1-5. RECONSTRUCTION/ cancer/local complications.

O'Donnell, M. The National Breast Implant Registry. Br J Theatre Nurs. 1994 Feb 1, 3, (11): 24. GENERAL.

O'Keeffe, P. J. The steroid-adjustable mammary implant. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1981, 5, 129-135. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/steroids.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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O'Mara, E. M., Pennes, D. R., and Argenta, L. C. Combination gel-inflatable mammary prosthesis: Appearance at CT. Radiology. 1989, 170, 78. MAMMOGRAPHY.

O'Rourke, E. J., Halstead, S. B., Allison, A. C., and Platts-Mills, T. A. E. Specific lethality of silica for human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes in vitro. Journal of Immunological Methods. 1978, 19, 137-151. SILICA.

Oellinger, H., Heins, S., Sander, B., and et al. Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI of breast. The most sensitive method for detecting multicentric carcinomas in female breast. Eur Radiol. 1993, 3, 223-227. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Ohbayashi, N., Inagawa, T., Katoh, Y., Kumano, K., Nagasako, R., and Hada, H. Complication of silastic dural substitute 20 years after dural plasty. Surgical Neurology. 1994, 41, 338-341. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/general.

Ohlsen, L., Ponten, B., and Hamberg, G. Augmentation mammaplasty: A surgical and psychiatric evaluation of the results. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1979, 2, (1): 42. PSYCHO-SOCIAL.

Ohtake, N., Kogenei, Y., Itoh, M., and Shoya, N. Postoperative sequelae of augmentation mammaplasty by injection method in Japan. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1989, 13, 67-74. SILICONE INJECTION.

Ojo-Amaize, E. A., Conte, V., Lin, H-C, Brucker, R. F., Agopian, M. S., and Peter, J. B. Silicone-specific blood lymphocyte response in women with silicone breast implants. Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1994 Nov, 1, (6): 689-695. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Ojo-Amaize, E. A., Lawless, O. J., and Peter, J. B. Elevated concentrations of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in plasma of women with silicone breast implants. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1996 May, 3, (3): 257-259. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Okada, T., and Ikada, Y. In vitro and in vivo digestion of collagen covalently immobilized onto the silicone surface. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1992, 26, 1569-1581. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Okada, T., and Ikada, Y. Tissue reactions to subcutaneously implanted, surface-modified silicones. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1993, 27, 1509-1518. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/immune effects.

Okano, Y., Nishikai, M., and Sato, A. Scleroderma, primary biliary cirrhosis, and Sjogren's syndrome after cosmetic breast augmentation with silicone injection: A case report of possible human adjuvant disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 1984, 43, 520-522. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/silicone injection.

Okkerse, C., and de Boer, J. H. Reactivity of amorphous silica in aqueous solutions. Silicates Industriels. 1960: 195-202. SILICA.

Oksenberg J.R., Stavir G.T., Jeong M.C., Garovoy N., Salisbury J.R., and Erusalimsky J.D. Analysis of the T-cell receptor repertoire in human atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Res. 1997 Nov, 36, 256†67. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Okubo, M., Hyakusoku, H., Kouji, K., and Fumirir, M. Complications after injection mammaplasty. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1992, 16, 181-187. CANCER/silicone injection.

Okunski, W., and Chowdary, R. P. Infected Même implants: Salvage reconstruction with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps and silicone implants. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1987, 11, (1): 49-51 INFECTION/polyurethane/local complications.

Olenius, M., Forslind, B., and Johansson, O. Morphometric evaluation of collagen fibril dimensions in expanded human breast skin. Int J Biol Macromol. 1991, 13, 162. EXPANDER/capsule contracture.

Olenius, M., and Jurell, G. Breast reconstruction using tissue expansion. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1992, 26, (1): 83-90. EXPANDER/ reconstruction/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Olesen, L. L., Ejlertsen, T., and Nielsen, J. Toxic shock syndrome following insertion of breast prostheses. British Journal of Surgery. 1991 May, 78, (5): 585-586. INFECTION/ local complications.

Olivari, N. The latissimus flap. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1976, 29, 126-128. RECONSTRUCTION.

Olsen, M., O'connor, S., Arnett, F., Rosenbaum, D., Grotta, J. C., and Warner, N. B. Autoantibodies and rheumatic disorders in a neurology inpatient population: A prospective study. The American Journal of Medicine. 1991 Apr, 90, 479-488. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE/ai-ctd background.

Olson, K. J. Preface—series of papers relating reproductive activity to selected organosiloxane chemicals. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1972, 21, 12-14. TOXICOLOGY/children's effects.

Ombredanne, L. Restauration autoplastique du sein apres amputation totale. Trb. Med. 1906, 4, 325. RECONSTRUCTION.

Oneal, R. M. High pressure injection of silicone gel into an axilla—a complication of closed compression capsulotomy of the breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Nov, 64, (5): 700. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/migration/local complications.

Oneal, R. M., and Argenta, L. C. Late side effects related to inflatable breast prostheses containing soluble steroids. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Apr, 69, (4): 641-645. STEROIDS/local complications / capsule-contracture.

Opitz, P. G., and Young, V. L. Experience with soybean oil-filled breast implants in a Swedish surgical practice. Aesthetic Surgery Journal. 1998: 183-197. MAMMOGRAPHY/ local complications/general.

Oppenheimer, B. S., Oppenheimer, E. T., and Stout, A. P. Sarcomas induced in rats by implanting cellophane. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1948, 67, 33-34. CARCINOGENICITY/toxicology.

Oppenheimer, B. S., Oppenheimer, E. T., and Stout, A. P. Sarcomas induced in rodents by imbedding various plastic films. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1952, 79, 366-369. CARCINOGENICITY.

Oppenheimer, B. S., Oppenheimer, E. T., Stout, A. P., and Danishefsky, I. Malignant tumors resulting from embedding plastics in rodents. Science. 1953, 118, 305-307. CARCINOGENICITY.

Oppenheimer, B. S., Oppenheimer, E. T., Stout, A. P., Willhite, M., and Danishefsky, I. The latent period in carcinogenesis by plastics in rats and to the presarcomatous stage. Cancer. 1958, 11, 204-214. CARCINOGENICITY.

Oppenheimer, B. S., Oppenheimer, I. D., and Stout, P. S. Further studies of polymers as carcinogenic agents in animals. Cancer research. 1955, 15, 333-340. TOXICOLOGY/ CARCINOGENICITY.

Oppenheimer, E. T., Willhite, M., Danishefsky, I., and Stout, A. P. Observations on the effects of powdered polymer in the carcinogenic process. Cancer Research. 1961 Jan, 21, 132-135. CARCINOGENICITY.

Oppenheimer, E. T., Willhite, M., Stout, A. F., Danishefsky, I., and Fishmann, M. M. A comparative study of the effects of imbedding cellophane and polystyrene files in rats. Cancer Research. 1964, 24, 379. CARCINOGENICITY.

Orel, S. G. High-resolution MR imaging of the breast. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1996 Oct, 17, (5): 476-493. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Orel, S. G., Fowble, B. L., Solin, L. J., and Schultz, D. J. Breast cancer recurrence after lumpectomy and radiation therapy for early-stage disease: Prognostic significance of detection method. Radiology. 1993, 188, 189-194. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

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Orel, S. G., Troupin, R. H., Patterson, E. A., and Fowble, B. L. Breast cancer recurrence after lumpectomy and irradiation: Role of mammography in detection. Radiology. 1992, 183, 201-206. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Orentreich, N. Soft tissue augmentation with medical-grade fluid silicone. Biomater Skin Surg. 1983, 56, 859-881. SILICONE INJECTION.

Orrah, D. J., Semlyn, J. A., and Ross-Murphy, S. B. Polymer. 1988, 29, 1452. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Ortiz-Monasterio, F., and Trigos, I. Management of patients with complications from injections of foreign materials into the breasts. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1972 Jul, 50, (1): 42-47. SILICONE INJECTION/cancer.

Osorio, A. M., Thun, M. J., Novak, R. F., Cura J.V., and Avner, E. D. Silica and glomerulonephritis: Case report and review of the literature. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 1987 Mar, 9, (3): 224-230. SILICA.

Osteen, R. T. Reconstruction after mastectomy. Cancer. 1995 Nov 15, 76, (10 (Supplement)): 2070-2074. PSYCHOSOCIAL/cancer/reconstruction.

Osteen, R. T., Cady, B., Friedman, M., Kraybill, W., Doggett, S., Hussey, D., and et al. Patterns of care for younger women with breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs. 1994, 16, 4346. GENERAL.

Ostermeyer-Shoaib, B., and Patten, B. M. An atypical multiple sclerosis-like syndrome in women with silicone breast implants or silicone fluid injections into the breast. Canadian Journal of Neurological Science. 1993a, 20, 156. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Ostermeyer-Shoaib, B., and Patten, B. M. Human adjuvant disease: Presentation as a multiple sclerosis-like syndrome. Southern Medical Journal. 1996a Feb, 89, (2): 179-188. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE/connective tissue disease.

Ostermeyer-Shoaib, B., Patten, B. M., and Calkins, D. S. Adjuvant breast disease: An evaluation of 100 symptomatic women with breast implants or silicone fluid injections. Keio Journal of Medicine. 1994 Jun, 43, (2): 79-87. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects/silicone injection.

Pabst, H., and Spady, D. Effect of breast feeding on antibody response to conjugate vaccine. The Lancet. 1990, 336, (8710): 269-270. BREAST FEEDING.

Palazzolo, R. J., Mchard, J. A., Hobbs, E. J., Fancher, O. E., and Calandra, J. C. Investigation of the toxicological properties of a phenylmethylcyclosiloxane. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1972, 21, 15-28. TOXICOLOGY.

Palcheff-Wiemer, M., Concannon, M. J., Conn, V. S., and Puckett, C. L. The impact of the media on women with breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Oct, 92, (5): 779-785. GENERAL/psychosocial.

Paletta, C. E., Bostwick, III J., and Nahai, F. The inferior gluteal free flap in breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 Dec, 84, (6): 875-883. RECONSTRUCTION.

Paletta, C., Paletta, Jr. F. X., and Paletta, Sr. F. X. Sqamous cell carcinoma following breast augmentation. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992 Nov, 29, (5): 425-432. CANCER.

Palley, H. A. The evolution of FDA policy on silicone breast implants: A case study of politics, bureaucracy, and business in the process of decision-making. International Journal of Health Services. 1995, 25, (4): 573-591. GENERAL.

Palmon, L. U., Foshager, M. C., Parantainen, H., Everson, L. I., and Cunningham, B. Ruptured or intact: What can linear echoes within silicone breast implants tell us? AJR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1997 Jun, 168, (6): 1595-1598. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Pandurangi, R. S., Seehra, M. S., Razzaboni, B. L., and Bolsaitis, P. Surface and bulk infrared modes of crystalline and amorphous silica particles: A study of the relation of surface structure to cytotoxicity of respirable silica. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1990, 86, 327-336. SILICA.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Pangman, W. J. Breast trauma—Surgical and psychic: Its repair and prevention. Journal of the International College of Surgeons. 1965 Nov, 44, (5): 515-522. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Pankowsky, D. A., Ziats, N. P., Tophan, N. S., Ratnoff, O. D., and Anderson, J. M. Morphological characteristics of adsorbed human plasma proteins on vascular grafts and biomaterials. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 1990 Apr, 11, (4): 599-606. TOXICOLOGY.

Papillon, J. Pros and cons of subpectoral implantation. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1976 Apr, 3, (2): 321. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Park, A. J., Black, R. J., Sarhadi, N. S., Chetty, U., and Watson, A. C. H. Silicone gel-filled breast implants and connective tissue disease. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Feb, 101, (2): 261-267. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Park, A. J., Black, R. J., and Watson, A. C. H. Silicone gel breast implants, breast cancer and connective tissue disorders. British Journal of Surgery. 1993, 80, (9): 1097-1100. GENERAL/connective tissue disease/cancer.

Park, A. J., Chetty, U., and Watson, A. C. H. Patient satisfaction following insertion of silicone breast implants. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1996a, 17, (23): 2265-2272. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Park, A. J., Walsh, J., Reddy, P. S. V., Chetty, U., and Watson, A. C. H. The detection of breast implant rupture using ultrasound. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1996b, 49, 299-301. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Parsons, C. L. Subclinical infection of penile prostheses. Infection and Urology. 1995, 8, (5): 148-150. INFECTION/local complications/general.

Parsons, C. L., Stein, P. C., Dobke, M. K., and et al. Diagnosis and therapy of subclinically infected prostheses. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1993 Nov, 177, 504-506. INFECTION/local complications.

Parsons, R. W., and Thering, H. R. Management of the silicone injected breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Oct, 60, (4): 534-538. SILICONE INJECTION/local complications/migration/cancer/capsule-contracture.

Pasteris, J. D., Wopenka, N. B., Freeman, J. J., Young, V. L., and Brandon, H. J. Analysis of breast implant capsular tissue for crystalline silica and other refractile phases. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1999, 103, (4): 1273-1276. SILICA/silicon measurement.

Pasyk, K. A., Austad, E. D., and Cherry, G. W. Intracellular collagen fibers in the capsule around silicone expanders in guinea pigs. Journal of Surgical Research. 1984, 36, 125-133. EXPANDER/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Pasyk, K. A., Austad, E. D., McClatchey, K., and Cherry, G. W. Electron microscopic evaluation of guinea pig skin and soft tissue expanded with a self-inflating silicone implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Jul, 70, (1): 37-45. EXPANDER.

Patel, R. T., Webster, DJ. T., Mansel, R. E., and Hughes, L. E. Is immediate postmastectomy reconstruction safe in the long-term? European Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1993,19, 372-375. RECONSTRUCTION.

Patten, B. M., and Ostermeyer-Shoaib, B. O. Disquisition on human adjuvant disease. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 1995 Winter, 38, (2): 274-290. GENERAL/connective tissue disease.

Patten, B., Jung, S., and Mata, K. Muscle biopsy histochemistry: A useful tool for evaluating patients who have neuromuscular disease. 1977 Aug. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Pay, A. D., and Kenealy, J. Breast implant rupture following contralateral mammography. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997, 99, (6): 1734-1735. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture.

Peacock, D. J., and Cooper, C. Epidemiology of the rheumatic diseases. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 1995, 7, 82-86. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Pearl, R. M., Laub, D. R., and Kaplan, E. N. Complications following silicone injections for augmentation of the face. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Jun, 61, (6): 888-891. SILICONE INJECTION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Pearson, C. M. Experimental joint disease: Observations on adjuvant-induced arthritis. Journal of Chronic Disease. 1963, 16, 863-874. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Pedersen, B. K., and Beyer, J. M. Characterization of the in vitro effects of glucocorticoids in NK cell activity. Allergy. 1986, 41, 220-224. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Pedersen, B. K., and Ullum, H. NK cell response to physical activity: possible mechanisms of action. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 1994, 26, 140-146. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Peimer, C. A., Medige, J., Eckert, B. S., Wright, J. R., and Howard, C. S. Reactive synovitis after silicone arthroplasty. The Journal of Hand Surgery. 1986, 11A, (5): 624-638. GENERAL/local complications.

Peled, I. J. Wexler M. R. Shoshan S. Moshe S. B., Gazit, D., Bab, I., and Ticher, S. Capsule around silicone implants in diabetic rats: Histological and biochemical study Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1986 Oct, 17, (4): 288-291. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Pellenbarg, R. Environmental Poly(organosiloxanes) (Silicones). Environmental Science and Technology. 1979 May, 13, (5): 565-569. TOXICOLOGY.

Pennington, J. Silicon in foods and diets. Food Addit Contam. 1981, 8, (1): 107-118. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Pennisi, V. R. Long-term use of polyurethane breast prostheses: A 14-year experience. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Aug, 86, (2): 368-371. POLYURETHANE/local complications/ rupture/capsule-contracture/infection/granulomas/hematomas.

Pennisi, V. R. Making a definite inframammary fold under a reconstructed breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977, 60, (4): 523-525. RECONSTRUCTION.

Pennisi, V. R. Obscure carcinoma encountered in subcutaneous mastectomy in silicone and paraffin-injected breasts: Two patients. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Oct, 74, (4): 535-538. CANCER/silicone injection.

Pennisi, V. R. Polyurethane-covered silicone-gel mammary prosthesis for successful breast reconstruction. Aesthet Plast Surg. 1985, 9, 73-77. POLYURETHANE/reconstruction.

Pennisi, V. R., Lozada, G., and Capozzi, A. Minimizing complications of subcutaneous mastectomy. Breast. 1980, 6, 22. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Pepys, J. Allergy of the respiratory tract to low molecular weight chemical agents. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 1983, 63, 163-185. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Pepys, J., Parish, W. E., Cromwell, O., and Hughes, E. G. Specific IgE and IgG antibodies to platinum salts in sensitized workers. Monogr Allergy. 1979, 14, 142-145. PLATINUM/ toxicology.

Perkins, L. L., Clark, B. D., Klein, P. J., and Cook, R. R. A meta-analysis of breast implants and connective tissue disease. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Dec, 35, (6): 561-570. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Perras, C. The prevention and treatment of infections following breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1965 Jun, 35, (6): 649-656. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/infection.

Perras, C., and Camirand, A. Subcutaneous mastectomy. American Journal of Nursing. 1973, 73, (9). GENERAL.

Perras, C., and Papillon, J. The value of mammography in cosmetic surgery of the breasts. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973 Aug, 52, (2): 132-137. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Perrelli, G., and Piolatto, G. Tentative reference values for gold, silver and platinum: Literature data analysis. The Science of the Total Environment. 1992, 120, 93-96. PLATINUM.

Perrin, E. R. The use of soluble steroids with inflatable breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976, 57, (2): 163-166. STEROIDS/expander/saline.

Perry, R. R., Jacques, D. P., Lesar, M. S. L., d'Avis, J. C., and Peterson, H. D. Mycobacterium avium infection in a silicone-injected breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985 Jan, 75, (1): 104-106. SILICONE INJECTION/infection/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Persellin, S. T., Vogler, J. B., Brazis, P. W., and Moy, O. J. Silicone gel breast implants. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1993, 68, 96. GENERAL.

Persellin, S., Vogler, J. B., and Moy, O. J. Detection of migratory silicone pseudotumor with use of magnetic resonance imaging. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1992 Sep, 67, 891-895. MAMMOGRAPHY/migration/local complications.

Persoff, M. M. Expansion-augmentation of the breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Mar, 91, (3): 393-403. EXPANDER.

Persson, B., Dahlander, A.-M., Fredriksson, M., Brage, H. N., Ohlson, C.-G., and Axelson, O. Malignant lymphomas and occupational exposures. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1989, 46, 516-520. CARCINOGENICITY.

Peters, C. R., Shaw, T. E., and Raghavu, R. D. The influence of vitamin E on capsule formation and contracture around silicone implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1980 Nov, 5, (5): 347-352. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Peters, W. J. Current status of silicone gel breast implants. Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Spring, 2, (1): 18-23. GENERAL/rupture/local complications.

Peters, W. J. Failure properties of leaf valve inflatable saline breast implants. Can J Plast Surg. 1997, 4, 241-245. RUPTURE/saline.

Peters, W. J. The mechanical properties of breast prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1981 Mar, 6, 179-181. RUPTURE/local complications/closed capsulotomy/capsule-contracture.

Peters, W. J. The rupture of silicone gel breast implants. Ann Plast Surg. 1994a, 33, 462-463. RUPTURE/local complications.

Peters, W. J. Rupture of silicone-gel breast implants. The Lancet. 1998, 351, 521. RUPTURE/ local complications.

Peters, W. J. Silicone breast implants and autoimmune connective tissue disease. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Jan, 34, (1): 103-109. SILICON MEASUREMENT/local complications/rupture/connective tissue disease/immune effects.

Peters, W. J., Keystone, E., and Smith, D. Factors affecting the rupture of silicone-gel breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994a May 1, 32, (5): 449-451. RUPTURE/capsule-contracture/local complications/explantation.

Peters, W. J., Keystone, E., Snow, K., Rubin, L., and Smith, D. Is there a relationship between autoantibodies and silicone-gel implants? Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994b Jan, 32, (1): 1-7. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Peters, W. J., and McEwan, P. Capsular contracture simulating myocardial infarction on ECG. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993, 91, 529-532. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/pain/local complications.

Peters, W. J., and Pritzker, K. P. H. Massive heterotopic ossification in breast implant capsules. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1985 Jan, 9, 43-45. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Peters, W. J., Pritzker, K., and Smith, K. et al. Capsular Calcification associated with silicone breast implants: incidence, determinants and characterization. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1998, 41, (4): 348-360. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Peters, W. J., and Pugash, R. Ultrasound analysis of 150 patients with silicone gel breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Jul, 31, (1): 7-9. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Peters, W. J., and Smith, D. Calcification of breast implant capsules: Incidence, diagnosis, and contributing factors. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Jan, 34, (1): 8-11. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Peters, W. J., and Smith, D. C. Ivalon breast prostheses: Evaluation 19 years after implantation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Apr, 67, (4): 514-518. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/ general.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Peters, W. J., Smith, D., Fornasier, V., Lugowski, S., and Ibanez, D. An outcome analysis of 100 women after explantation of silicone gel breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Jul, 39, (1): 9-19. GENERAL/psychosocial/local complications/connective tissue disease/capsule-contracture/pain/sensation/rupture/explantation.

Peters, W. J., Smith, D., Grosman, H., and Fornasier, V. Role of mammography to assess complications of silicone gel breast implants. Can. J. Plast. Surg. 1995d, 3, (3): 150-156. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Peters, W. J., Smith, D., and Lugowski, S. Failure properties of 352 explanted silicone-gel breast implants. Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Spring, 4, (1): 55-58. RUPTURE.

Peters, W. J., Smith, D., Lugowski, S., McHugh, A., and Baines, C. Do patients with silicone gel breast implants have elevated levels of serum silicon compared to control patients? Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995b Apr, 34, (6): 343-347. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Peters, W. J., Smith, D., Lugowski, S., McHugh, A., Kereteci, A., and Baines, C. Analysis of silicon levels in capsules of gel and saline breast implants and of penile prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995a Jun, 34, (6): 578-584. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Peterson, H. D., and Burt, G. B. The role of steroids in prevention of circumferential capsular scarring in augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974 Jul, 54, (1): 28-30. STEROIDS/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Peterson, R. D., Bowen, D., Netscher, D. T., and Wigoda, P. Capsular compliance: A measure of a hard prosthesis. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Apr, 32, (4): 337-341. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Petillo, O., Peluso, G., and Ambrosio, L. In vivo induction of macrophage Ia antigen (MHC class II) expression by biomedical polymers in the cage implant system. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1994, 28, 635-646. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Petit, J. Y. Primary and secondary breast reconstruction with special emphasis on the use of prostheses. Recent Results in Cancer Research. 1996, 140, 169-175. RECONSTRUCTION.

Petit, J. Y., Lê, M. G., Mouriesse, H., Rietjens, M., Gill, P., Contesso, G., and Lehmann, A. Can breast reconstruction with gel-filled silicone implants increase the risk of death and second primary cancer in patients treated by mastectomy for breast cancer? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Jul, 94, (1): 115-119. CANCER.

Petro, J. A., Klein, S. A., Niazi, Z., Salzberg, C. A., and Byrne, D. Evaluation of ultrasound as a tool in the follow-up of patients with breast implants: A preliminary prospective study. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Jun, 32, (6): 581-587. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Pettersson, I., Wang, G., Smith, E., Wigzell, H., Hedfors, E., Horn, J., and Sharp, G. C. The use of immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation of (U) small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in the analysis of sera of patients with mixed connected tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1986, 29, (8): 986-996. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ai-ctd background.

Pfleiderer, B., Ackerman, J. L., and Garrido, L. In vivo 1H chemical shift imaging of silicone implants. Magn Reson Med. 1993c, 29, 656-659. MAMMOGRAPHY/silicon measurement.

Pfleiderer, B., Ackerman, J. L., and Garrido, L. In vivo localized proton NMR spectroscopy of silicone. Magn Reson Med. 1993b, 30, 149-154. MAMMOGRAPHY/silicon measurement.

Pfleiderer, B., Ackerman, J. L., and Garrido, L. Migration and biodegradation of free silicone from silicone gel-filled implants after long-term implantation. Magn Reson Med. 1993a, 30, 534-543. MIGRATION/local complications/silicon measurement.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Pfleiderer, B., Campbell, T., Hulka, C. A., Kopans, D. B., Lean, C. L., Ackerman, J. L., Brady, T. J., and Garrido, L. Silicone gel-filled breast implants in women: Findings at H-1 MR spectroscopy. Radiology. 1996, 201, (3): 777-783. SILICON MEASUREMENT/migration/local complications.

Pfleiderer, B., and Garrido, L. Migration and accumulation of silicone in the liver of women with silicone gel-filled breast implants. Magnet Resonance in Med. 1995, 33, 8-17. MIGRATION/local complications/silicon measurement.

Pfleiderer, B., Moore, J., Ackerman, J. L., and et al. Study of the aging process of PDMS implants in vivo and ex vivo by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Polymer Preprints. 1992, 33, 767-768. MAMMOGRAPHY/silicon measurement.

Pfleiderer, B., Moore, J., Ackerman, J. L., and Garrido, L. NMR imaging of materials: Microscopy or not? Polymer Preprints. 1992, 33, (1): 767. MAMMOGRAPHY/silicon measurement.

Pfleiderer, B., Xu, P., Ackerman, J., and Garrido, L. Study of aging of silicone rubber biomaterials with NMR. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1995 Sep, 29, 1129-1140. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Phelan, D. L., Mohanakumar, T., McWilliams, J., and et al. Breast implants and autoimmunity: Association with HLA. Human Immunology. 1992, 34, S34. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Phelps, C. P., Chen, L. T., Poole, L. T., and Menzies, R. A. Variable tissue reactions and endocrine responses to a jugular catheter. Journal of Submicrosc. Cytol. Path. 1995 Jan, 27, (1): 83-89. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Philippou and et al. Lung fibrosis after inhalation of amorphous silica. Zentralbl Pathol. 1992 Mar, 138, 41-46. SILICA.

Phillips, J. W., de Camara, D. L., Lockwood, M.D., and Grebner, W. C. C. Strength of silicone breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 May, 97, (6): 1215-1225. RUPTURE/local complications.

Phua, S. K., Castillo, E., Anderson, J. M., and Hiltner, A. Biodegration of a polyurethane in vitro. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1987, 21, 231-246. POLYURETHANE.

Picard, F., Alikacem, N., Guidoin, R., and Auger, M. Multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy of envelopes from virgin and explanted silicone breast prostheses: An exploratory study. Magn Reson Med. 1997, 37, (1): 11-17. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/silicon measurement.

Picha, G. J. Mammary implants: Surface modifications and the soft tissue response. Perspectives in Plastic Surgery. 1991, 5, 54. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Picha, G. J., and Goldstein, J. A. Analysis of the soft-tissue response to components used in the manufacture of breast implants: rat-animal model. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Mar, 87, 490-500. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Picha, G. J., and Goldstein, J. A. Investigation of silicone oil and fumed silica on an adjuvant animal model. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 197, 100, (3): 643-652. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Picha, G. J., Goldstein, J. A., and Stohr, E. Natural-Y Même polyurethane versus smooth silicone: Analysis of the soft-tissue interaction from 3 days to 1 year in the rat animal model. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Jun, 85, (6): 903-916. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Picha, G. J., Goldstein, J., and Stohr, E. Soft tissue response to Même polyurethane covered silicone implants/smooth controls: Three days to one year. Artificial Organs. 1990, 14, (3). POLYURETHANE.

Picha, G. J., and Siedlak, D. J. Ion-beam microtexturing of biomaterials. Medical Device Diagn Ind. 1984, 6, 39. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Picktell, K. L., Puckett, C. L., and Given, K. S. Subpectoral augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Sep, 60, (3): 325-336. GENERAL.

Pidutti, R., and Morales, A. Silicone gel-filled testicular prosthesis and systemic disease. Urology. 1993 Aug, 42, (2): 155-157. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/ general.

Piechotta, F. U. Silicone fluid, attractive and dangerous: Collective review and summary of exposure. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1979, 3, 347-351. SILICONE INJECTION.

Pilbrandt, A., and Strindberg, B. Pharmacokinetics of 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in man. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975, 36, (Supplement III): 139-147. TOXICOLOGY.

Pilipshen, S. J., Gerardi, J., Bretsky, S., and Robbins, G. F. The significance of delay in treating patients with potentially curable breast cancer. Breast, Diseases of the Breast. 1984, 10, (3): 16-23. CANCER.

Pinotti, J. A., Costa, M. S., Teixeira, L. C., Keppke, E. M., Baroudi, R., and Gabiatti, J. R. E. Localization of benign breast diseases and proposal of a new approach for aesthetic breast reduction. Breast Dis. 1989, 1, 295-312. GENERAL.

Piscatelli, S. J. Breast capsule contracture: Is fibroblast activity associated with severity? Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1994, 18, (1): 75-79. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Pisetsky, D. S. Anti-DNA antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 1992 May, 18, (2): 437-454. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Pitt, W. G., Park, K., and Cooper, S. L. Sequential protein adsorption and thrombus deposition on polymeric biomaterials. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1986 Jun, 111, (2): 343-362. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Poblete, J. V. P., Rodgers, J. A., and Wolfort, F. G. Toxic shock syndrome as a complication of breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Dec, 96, (7): 1702-1708. INFECTION/ local complications.

Pohost, G. M., Blackwell, G. G., and Shellock, F. G. Safety of patients with medical devices during application of magnetic resonance methods. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1992, 649, 302-312. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Policard, A., and Collet, A. Experimental studies of the pathological reactions to parenteral administrations of submicron amorphous silicas. American Archives of Industrial Health. 1957 Oct, 19. SILICA/toxicology.

Policard, A., and Collet, A. Toxic and fibrosing action of submicroscopic particles of amorphous silica. Industr Hyg Occp Med. 1955, 12, 389-395. TOXICOLOGY/silica.

Pollock, H. Breast capsular contracture: A retrospective study of textured versus smooth silicone implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993, 91, (3): 404-407. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Polyzois, G. L., Hensten-Pettersen, A., and Kullman, A. An assessment of the physical properties and biocompatibility of three silicone elastomers. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 1994, 71, (5): 500-504. TOXICOLOGY/general.

Porter, J. F., Kingsland, 3d L. C., Lindberg, D. A., Shah, I., Benge, J. M., Hazelwood, S. E., Kay, D. R., Homma, M., Akizuki, M., Takano, M., and Sharp, G. C. The AI/RHEUM knowledge-based computer consultant system in rheumatology. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1988, 31, (2): 219-226. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Potter, M., Morrison, S., Wiener, F., Zhang, X. K., and Miller, F. W. Induction of plasmacytomas with silicone gel in genetically susceptible strains of mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1994 Jul 20, 86, (14): 1058-1065. MYELOMA/immune effects.

Press, R. I., Peebles, C. L., Kumagai, Y., Ochs, R. L., and Tan, E. M. Antinuclear autoantibodies in women with silicone breast implants. The Lancet. 1992 Nov 28, 340, 1304-1307. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Price, J. E., and Barker, D. E. Initial clinical experience with 'low bleed' breast implants. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1983 Jan 1, 7, 255-256. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Price Jr., J. E. Capsular contraction and deflation associated with inflatable implants. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1983, 7, 257-238. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/rupture/saline.

Price, R., North, C., Wessely, S., and Frasher, V. Estimating the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome and associated symptoms in the community. Public Health Reports. 1992, 107, (5): 515-522. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Prockop, D. Mutations in collagen genes as a cause of connective-tissue diseases. New England Journal of Medicine. 1992 Feb 20, 326, (8): 540-546. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Provost, T. T. R., Watson, K. K., Gaither, and Harley, J. B. The neonatal lupus erythematosus syndrome. J. Rheumatol. 1987, 14, 199-205. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Pryse-Phippils, W., and Murray, T. J. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Essential Neurology. 1992. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Puckett, C. L. Gel bleed and gel migration. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Apr, 99, (5): 1410. MIGRATION/local complications/rupture.

Puckett, C. L, Croll, G. H., and Reichel, C. A. A critical look at capsule contracture in subglandular versus subpectoral mammary augmentation. Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 1987, 11, 23. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Purohit, A., Ghilchik, M. W., Duncan, L. J., and et al. Aromatase activity and interleukin-6 production by normal and malignant breast tissues. Journal of Clinical Endrocrinology and Metabolism. 1995, 80, 3052-3058. CANCER.

Quinn, S. F., Neubauer, N. M., Sheley, R. C., Demlow, T. A., and Szumowski, J. MR imaging of silicone breast implants: Evaluation of prospective and retrospective interpretations and interobserver agreement. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1996 Jan-1996 Feb 28, 6, (1): 213-218. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Radovan, C. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy using the temporary expander. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Feb, 69, (2): 195-206. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Radovan, C. Reconstruction of the breast after radical mastectomy using temporary expander. Am Soc Plast Reconstr Surg Forum. 1978, 1, 41. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Radovan, C. Tissue expansion in soft-tissue reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Oct, 74, (4): 482-490. EXPANDER/local complications.

Rae, V., Pardo, R. J., Blackwelder, P. L., and Falanga, V. Leg ulcers following subcutaneous injection of a liquid silicone preparation. Archives of Dermatology. 1989 May, 125, 5. SILICONE INJECTION.

Rahman, H., and Fagg, P. Silicone granulomatous reactions after first metatarsophalangeal hemiarthroiplasty. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1993 Jul, 75b, 637-639. GRANULOMAS/local complications/general.

Ramasastry, S. S., Weinstein, L. W., Zerbe, A., Narayanan, K., LaPietra, D., and Futrell, J. W. Regression of local and distant tumor growth by tissue expansion: An experimental study of mammary carcinoma 13762 in rats. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991, 87, (1): 1-7. CANCER.

Ramirez, O. M., and Orlando, J. C. Chest wall deformity during tissue expansion in breast reconstruction. Plastic Surgery Forum. 1986, 9, 148-153. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/ expander.

Randall, T. Antibodies to silicone detected in patients with severe inflammatory reactions. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1992 Oct 14, 268, (14): 1821-1822. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Randall, T. Less maligned, but cut from the same cloth, other silicone implants also have adverse effects. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1992 Jul, 268, (1): 12-18. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Ransjö, U., Asplund, O., Gylbert, L., and Jurell, G. Bacteria in the female breast. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1985, 19, 87-89. INFECTION.

Rapaport, D. P., Stadelmann, W. K., and Greenwald, D. P. Incidence and natural history of saline-filled breast implant deflations: Comparison of blunt-tipped versus cutting and tapered needles. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997, 100, (4): 1028-1032. SALINE/rupture/ local complications.

Rapaport, M. J., Vinnik, C., and Zaren, H. Injectable silicone: Cause of facial nodules, cellulitis, ulceration, and migration. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1996, 20, (3): 267-276. SILICONE INJECTION.

Raposo do Amaral, C. M., Tiziani, V., Cintra, M. L., Amstalden, I., and Palhares, F. B. Local reaction and migration of injected silicone gel: Experimental study. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1993, 17, 335-338. TOXICOLOGY/migration/local complications/silicone injection.

Raso, D. S., Crymes, L. W., and Metcalf, J. S. Histological assessment of fifty breast capsules from smooth and textured augmentation and reconstruction mammoplasty prostheses with emphasis on the role of synovial metaplasia. Modern Pathology. 1994b, 7, (3): 310-316. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Raso, D. S., and Greene, W. B. Silicone breast implants: Pathology. Ultrastructural Pathology. 1997, 21, (3): 263-271. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/immune effects/children's effects.

Raso, D. S., and Greene, W. B. Synovial metaplasia of a periprosthetic capsule surrounding a polyurethane foam breast prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Aug, 35, (2): 201-203. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Raso, D. S., Greene, W. B., Harley, R. A., and Maize, J. C. Silicone deposition in reconstruction scars of women with silicone breast implants. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1996 Jul, 35, (1): 32-36. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Raso, D. S., Greene, W. B., Kalasinsky, V. F., Riopel, M. A., Luke, J. L., Askin, F. B., Silverman, J. F., and Young, V. L. Elemental analysis and clinical implications of calcification deposits associated with silicone breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1999 Feb, 42, (2): 117-123. CALCIFICATION/capsule-contracture/mammography.

Raso, D. S., Greene, W. B., and Metcalf, J. Synovial metaplasia of a periprosthetic breast capsule. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1994a Mar, 118, 249. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE / local complications.

Raso, D. S., Greene, W. B., Vesely, J. J., and Willingham, M. C. Light microscopy techniques for the demonstration of silicone gel. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1994b Oct, 118, 984-987. MAMMOGRAPHY/silicon measurement.

Raso, D. S., and Schulte, B. A. Immunolocalization of keratan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, and chondroitin-6-sulfate in periprosthetic breast capsules exhibiting synovial metaplasia. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996, 98, (1): 78-82. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Rassaby, J., and Hill, D. Patient's perceptions of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Medical Journal of Australia. 1983, 2, 173-176. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Raszewski, R., Guyuron, B., Lash, R. H., McMahon, J. T., and Tuthill, R. J. A severe fibrotic reaction after cosmetic liquid silicone injection. Journal of Cranio-Max Fac Surgery. 1990, 18, 225-228. SILICONE INJECTION.

Ratliff, N. B. Silicone pericarditis. Cleveland Clinical Quarterly. 1984, 51, (1): 185-189. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Reaby, L. L., and Hort, K. L. Postmastectomy attitudes in women who wear external breast prostheses compared to those who have undergone breast reconstruction. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1995, 18, (1): 55-67. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Reaby, L. L., Hort, L. K., and Vandervord, J. Body image, self-concept, and self-esteem in women who had a mastectomy and either wore an external breast prosthesis or had breast reconstruction and women who had not experienced mastectomy. Health Care for Women International. 1994, 15, (5): 361-375. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Redelmeier, D. A., Rozin, P., and Kahneman, D. Understanding patients' decisions: Cognitive and emotional perspectives. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1993 Jul 7, 270, (1): 72-76. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Redfern, A. B., and Hoopes, J. E. Subcutaneous mastectomy: A plea for conservatism. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 62, (5): 706-707. CANCER.

Redfern, A. B., Ryan, J. J., and Tsugn Su, C. Calcification of the fibrous capsule about mammary implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Feb, 59, (2): 249-251. CALCIFICATION/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Reed, M. E. Daubert and the breast implant litigation: How is the judiciary addressing the science. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Oct, 100, (5): 1322-1326. GENERAL.

Reed, W. A., and Kittle, C. F. Observations on toxicity and use of Antifoam A. AMA Arch Surg. 1959, 78, 220. TOXICOLOGY.

Rees, T. D. The current status of silicone fluid in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Journal of Dermatology and Surgical Oncology. 1976 Mar, 2, (1): 34-38. SILICONE INJECTION.

Rees, T. D., and Ashley, F. L. Treatment of facial atrophy with liquid silicone. American Journal of Surgery. 1966 Apr, 111, 531-535. SILICONE INJECTION.

Rees, T. D., Ashley, F. L., and Delagado, J.P. Silicone fluid injections for facial atrophy —a ten year study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973a Aug, 52, (2): 118†127. SILICONE INJECTION.

Rees, T. D., Ballantyne, Jr. D. L., and Hawthorne, G. A. Silicone fluid research: A follow-up summary. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1970 Jul, 46, (1): 50-56. TOXICOLOGY/silicone injection.

Rees, T. D., Ballantyne, Jr. D. L., Seidman, I., and Hawthorne, G. A. Visceral response to subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections of silicone in mice. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1967 Apr, 39, (4): 402-410. TOXICOLOGY/silicone injection.

Rees, T. D., Ballantyne, Jr. D. L., Seidman, I., and Hawthrone, G. A. Intraperitoneal injections of silicone in mice. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1967, 39, 402-410. SILICONE INJECTION.

Rees, T. D., Guy, C. L., and Coburn, R. J. The use of inflatable breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973b Dec, 52, (6): 609. EXPANDER.

Rees, T. D., Platt, J., and Ballantyne, D. L. An investigation of cutaneous response to dimethylpolysiloxane (silicone liquid) in animals and humans—A preliminary report. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1965 Feb, 35, (2): 131-139. CARCINOGENICITY/silicone injection.

Refojo, M. F., Leong, F.-L., Chung, H., Ueno, N., Nemiroff, B., and Tolentino, F. I. Extraction of retinol and cholesterol by intraocular silicone oils. Ophthalmology. 1988 May, 95, (5): 614-618. GENERAL/toxicology.

Regnault, P. Partially submuscular breast augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977, 59, (1): 72-76. GENERAL.

Regnault, P., Baker, t. J., Gleason, M. C., Gordon, H. L., Grossman, A. R., Lewis, Jr. J. R., Waters, W. R., and Williams, J. E. Clinical trial and evaluation of a proposed new inflatable mammary prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1972 Sep, 50, (3): 220-226. SALINE/expander.

Reich, J. The surgery of appearance: Psychological and related aspects. The Medical Journal of Australia. 1969 Jul 5: 5-13. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Reichlin, M. Antibodies to defined antigens in the systemic rheumatic diseases. Bulletin on Rheumatic Diseases. 1993 Dec, 42, (8): 4-6. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Reichlin, M., and Arnett, Jr. F. C. Multiplicity of antibodies in myositis sera. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1984 Oct, 27, (10): 1150-1156. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ai-ctd background.

Reiffel, R. S., Rees, T. D., Guy, C. L., and Aston, S. J. A comparison of capsule formation following breast augmentation by saline-filled or gel-filled implants. Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 1983, 7, 113-116. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline.

Reimer, G., Rose, K. M., Scheer, U., and Tan, E. M. Autoantibody to RNA polymerase I in scleroderma sera. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1987 Jan, 79, 65-72. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Reinberg, Y., Manivel, J. C., and Gonzalez, R. Silicone shedding from artificial urinary sphincter in children. The Journal of Urology. 1993 Aug, 150, 694-696. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/local complications.

Reintgen, D., Berman, C., Cox, C., and et al. The anatomy of missed breast cancers. Surg. Oncol. 1993, 2, 65-75. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Renfrew, D. L., Franken, E. A., and Berbaum, K. S. et al. Errors in radiology: classification and lessons in 182 cases presented at a problem case conference. Radiology. 1992, 183, 145-150. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Rennekampff, H.-O., Exner, K., Lemperle, G., and Nemsmann, B. Reduction of capsular formation around silicone breast implants by D-penicillamine in rats. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1992, 26, 253-255. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Renneker, R., and Cutler, M. Psychological problems of adjustment to cancer of the breast. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1952, 148, (10): 833-838. PSYCHOSOCIAL/cancer.

Renwick, S. B. Silicone breast implants: Implications for society and surgeons. Medical Journal of Australia. 1996, 165, 338-341. GENERAL.

Reyes, H., Ojo-Amaize, E. A., and Peter, J. B. Silicates, silicones and autoimmunity. Israel Journal of Medical Science. 1997 Apr, 33, (4): 239-242. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Reynolds, H. E., Buckwalter, K. A., Jackson, V. P., Siwy, B. K., and Alexander, S. G. Comparison of mammography, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of silicone-gel breast implant rupture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Sep, 33, (3): 247-255. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Rheingold, L. M., Yoo, R. P., and Courtiss, E. H. Experience with 326 inflatable breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994, 93, (1): 118. EXPANDER/local complications/ rupture/saline.

Rhie, J. W., Han, S. B., Byeon, J. H., Ahn, S. T., and Kim, H. M. Efficient in vitro model for immunotoxicologic assessment of mammary silicone implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Jul, 102, (1): 73-77. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Ricci, J., Alexander, H., Steiner, G. et al. Status of retrieved breast implants and their surrounding tissues. Proc. Soc. Biomater. 1995, 91, 828. EXPLANTATION.

Rice, D. C., Agasthian, T., Clay, R. P., and Deschamps, C. Silicone thorax: A complication of tube thoracostomy in the presence of mammary implants. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1995, 60, 1417-1419. RUPTURE/local complications.

Rich, J. D., Shesol, B. F., and Gottlieb, V. Supraclavicular migration of breast injected silicone: Case report. Military Medicine. 1982 May, 147, 404-405. SILICONE INJECTION/ migration.

Richards, J. M., Meuzelaar, H. L. C., and Bunger, J. A. Spectrometric and chromatographic methods for the analysis of polymeric explant materials. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Applied Biomaterials. 1989, 23, 321-335. SILICON MEASUREMENT/ polyurethane.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Richardson, B., and Epstein, W. V. Utility of the fluorescent antinuclear antibody test in a

single patient. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1981, 95, (3): 333-338. IMMUNE EFFECTS. Riddle, L. B. Augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. March 1986, 11, (3): 30-40. GENERAL.

Riddle, L. B. Expansion exercises: Modifying contracture of the augmented breast. Research in Nursing and Health. 1986, 9, 341-345. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Rider, J. A. Intestinal gas and bloating: Treatment with methyl Polysiloxane. Am Pract & Digest Treat. 1960, 11, (1): 52-57. GENERAL.

Ridolfi, R. L., and Hutchins, G. M. Detection of ball variance in prosthetic heart valves by liver biopsy. Hopkins Medical Journal. 1974, 134, 131-140. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Riefkohl, R., Roberts, T. L., and McCarty, K. S. Lack of adverse effect of silicone implant on sarcoidosis of the breast. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985, 76, (2): 296-298. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Rigdon, R. H. Local reaction to polyurethane—-a comparative study in the mouse, rat, and rabbit. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1973, 7, (1): 79-93. POLYURETHANE.

Ringberg, A. Subcutaneous mastectomy surgical techniques and complications in 176 women. Eur. J. Plast. Surg. 1990, 13, 7-15. GENERAL.

Rintala, A. E., and Svinhufvud, U. M. Effect of augmentation mammaplasty on mammography and thermography. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974 Oct, 54, (4): 390-396. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Rivero, M. A., Schwartz, D. S., and Mies, C. Silicone lymphadenopathy involving intrammary lymph nodes: A new complication of silicone mammaplasty. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994 May, 162, 1089-1090. LYMPHADENOPATHY/ local complications.

Roberts, C., Wells, K. E., and Daniels, S. Outcome study of the psychological changes after silicone breast implant removal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997, 100, (3): 595-599. PSYCHOSOCIAL/explantation.

Roberts, N., and Williams, P. Silicon measurement in serum and urine by direct current plasma emission spectrometry. Clinical Chemistry. 1990, 36, (6): 970-971. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Robertson, G., and Braley, S. Toxicologic studies, quality control and efficacy of the Silastic mammary prosthesis. Med Instrum. 1973, 7, (2): 100-103. TOXICOLOGY/general.

Robertson, J. L. A. A complication of transareolar augmentation mammaplasty. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1973: 263-264. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/capsule contracture.

Robinson, D. E., Ophir, J., Wilson, L. S., and Chen, C. F. Pulse-echo ultrasound speed measurements: Progress and prospects. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 1991, 17, (6): 633-646. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Robinson, Jr. O. G. et al. Disruption rate of silicone gel prostheses: Report of 200 cases. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1993 Apr. RUPTURE/local complications.

Robinson, Jr. O. G., and Benos, D. J. Spontaneous autoinflation of saline mammary implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Aug, 39, (2): 114-118. SALINE/local complications.

Robinson, Jr. O. G., Bradley, E. L., and Wilson, D. S. Analysis of explanted silicone implants: A report of 300 patients. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Jan, 34, (1): 1-6. RUPTURE/ local complications.

Rockwell, W. B., Casey, H. D., and Cheng, C. A. Breast capsule persistence after breast implant removal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998, 101, (4): 1085-1088. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE / explantation.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Rodgers, K. Klykken P., Jacobs, J., Frondoza, C., Tomazic, V., and Zelikoff, J. Symposium overview. Immunotoxicity of medical devices. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1997, 36, (1): 1-14. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Rodman, N. F., and Mason, R. G. Compatibility of blood with foreign surfaces. Thrombosis et Diathesis Hemmorrhagica. 1970, 40 (Supplement): 145-155. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Rodnan, G. P., Benedek, T. G., Medsger, T. A., and Cammarata, R. J. The association of progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) with coal miners' pneumoconiosis and other forms of silicosis. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1967 Feb, 66, (2): 323-334. SILICA.

Rodriguez, M. A., Martinez, M. C., and Lopez-Artiguez, M. et al. Lung embolism with liquid silicone. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1989 Mar 31, 34, (2): 504-510. SILICONE INJECTION.

Roggendorf, E. J. The biostability of silicone rubbers, a polyamide, and a polyester. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1976, 10, 123-143. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Roggli, V. L., McDonald, J. W., and Shelburne, J. D. The detection of silicone within tissues. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1994 Oct, 118, 963-964. SILICON MEASUREMENT/local complications.

Rohrich, R. J., Adams, W. P., Beran, S. J., Rathakrishnan, R., Griffin, J., Robinson, J. B., and Kenkel, J. M. An analysis of silicone gel-filled breast implants: diagnosis and failure rates. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998a Dec, 102, (7): 2304-2309. RUPTURE.

Rohrich, R. J., Beran, S. J., Restifo, R. J., and Copit, S. E. Aesthetic management of the breast following explantation: evaluation and mastopexy options. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998b Mar, 101, (3): 827-837. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/expander.

Rohrich, R. J., Hollier, L. H., and Robinson, Jr. J. B. Determining the safety of the silicone envelope: In search of a silicone antibody. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Sep, 98, (4): 455-458. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Rokeach, L. A., Jannatipour, M., and Hoch, S. O. Heterologous expression and epitope mapping of a human small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated Sm-B'/B autoantigen. The Journal of Immunology. 1990 Feb 1, 144, (3): 1015-1022. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Rolland, C., Guidoin, R., Marceau, D., and Ledoux, R. Nondestructive investigations on ninety-seven surgically excised mammary prostheses. J. Biomed. Mater. Res.: Applied Biomaterials. 1989a, 23, (A3): 285-298. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications / explantation.

Rolland, C., Ledoux, R., Guidoin, R., and Marceau, D. First observation of hopeïte and parascholzite in fibrous capsules surrounding silicone breast implants. International Journal of Artificial Organs. 1989b, 12, 180-188. CALCIFICATION/local complications / capsule-contracture.

Rom, W. N., Turner, W. G., Peebles, C., Tan, E. M., and Olsen, D. M. Antinuclear antibodies in Utah coal miners. Chest. 1983 Mar, 83, (3): 515-519. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Romano, T. J. Clinical characteristics of silicone breast implant patients. Am J Pain Management. 1996, 6, 13-16. GENERAL/pain.

Roncadin, M., Massarut, S., Perin, T., Arcicasa, M., Canzonieri, V., Rossi, C., and Carbone, A. Breast angiosarcoma after conservation surgery, radiotherapy and prosthesis implant. Acta Oncol. 1998, 37, (2): 209-211. CANCER.

Rosanova, I., Sevastianov, S., and Wan Kim, S. Effect of silicone rubber surface on the calcium balance of human serum. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1991, 25, 459-465. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Rosato, F. E., and et al. Immediate postmastectomy reconstruction. J Surg Oncol. 1976, 8, 277-280. RECONSTRUCTION.

Rosato, R. M., and Dowden, R. V. Radiation therapy as a cause of capsular contracture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Apr, 32, (4): 342-345. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications/radiation.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Rosculet, K. A., Ikeda, D. M., Forrest, M. E., Oneal, R. M., Rubin, J. M., Jeffries, D. O., and Helvie, M. A. Ruptured gel-filled silicone breast implants: Sonographic findings in 19 cases. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1992 Oct, 159, 711-716. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Rosdy, M., Grisoni, B., and Clauss, L.-C. Proliferation of normal human keratinocytes on silicone substrates. Biomaterials. 1991 Jul, 12, 511-517. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Rose, N. R. The silicone breast implant controversy: The other courtroom. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996 Oct, 39, (10): 1615-1618. GENERAL.

Rose, N. R. Silicone breast implants and human disease. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 28, 499. GENERAL.

Rose, N. R., and Potter, M. The silicone controversy: Towards a resolution. Immunology Today. 1995, 16, (10): 459-460. GENERAL.

Rosen, P. D., Jaba, A. D., Kister, S. J., and et al. Clinical experience with immediate breast reconstruction using tissue expansion or transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990, 25, 249. RECONSTRUCTION/expander.

Rosen, P. P., and Ernsberger, D. Mammary Fibromatosis. A benign spindle cell tumor with significant risk for local recurrence. Cancer. 1989, 63, 1363-1369. CANCER.

Rosenbaum, J. L., Bernadino, M. E., Thomas, J. L., and Wigley, K. D. Ultrasonic findings in silicone augmented breasts. Southern Medical Journal. 1981 Apr, 74, (4): 455-458. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Rosenbaum, J. T. Lessons from litigation over silicone breast implants: A call for activism by scientists. Science. 1997 Jun 6, 276, 1524-1525. GENERAL.

Rosenberg, C., and Ainen, H. S. Detection of urinary metabolites in toluene diisocyanate exposed rats. J Chromatogr. 1985, 323, 429-433. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

Rosenberg, M. J. Is there an association between injectable collagen and polymyositis/dermatomyositis? Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 May, 37, (5): 747-753. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Rosenberg, N. L. The neuromythology of silicone breast implants. Neurology. 1996 Feb, 46, 308-314. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE/connective tissue disease.

Rosenblatt, K., and Thomas, D. WHO collaborative study of neoplasia and steriod contraceptives. International J. Epidemiology. 1993, 22, 192-197. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/ breast feeding.

Rosenbruch, M. Inhalation of amorphous silica: morphological and morphometric evaluation of lung associated lymph nodes in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 1992, 44, 10-14. TOXICOLOGY.

Rosenthal, D. I., Rosenberg, A. E., Schiller, A. L., and Smith, R. J. Destructive arthritis due to silicone: A foreign-body reaction. Radiology. 1983 Oct, 149, 69. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/general.

Rotatori, D. S., Hathaway, C. L., Steinbach, B. G., and Caffee, H. H. Noninvasive assessment of implant capsules. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Apr, 87, (4): 703-707. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Roux, H., Imbert, I., Roudier, J., Quinsat, D., and Catanéo-Fontaine, J. Pathologie autoimmune et chirurgie esthétique. A propos d'un cas. La Revue de Médecine Interne. 1987 Nov-1987 Dec 31, 8, (3): 475-480. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Rowe, V. K., Spencer, H. C., and Bass, S. L. Toxicological studies on certain commercial silicones and hydrolyzable silane intermediates. Journal of Industrial Hygiene Toxicol. 1948 Nov, 30, (6): 332-352. TOXICOLOGY.

Rowe, V. K., Spencer, H., and Bass, S. Toxicologic studies on certain commercial silicones: Two year dietary feeding study of DC antifoam to rats. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. 1950 May, 1, 539-544. TOXICOLOGY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Rowland, J. H., Dioso, J., Holland, J. C., Chaglassian, T., and Kinne, D. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy: Who seeks it, who refuses? Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Apr, 95, (5): 812-822. PSYCHOSOCIAL / reconstruction.

Rowley, M. J. Collagen antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: Significance of antibodies to denatured collagen and their association with HLA-DR4. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1986 Feb, 29, (2): 174-184. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Rowley, M. J., Cook, A. D., Teuber, S. S., and Gershwin, M. E. Antibodies to collagen: Comparative epitope mapping in women with silicone breast implants, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Autoimmunity. 1994, 7, 775-789. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Rowsell, A. R., Godfrey, A. M., and Richards, M. A. The thinned latissimus dorsi free flap: a case report. Br. J. Plast. Surg. 1986, 39, 210. EXPANDER.

Rudolph, R., and Abraham, J. Tissue effects of new silicone mammary-type implants in rabbits. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1980 Jan, 4, (1): 14-20. SILICON MEASUREMENT/ IMMUNE EFFECTS/capsule contracture/local complications.

Rudolph, R., Abraham, J., Vecchione, T., Guber, S., and Woodword, M. Myofibroblasts and free silicon around breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Aug, 62, (2): 185-196. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/saline/local complications.

Rudolph, R., Gruber, S., Suzuki, M., and Woodward, M. The life cycle of the myofibroblast. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics. 1977 Sep, 145, 389-394. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Rudolph, R., and Woodward, M. Absence of visible bacteria in capsules around silicone breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Jul, 72, (1): 32-35. INFECTION/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Ruffatti, A., Rossi, L., Calligaro, A., Del Ross, T., Lagni, M., Marson, P., and Todesco, S. Autoantibodies of systemic rheumatic diseases in the healthy elderly. Gerontology. 1990, 36, 104-111. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Ruíz-Velasco, M. D. Hyperprolactinemia and mammary prostheses: A report of eight cases. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 1986 Apr, 31, (4): 267-270. BREAST FEEDING/ local complications.

Russel, I. S., Collins, J. P., Holman, A. D., and Julian, A. S. The use of tissue expansion for immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Med. J. Aust. 1990, 152, 632. RECONSTRUCTION / expander.

Russell, F. E., Simmers, M. H., Hirst, A. E., and Pudenz, R. H. Tumors associated with embedded polymers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1953, 23, 305. CARCINOGENICITY.

Russell, R. C., Pribaz, J., Zook, E. G., Leighton, W. D., Eriksson, E., and Smith, C. J. Functional evaluation of latissimus dorsi donor site. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Sep, 78, (3): 336-344. RECONSTRUCTION.

Rustin, M. H. A., Bull, H. A., Ziegler, V., Mehlhorn, J., Haustein, U.-F., Maddison, P. J., James, J., and Dowd, P. M. Silica-associated systemic sclerosis is clinically, serologically and immunologically indistinguishable from idiopathic systemic sclerosis. British Journal of Dermatology. 1990, 123, 725-734. SILICA/connective tissue disease.

Ryan, A. S. The resurgence of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatrics. 1997, 99, (4): E12. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Ryan, G. B., Cliff, W. J., Gabbiani, G., Irle, C., Montandon, D., Statkov, P. R., and Majno, G. Myofibroblasts in human granulation tissue. Human Pathology. 1974 Jan, 5, (1): 55-67. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Ryan, J. J. A lower thoracic advancement flap in breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Apr, 70, (2): 153-158. RECONSTRUCTION.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Rybka, F. J. The experimental value of silicone-sheet, Dacron felt spacers in prevention of capsular contractures. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980, 66, (4): 502-508. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Ryu, J., Yahalom, J., Shank, B., Chaglassian, T. A., and McCormick, B. Radiation therapy after breast augmentation or reconstruction in early or recurrent breast cancer. Cancer. 1990 Sep 1, 66, (5): 844-847. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/radiation.

Sabbagh, W. H., Murphy, Jr. R. X., Kucirka, S. J., and Okunski, W. J. Idiosyncratic allergic reaction to textured saline implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Apr, 97, (4): 820. SALINE/immune effects.

Sahn, E. E., Garen, P. D., Silver, R. M., and Maize, J. C. Scleroderma following augmentation mammoplasty: Report of a case and review of the literature. Archives of Dermatology. 1990 Sep, 126, 1198-1202. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Salmon, S. E., and Kyle, R. A. Silicone gels, induction of plasma cell tumors, and genetic susceptibility in mice: a call for epidemiologic investigation of women with silicone breast implants. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1994 Jul 20, 86, (14): 1040-1041. MYELOMA.

Salomon, J., and Barton, F. E. Augmentation mammaplasty, selected readings. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997, 8, (28): 1-34. GENERAL.

Salthouse, T. N. Some aspects of macrophage behavior at the implant interface. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1984, 18, 395-401. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Samuels, J. B., Rorhich, R. J., Weatherall, P. T., Ho, A. M. W., and Goldberg, K. L. Radio-graphic diagnosis of breast implant rupture: Current status and comparison of techniques. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Sep, 96, (4): 865-877. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications / rupture.

Sánchez-Guererro, J., Liang, M. H., Karlson, E. W., Hunter, D. J., and Colditz, G. A. Post-menopausal estrogen therapy and risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995b, 122, (6): 430-433. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Sánchez-Guerrero, J. Autoantibody testing in patients with silicone implants. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 1997 Sep, 17, (3): 341-353. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Sánchez-Guerrero, J., Colditz, G. A., Karlson, E. W., Hunter, D. J., Speizer, F. E., and Liang, M. H. Silicone breast implants and the risk of connective-tissue diseases and symptoms. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1995a Jun 22, 332, (25): 1666-1670. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Sánchez-Guerrero, J., Schur, P. H., Sargent, J. S., and Liang, M. H. Silicone breast implants and rheumatic disease: Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Feb, 37, (2): 158-168. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Sánchez-Roman, J., Wichmann, I., Salaberri, J., Varela, J. M., and Nuñez-Roldan, A. Multiple clinical and biological autoimmune manifestations in 50 workers after occupational exposure to silica. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1993, 52, (7): 534-538. SILICA.

Sanger, J. R., Kolachalam, R., Komorowski, R. A., Yousif, N. J., and Matloub, H. S. Short-term effect of silicone gel on peripheral nerves: A histologic study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 May, 89, (5): 931-940. MIGRATION/local complications/neurologic disease.

Sanger, J. R., Komoroswki, R. A., Larson, D. L., Gingrass, R. P., Yousif, N. J., and Matloub, H. S. Tissue humoral response to intact and ruptured silicone gel-filled prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 May, 95, (6): 1033-1038. IMMUNE EFFECTS/granulomas/ local complications/rupture.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Sanger, J. R., Matloub, H. S. Yousif N. J., and Komorowski, R. Silicone gel infiltration of a peripheral nerve and constrictive neuropathy following rupture of a breast prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 May, 89, (5): 949-952. MIGRATION/local complications/ rupture/neurologic disease.

Sanger, J. R., Sheth, N. K., and Franson, T. R. Adherence of microorganisms to breast pros-theses: An in vitro study. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1989, 22, 337. INFECTION.

Sanislow, C., and Zuidema, G. The use of silicone T-tubes in reconstructive biliary surgery in dogs. 1963 Dec. GENERAL.

Sank, A., Chalabian-Baliozian, J., Ertl, D., Sherman, R., Nimini, M., and Tuan, T. L. Cellular responses to silicone and polyurethane prosthetic surfaces. Journal of Surgical Research. 1993, 54, 12-20. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Santerre, J. P., and Labow, R. S. The effect of hard segment size on the hydrolytic stability of polyether-urea-urethanes when exposed to cholesterol esterase. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1997, 36, 223-232. POLYURETHANE.

Santerre, J. P., Labow, R. S., Duguay, D. G., Erfle, D., and Adams, G. A. Biodegradation evaluation of polyether and polyester-urethanes with oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1994, 28, 1187-1199. POLYURETHANE.

Sarwer, D. B., Bartlett, S. P., Bucky, L. P, LaRossa, D., Low, D. W., Pertschuk, M. J., Wadden, T. A., and Whitaker, L. A. Bigger is not always better: body image dissatisfaction in breast reduction and breast augmentation patients. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998a Jun, 101, (7): 1956-1961. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Sarwer, D. B., Wadden, T. A., Pertschuk, M. J., and Whitaker, L. A. Body image dissatisfaction and body dysmorphic disorder in 100 cosmetic surgery patients. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998b May, 101, (6): 1644-1649. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Savrin, R. A., Martin, E. W., and Ruberg, R. L. Mass lesion of the breast after augmentation mammaplasty. Archives of Surgery. 1979 Dec, 114, 1423-1424. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Sazy, J. A., Smith, D. J., Crissman, J. D., Heggers, J.P., and Robson, M. C. Immunogenic potential of carpal implants. Surgical Forum. 606-608. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

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Schaeberle, M. D., Kalasinsky, V. F., Luke, J. L., Lewis, E. N., Levin, I. W., and Treado, P. J. Raman chemical imaging: Histopathology of inclusions in human breast tissue. Analytical Chemistry. 1996 Jun, 68, (11): 1829-1833. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Schaefer, C. J., Whalen, J. D., Knapp, T., and Wooley, P. H. The influence of silicone implantation on type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1997, 40, (6): 1064-1072. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Schafer, A. I., and Miller, J. B. Association of IgA multiple myeloma with pre-existing disease. British Journal of Haematology. 1979, 41, 19-24. MYELOMA.

Schag, C. A., Ganz, P. A., Polinsky, M. L., Fred, C., Hirji, K., and Petersen, L. Characteristics of women at risk for psychosocial distress in the year after breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1993 Apr, 11, (4): 783-793. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Schain, W. S., Jacobs, E., and Wellisch, D. K. Psychosocial issues in breast reconstruction: Intrapsychic, interpersonal, and practical concerns. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1984, 11, 237-251. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Schain, W. S., Wellisch, D. K., Pasnau, R. O., and Landsverk, J. The sooner the better: A study of psychological factors in women undergoing immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1985, 142, (1): 40-46. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Schatten, W. E. Reconstruction of breasts following mastectomy with polyurethane-covered gel-filled prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1984, 12, 147-156. RECONSTRUCTION/polyurethane.

Scheftan, M., and Kalisman, M. Complications of breast reconstruction. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1984 Apr, 11, (2): 343-350. GENERAL/local complications/reconstruction.

Schepers, G., Delahant, A., Bailey, D., Gockeler, E., and Gay, W. The biological action of degussa submicron amorphous silica dust (Dow Corning® silica) v. injection studies. American Archives of Industrial Health. 1957 Dec, 16, (6): 499-513. SILICA/toxicology.

Schiller, V. L., Arndt, R. D., and Brenner, R. J. Aggressive fibromatosis of the chest associated with a silicone breast implant. Chest. 1995 Nov, 108, (5): 1466-1468. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Schirber, S., Thomas, W. O., Finley, J. M., Green, Jr. A. E., and Ferrara, J. J. Breast cancer after mammary augmentation. Southern Medical Journal. 1993, 86, 263-268. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Schlebusch, L. Negative bodily experience and prevalence of depression in patients with augmentation mammoplasty. S. Afr. Med. J. 1989 Apr 1, 75, 323-326. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Schlebusch, L Levin A. A psychological profile of women selected for augmentation mammaplasty. S. Afr. Med. J. 1983, 64, 481. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Schlenker, J. D., Bueno, R. A., Ricketson, G., and Lynch, J. B. Loss of silicone implants after subcutaneous mastectomy and reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Dec, 62, (6): 853-861. RECONSTRUCTION.

Schlienger, J. L., Haenel, P., and Jaeck, D. Protracted periodic fever and breast prosthesis. Rev Méd Interne. 1994, 15, (8): 557-559. EXPLANTATION/connective tissue disease.

Schluederberg, A., Straus, S., Peterson, P., Blumenthal, S., Komaroff, A. L., Spring, S. B., Landay, A., and Buchwald, D. Chronic fatigue syndrome research: Definition and medical outcome assessment. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1992 Aug 15, 117, (4): 325. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Schmidt, G. H. Calcification bonded to saline-filled implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993, 92, 1423-1424. CALCIFICATION/local complications.

Schmidt, G. H. Mammary implant shell failure. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1980 Nov, 5, (5): 369-371. RUPTURE/local complications.

Schneider, E., and Chan, T. W. Selective MR imaging of silicone with the three-point Dixon Technique. Radiology. 1993 Apr, 187, (11): 89-93. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Schnitt, S. J. Tissue Reactions to Mammary Implants: a capsule summary. Adv. Anat. Pathol. 1995, 2, (1): 24-27. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE.

Schnur, P. L., Weinzweig, J., Harris, J. B., Moyer, T. P., Petty, P. M., Nixon, D., and McConnell, J. P. Silicon analysis of breast and periprosthetic capsular tissue from patients with saline or silicone gel breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Oct, 98, (5): 798-803. SILICON MEASUREMENT/saline/local complications/capsule contracture.

Schnur, P. L., Weinzweig, J., Moyer, T. P., and et al. Silicone analysis of breast and periprosthetic capsular tissue from patients with saline or silicone gel breast implants. Plast Surg Forum. 1994, 17, 200. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/ saline/silicon measurement.

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Schottenfeld, D., Bums, C. J., Gillespie, B. W., Laing, T. J., Mayes, M. D., Heeringa, S. G., and Alcser, K. H. The design of a population-based case-control study of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): commentary on the University of Michigan study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1995, 48, (4): 583-586. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Schover, L. R. The impact of breast cancer on sexuality, body image, and intimate relationships. CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 1991, 41, (2): 112-120. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Schubert, M. A., Wiggins, M. J., Schaefer, M. P., Hiltner, A., and Anderson, J. M. Oxidative biodegradation mechanisms of biaxially strained poly(etherurethane urea) elastomers. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1995, 29, 337-347. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Schuh, M. E., and Radford, D. M. Desmoid tumor of the breast following augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Mar, 93, (3): 603-605. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Schuler, F, Rosato, F, Miller, E, and Horton, C. Silicone protheses and antitumor immunity. An in-vitro rat study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 May, 61, (5): 762-766. IMMUNE EFFECTS/cancer.

Schumann, D. Health risks for women with breast implants. Nurse Practitioner. 1994 Jul, 19, (7): 19-30. GENERAL.

Schumann, R., and Taubert, H. D. Long term application of steroids enclosed in dimethylpolysiloxane (Silastic): in vitro and in vivo experiments. Acta Biol. Med. Germ. 1970, 24, 897-920. GENERAL.

Schuster, D. I., and Lavine, D. M. Nine-year experience with subpectoral breast reconstruction after subcutaneous mastectomy in 98 patients utilizing saline-inflatable prostheses. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1988, 21, 444-451. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Schusterman, M. A., Kroll, S. S., Reece, G. P., Miller, M. J., Ainslie, N., Halabi, S., and Balch, C. M. Incidence of autoimmune disease in patients after breast reconstruction with silicone gel implants versus autogenous tissue: A preliminary report. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Jul, 31, (1): 1-6. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Schusterman, M. A., Kroll, S. S., and Weldon, M. E. Immediate breast reconstruction: Why the free TRAM over the conventional TRAM flap? Plast. Reconstruct. Surg. 1992 Aug, 90, (2): 255-261. RECONSTRUCTION.

Schwartz, G. F. Benign neoplasms and inflammation of the breast. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1982 Jun, 25, (2): 373-385. CANCER.

Schwartz, G. F., Feig, S. A., and Patchefsky, A. S. Clinicopathologic correlations and significance of clinically occult mammary lesions. Cancer. 1978 Mar, 41, (3): 1147-1153. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Scott, I. R., Muller, N., Fitzpatrick, D., and Burhenne, L. Ruptured breast implant: Computed tomographic and mammographic findings. J. Can. Assoc. Radiol. 1988, 39, 152-154. RUPTURE/local complications/mammography.

Scully, S. J. Augmentation mammaplasty without contracture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1981, 6, 262-269. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Seckel, B. R., and Costas, P. D. Total versus partial musculofascial coverage for steroid-containing double-lumen breast implants in augmentation mammaplasty, with discussion by Tebbetts, J.B. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Apr, 30, (4): 296-301. STEROIDS/local complications.

Seckel, B. R., and Hyland, W. T. Soft-tissue expander for delayed and immediate breast reconstruction. Surg Clin North Am. 1985, 65, 383. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Segall, M., and Bach, F. H. HLA and disease: The perils of simplifications. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1990, 322, (26): 1879-1880. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Segreti, J., and Levin, S. The role of prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of prosthetic device infection. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 1989 Jun, 3, (2): 357-370. INFECTION/local complications.

Seleznick, M. J., Martinez-Osuna, P., Espinoza, L. R., and Vasey, F. B. Is silicone associated with connective tissue disease? J Fla Med Assoc. 1991 Feb, 78, (2): 85-87. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Selmanowitz, V. J., and Orentreich, N. Medical-grade fluid silicone. J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 1977, 3, (6): 597-611. SILICONE INJECTION.

Semple, J. L., Lugowski, S. J., Baines, C. J., Smith D. C., and McHugh, A. Breast milk contamination and silicone implants: Preliminary results using silicon as a proxy measurement for silicone. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Aug, 102, (2): 528-33. SILICON MEASUREMENT/breast feeding/children's effects.

Sepai, O., Henschler, D., Czech, S., Eckert, P., and Sabbioni, G. Exposure to toluenediamines from polyurethane-covered breast implants. Toxicol. Lett. 1995, 77, 371-378. TOXICOLOGY / polyurethane.

Sergott, T. J., Limoli, J. P., Baldwin, C. M., and Laub, D. R. Human adjuvant disease, possible autoimmune disease after silicone implantation: A review of the literature, case studies, and speculation for the future. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Jul, 78, (1): 104-110. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Serletti, J. M., and Moran, S. L. The combined used of the TRAM and expanders/implants in breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988 May, 40, (5): 510-514. RECONSTRUCTION/expander.

Sevastianov, V. I., and Tseytlina, E. A. The activation of the complement system by polymer materials and their blood compatibility. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1984, 18, 969-978. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Sevastjanova, N. A., Mansurova, L. A., Dombrovska, L. E., and Slutskii, L. I. Biochemical characterization of connective tissue reaction to synthetic polymer implants. Biomaterials. 1987 Jul, 8, 242-247. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Sever, C. E., Leith, C. P., Appenzeller, J., and Foucar, K. Kikuchi's histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis associated with ruptured silicone breast implant. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1996 Apr, 120, (4): 380-385. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Shack, R. B. Is silicone safe? Let science decide. Southern Medical Journal. 1996 Feb, 89, (2): 251-252. GENERAL.

Shah, Z., Lehman, J. A., and Stevenson, G. Capsular contracture around silicone implants: The role of intraluminal antibiotics. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 May, 69, (5): 809-812. INFECTION/local complications.

Shah, Z., Lehman, J. A., and Tan, J. Does infection play a role in breast capsular contracture. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Jul, 68, (1): 34. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection.

Shainkin-Kestenbaum, R., Adler, A. J., and Berlyne, G.M. Inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity by silicon. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease. 1990 Mar, 4, 97. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/toxicology.

Shanklin, D. R., and Smalley, D. L. Quantitative aspects of cellular responses to silicone. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995 Nov, 4, (1): 99-111. IMMUNE EFFECTS/granulomas.

Shapiro, M. A. Smooth vs. rough: An 8-year survey of mammary prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 Sep, 84, (3): 449-457. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Sharma, R. K., and Jackson, I. T. Breast reconstruction following removal of silicone implants: A new technique. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1995, 19, 247-250. GENERAL/ reconstruction/explantation.

Sharp, G. C., Irvin, W. S., May, C. M., Holman, H. R., McDuffie, F. C., Hess, E. V., and Schmid, F. R. Association of antibodies to ribonucleoprotein and Sm antigens with mixed connnective tissue disease, system lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1976 Nov 18, 295, (21): 1149-1154. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/ai-ctd background.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Shaw, W. W. Microvascular free flap breast reconstruction. Clinics in Plastic Surgery. 1984 Apr, 11, (2): 333-341. RECONSTRUCTION.

Sheard, C. Contact dermatitis from platinum and related metals. A.M.A. Archives of Dermatology. 1955, 71, 357-360. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Shedbalkar, A. R., Devata, A., and Padanilam, T. A study of effects of radiation on silicone prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1980 Jun, 65, (6): 805-810. RADIATION/local complications.

Shen, G., Ojo-Amaize, E. A., Agopian, M. S., and Peter, J. B. Silicate antibodies in women with silicone breast implants: Development of an assay for detection of humoral immunity. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1996 Mar, 3, (2): 162-166. IMMUNE EFFECTS/silica.

Shepard, R. J., Rhind, S., and Shek, P. N. Exercise and the immune system. Natural killer cells, interleukins, and related response. Sports Med. 1994, 18, 340-369. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Shermis, R. B., Adler, D. D., Smith, D. J., and Hall, J. D. Intraductal silicone secondary to breast implant rupture. Breast Dis. 1990, 3, 17-20. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/rupture/migration.

Sherrer, Y. R. Current status of silicone breast implants [editorial]. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 1992 Sep-1992 Oct 31, 59, (5): 539-541. GENERAL.

Shestak, K. C., Ganott, M. A., Harris, K. M., and Losken, H. W. Breast masses in the augmentation mammaplasty patient: the role of ultrasound. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Aug, 92, (2): 209-216. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Shields, C., and Eagle, Jr. R. Pseudo-Schnabel's cavernous degeneration of the optic nerve secondary to intraocular silicone oil. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1989 May, 107, 714-717. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/local complications/general.

Shields, H. C., Fleischer, D. M., and Weschler, C. J. Comparisons among VOC's measured in three types of commercial buildings with different occupant densities. Indoor Air. 1996, 6, 2-17. TOXICOLOGY.

Shiokawa, Y., Kumagai, Y., Nishino, N., and Abe, C. Postmammoplasty connective tissue disease (human adjuvant disease). Rev Int Rheumatol. 1978, 7, 225. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Shipley, R. H., O'Donnell, J., and Bader, K. Personality characteristics of women seeking breast augmentation: Comparison to small-busted and average-busted controls. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Sep, 60, (3): 369-376. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Shons, A. R., and Schubert, W. Silicone breast implants and immune disease. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992 May, 28, (5): 491-497. GENERAL/immune effects/connective tissue disease.

Shousha, S., Schoenfeld, A., Moss, J., Shore, I., and Sinnett, H. D. Light and electron microscopic study of an invasive cribriform carcinoma with extensive microcalcification developing in a breast with silicone augmentation. Ultrastructural Pathology. 1994, 18, 519-523. CANCER.

Sibbitt, W. L. Jr., and Bankhurst, A. D. Natural killer cells in connective tissue disorders. Clin. Rheum. 1985, 11, 507-521. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Sichere, P., Faudot-Bel, X., Pellerin, M., and Bieder, L. Shoulder pain as the inaugural manifestation of silicone breast implant intolerance. Rev Rheum Engl Ed. 1995, 62, 151-152. PAIN/local complications.

Sickles, E. A., Filly, R. A., and Callen, P. W. Breast cancer detection with sonography and mammography: Comparison using state-of-the-art equipment. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1983, 140, 843-845. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Sickles, E. A., and Herzog, K. Intramammary scar tissue: A mimic of the mammographic appearance of carcinoma. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1980 Aug, 135, 349-352. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Sickles, E. A., Ominsky, S. H., Soluto, R. A., Galvin, H. B., and Monticciolo, D. L. Medical audit of a rapid-throughput mammography screening practice: methodology and re-suits of 27,114 examinations. Radiology. 1990, 175, 323-327. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Siddiqui, W. H., and Hobbs, E. J. Subchronic dermal toxicity of trifluoropropylmethylcyclotrisiloxane in rabbits. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 1982, 5, (4): 415-426. TOXICOLOGY.

Siddiqui, W. H., and Schardein, J. L. One generation reproduction study of silicone gel and Silastic II mammary envelope implants in rats. Toxicologist. 1993, 13, (75): 193. TOXICOLOGY.

Siddiqui, W. H., Schardein, J., Cassidy, S. L., and Meeks, R. Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of silicone elastomer q7-2423/q7-2551 in rats and rabbits. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1994b, 23, 377-381. TOXICOLOGY.

Siddiqui, W. H., Schardein, J., Cassidy, S. L., and Meeks, R. Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of silicone gel Q7-2159A in rats and rabbits. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1994a, 23, 370-376. TOXICOLOGY.

Signorini, M., Grisotti, A., Ponzielli, G., Pajardi, G., and Gilardino, P. Self-expanding pros-theses complicating augmentation mammoplasties. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1994, 18, (2): 195-199. EXPANDER.

Sihm, F., Jagd, M., and Pers, M. Psychological assessment before and after augmentation mammaplasty. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1978, 12, (3): 295-298. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Silicosis and Silicate Disease Committee (Craighead, J. E., Lemerman, J., and Abraham, J. L.) Diseases associated with exposure to silica and nonfibrous silicate minerals. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1988 Jul, 112, 673-720. GENERAL/ silica.

Silman, A. J. Epidemiology of scleroderma. Annals of Rheumatic Disease. 1991, 50, 846-853. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Silman, A. J. Epidemiology of systemic sclerosis. Current Opinions in Rheumatology. 1996, 8, (6): 585-589. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Silman, A. J., and Hochberg, M. C. Occupational and environmental influences on scleroderma. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 1996 Nov, 22, (4): 737-749. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Silman, A. J., and Jones. S. What is the contribution of occupational environmental factors to the occurrence of scleroderma in men? Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1992, 51, 1322-1324. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Silver, H. Reduction of capsular contracture. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982, 69, (5): 802-808. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Silver, R. M., Sahn, E. E., Allen, J. A., Sahn, S., Greene, W., and Maize, J. C. Demonstration of silicon in sites of connective-tissue disease in patients with silicone-gel breast implants. Archives of Dermatology. 1993 Jan, 129, 63-68. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/local complications/migration.

Silverman, B. G., Brown, S. L., Bright, R. A., Kaczmarek, R. G., Arrowsmith Lowe, J. B., and Kessler, D. A. Reported complications of silicone gel breast implants: An epidemiologic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1996 Apr 15, 24, (8): 744-756. GENERAL/ connective tissue disease/cancer/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Silverman, S., Gluck, O., Silver, D., Tessar, J., Wallace, D., Neumann, K., Metzger, A., and Morris, R. Incidence of autoantibodies in symptomatic patients and asymptomatic patients with breast implants. Abstracts of Immunology. 1995 Mar 13. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Silverstein, J. J., Murphy, G. P., Bostwick, J., Byrd, B. F., Snyderman, R. K., and Weber, W. E. Breast reconstruction: State-of-the-art for 1990. Cancer. 1991, 68, 5 (Supplement): 1180-1181. GENERAL/reconstruction.

Silverstein, M. J., Gamagami, P., Colburn, W. J., and et al. Nonpalpable breast lesions: Diagnosis with slightly overpenetrated scteen-film mammography and hook wire—directed biopsy in 1014 cases. Radiology. 1989, 171,633-638. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Silverstein, M. J., Gamagami, P., and Handel, N. Missed breast cancer in an augmented woman using implant displacement mammography. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990c Sep, 25, (3): 210-213. CANCER/mammography.

Silverstein, M. J., Gierson, E. D., Gamagami, P., Handel, N., and Waisman, J. R. Breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis in women augmented with silicone gel-filled prostheses. Cancer. 1990b, 66, 97-101. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Silverstein, M. J., Handel, N., Gamagami, P., Gierson, E. D., Furmanski, M., and Collins, A. R. Breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis in women following augmentation with silicone gel-filled prostheses. European Journal of Cancer. 1992, 28, 635-640. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Silverstein, M. J., Handel, N., Gamagami, P., Waisman, J. R., Gierson, E. D., Rosser, R. J., Steyskal, R., and Colburn, W. Breast cancer in women after augmentation mammoplasty. Archives of Surgery. 1988 Jun, 123, (5): 681-685. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer.

Silverstein, M. J., Handel, N., and Gamagani, P. The effect of silicone-gel-gilled implants on mammography. Cancer. 1991 Sep 1, 68, (Supplement): 1159-1163. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Silverstein, M. K., Handel, N., Gamagami, P., Waisman, E., and Gierson, E. D. Mammographic measurements before and after augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990a Dec, 86, (6): 1126-1130. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Simeonova, P. P., and Luster, M. I. Iron and reactive oxygen species in the asbestos-induced tumor necrosis factor—a response to alveolar macrophages. American Journal of Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 1995 Jun, 12, (6): 676-683. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Sinclair, A., and Hallam, T. R. The determination of dimethylpolysiloxane in beer and yeast. Analyst. 1971 Feb, 96, 149-154. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Sinclair, T. M., Kerrigan, C. L., and Buntic, R. Biodegradation of the polyurethane foam covering of breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Nov, 92, (6): 1003-1013. POLYURETHANE / toxicology.

Singletary, S. E. Skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction: Is it safe? Breast Diseases. 1995, 6, (3): 259-260. RECONSTRUCTION.

Sinha, S., Gorczyca, D. P., Debruhl, N. D., Shellock, F. G., Gausche, V. R., and Bassett, L. W. MR imaging of silicone breast implants: Comparison of different coil arrays. Radiology. 1993 Apr, 187, (1): 284-286. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Sinow, J. D., and Cunningham, B. L. Intraluminal lidocaine for analgesia after tissue expansion: A double-blind prospective trial in breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992 Apr, 28, (4): 320-325. PAIN/local complications/expander.

Sinow, J. D., Halvorsen, Jr. R. A., Matts, J. P., Schubert, W., Letourneau, J. G., and Cunningham, B. L. Chest-wall deformity after tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Dec, 88, (6): 998-1004. EXPANDER/local complications / reconstruction.

Skolnick, A. A. Ultrasound may help detect breast implant leaks. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1992 Feb 12, 267, (6): 786. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Slade, C. L. Subcutaneous mastectomy: Acute complications and long-term follow-up. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Jan, 73, (1): 84-90. RECONSTRUCTION/local complications.

Slade, C. L., and Peterson, H. D. Disappearance of polyurethane cover of the Ashley Natural Y prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 Sep, 70, (5): 379-382. POLYURETHANE.

Slater, C. A., Davis, R. B., and Shmerling, R. H. Antinuclear antibody testing. A study of clinical utility. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1996, 156, (13): 1421-1425. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Slavin, S. A., and Colen, S. R. Sixty consecutive breast reconstructions with the inflatable expander: A critical appraisal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990, 86, (5): 910-919. RECONSTRUCTION/expander.

Slavin, S. A., and Goldwyn, R. M. Silicone gel implant explantation: Reasons, results, and admonitions. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Jan, 95, (1): 63-69. EXPLANTATION/psycho-social/rupture/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Slavin, S. A., Schnitt, S. J., Duda, R. B., Houlihan, M. J., Koufman, C. N., Morris, D. J., Troyan, S. L., and Goldwyn, R. M. Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction: oncologic risks and aesthetic results in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Jul, 102, (1): 49-62. RECONSTRUCTION/local complications.

Sluis-Cremer, G. K., Hessel, P. A., Nizdo, E. H., Churchill, A. R., and Zeiss, E. A. Silica silicosis and progressive systemic sclerosis. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1985, 42, 838-843. SILICA.

Sluis-Cremer, G. K., Hessell, P. A., Hnizdo, E., and Churchill, A. R. Relationship between silicosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Thorax. 1986, 41, 596-601. SILICA.

Smahel, J. Fibrous reactions in the tissues which surround silicone breast prostheses. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1978b Jan, 31, 250-253. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Smahel, J. Foreign material in the capsules around breast prostheses and the cellular reaction to it. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1979, 32, 35-42. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications/silicon measurement.

Smahel, J. Histology of the capsules causing constructive fibrosis around breast implants. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1977, 30, 324-329. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications.

Smahel, J. Tissue reactions to breast implants coated with polyurethane. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978a, 61, (1): 80-85. POLYURETHANE/capsule contracture/local complications.

Smahel, J., Hurwitz, P. J., and Hurwitz, N. Soft tissue response to textured silicone implants in an animal experiment. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Sep, 92, (3): 474-479. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Smahel, J., Schneider, K., and Donski, P. Bizarre implants for augmentation mammaplasty: long term human reaction to polyethylene strips. Br I Plast Surg. 1977 Oct, 30, 287-290. GENERAL.

Smalley, D. L., Levine, J. J., Shanklin, D. R., Hall, M. F., and Stevens, M. V. Lymphocyte response to silica among offspring of silicone breast implant recipients. Immunobiology. 1996a, 196, (5): 567-574. IMMUNE EFFECTS/children's effects/silica.

Smalley, D. L., Shanklin, D. R., Hall, M. F., and Stevens, M. V. Detection of lymphocyte stimulation by silicon dioxide. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995a Jan, 4, (1): 63-70. IMMUNE EFFECTS/silica.

Smalley, D. L., Shanklin, D. R., Hall, M. F., Stevens, M. V., and Hanissian, A. Immunologic stimulation of T lymphocytes by silica after use of silicone mammary implants. FASEB Journal. 1995b Mar, 9, 424-427. SILICA/immune effects.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Smalley, D., Hall, M. F., Shanklin, D. R., and Stevens, M. Immunologic markers in silicone breast implant recipients. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995c, 4, (1): 147-153. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Smart, C. R., Hendrick, R. E., Rutledge, J. H., and Smith R.A. Benefit of mammography screening in women ages 50 to 49 years. Cancer. 1995, 75, 1619-1626. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Smedley, H., Datrak, M., Sikora, K., and Wheeler, T. Neurological effects of recombinant human interferon. British Medical Journal. 1993 Jan 22, 286, 262-264. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Smith, D. S. False-positive radiographic diagnosis of breast implant rupture: Report of two cases. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1985, 14, 166-167. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Smith, H. R. Review. Do silicone breast implants cause autoimmune rheumatic disease. J. Biomater. Sci. Polymer Edn. 1995, 7, (2): 115-121. GENERAL.

Smith Jr., D. J., Sazy, J. A., Crissman, J. D., Niu, X.-T., Robson, M. C., and Heggers, J. P. Immunogenic potential of carpal implants. Journal of Surgical Research. 1990 Jan, 48, 13-20. IMMUNE EFFECTS/general.

Smith, L.F., Smith, T.T., Yeary, E., McGee, J.M., and Malnar, K. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast following silicone injection of the breasts. J. Okla. State Med. Assoc. 1999, 92, (3): 126-130. CANCER.

Snow, J., Harasaki, H., Kasick, J., Whalen, r., Kiraly, R., and Nosé, Y. Promising results with a new textured surface intrathoracic variable volume device for LVAS. Transactions—American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. 1981, 27, 485-489. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Snow, R. B., and Kossovsky, N. Hypersensitivity reaction associated with sterile ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. Surg Neurol. 1989, 31, 209-214. IMMUNE EFFECTS/local complications.

Snyder, J. W. Silicone breast implants. Can emerging medical, legal, and scientific concepts be reconciled? The Journal of Legal Medicine. 1997, 18, (2): 133-220. GENERAL.

Snyder, R. C., and Breder, C. V. High-performance liquid chromatographic determinations of 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine in aqueous extracts. Journal of Chromatography. 1982, 236, 429-440. TOXICOLOGY/polyurethane.

Snyder, R. E. Xeromammography—a reason for using saline-filter in breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978, 61, 107. MAMMOGRAPHY/saline.

Snyderman, R. K., and Lizardo, J. G. Statistical study of malignancies found before, during, or after routine breast plastic operations. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1960 Mar, 25, (3): 253-256. CANCER/reconstruction.

Söderholm, K.-J. M., and Shang, S.-W. Molecular orientation of silane at the surface of colloidal silica. Journal of Dental Researchives. 1993 Jun, 72, (6): 1050-1054. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/silica.

Soderquist, M. E., and Walton, A. G. Structural changes in proteins adsorbed in polymer surfaces. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1980, 75, (2): 386-397. TOXICOLOGY.

Solomon, G. A clinical and laboratory profile of symptomatic women with silicone breast implants. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994a Aug, 24, (1 (Supplement 1)): 29-37. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Solomons, E. T., and Jones, J. K. The determination of polydimethylsiloxane (silicone oil) in biological materials: A case report. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1975, 20, 191-199. SILICONE INJECTION/silicon measurement.

Sontag, J. M. Carcinogenicity of substituted-benzenediamines (phyenylenediamines) in rats and mice. JNCI. 1981 Mar, 66, (3): 591-602. CARCINOGENICITY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Soo, M. S., Kornguth, P. J., Georgiade, G. S., and Sullivan, D. C. Seromas in residual fibrous capsules after explantation: Mammographic and sonographic appearances. Radiology. 1995, 194, 863-862. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/explantation.

Soo, M. S., Kornguth, P. J., Walsh, R., Elenberger, C. D., and Georgiade, G. S. Complex radial folds versus subtle signs of intracapsular rupture of breast implants: MR findings with surgical correlation. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1996 Jun, 166, 1421-1427. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Soo, M. S., Kornguth, P. J., Walsh, R., Elenberger, C., Georgiade, G. S., DeLong, D., and Spritzer, C. E. Intracapsular implant rupture: MR findings of incomplete shell collapse. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 1997, 7, (4): 724-730. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Sorahan, T., and Pope, D. Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1993, 50, 528-536. TOXICOLOGY/polyurethane/cancer.

Spagnolo, F., and Malone, W. M. Quantitative determination of small amounts of toluene diisocyanate monomer in urethane adhesives by gel permeation chromatography. Journal of Chromatographic Science. 1976 Feb, 14, 52-56. TOXICOLOGY/polyurethane.

Spear, S. L., and Baker, Jr. J. L. Classification of capsular contracture after prosthetic breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Oct, 96, (5): 1119-1123. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/reconstruction.

Spear, S. L., and Majidian, A. Immediate breast reconstruction in two stages using textured, integrated-valve tissue expanders and breast implants: A retrospective review of 171 consecutive breast reconstructions from 1989 to 1996. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Jan, 101, (1): 53-63. EXPANDER/reconstruction.

Spear, S. L., Matsuba, H., Romm, S., and Little, J. W. Methyl prednisolone in double-lumen gel-saline submuscular mammary prostheses: A double-blind, prospective, controlled clinical trial. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Mar, 87, (3): 483-487. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/steroids.

Speirs, A. L., and Blocksman, R. New implantable silicone rubbers: An experimental evaluation of tissue response. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1963 Feb, 31, (2): 166-175. GENERAL/ toxicology.

Spielvogel, D. E., and Hannenman, L. E. 2,6-cis-diphenylhexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane: Physicochemical properties and analytical methods. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975, 36, (Supplement III): 25-32. TOXICOLOGY/silicone characterization.

Spiera, H., and Kerr, L. D. Scleroderma following silicone implantation: A cumulative experience of 11 cases. J. Rheumatol. 1993, 20, (6): 958-961. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Spiera, H., and Spiera, R. F. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease: An overview. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. 1997 Nov, 64, (6): 363-371. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Spiera, R. F., Gibofsky, A., and Speira, H. Silicone gel filled breast implants and connective tissue disease: An overview. J. Rheumatol. 1994, 21, (2): 239-245. GENERAL/connective tissue disease.

Spiera, R., Gibofsky, A., and Spiera, H. Immunological reactions to silicone implants: Risk and management. Clinical Immunotherapy. 1994 Jun, 1, (6): 406-411. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Spiers, E. M., Grotting, J. C., and Omura, E. F. An epidermal proliferative reaction associated with a silicone gel breast implant. The American Journal of Dermatopathology. 1994, 16, (3): 315-319. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/polyurethane.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Spilizewski, K. L., Marchant, R. E., Anderson, J. M., and Hiltner, A. In vivo leucocyte interactions with the NHLBI-DTB primary reference materials: Polyethylene and silica-free polymethylsiloxane. Biomaterials. 1987 Jan, 8, 12-17. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Spitalny, H. H. Reconstruction of the breast. Chir. Plast. 1981, 6, 87. RECONSTRUCTION/ infection.

Spitzer, W. O., Harth, M., Goldsmith, C. H., Norman, G. R., Dickie, G. L., Bass, M. J., and Newell, J. P. The arthritic complaint in primary care: Prevalence, related disability, and costs. The Journal of Rheumatology. 1976, 3, (1): 88-99. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Srivastava, M. D., Rossi, T. M., and Lebenthal, E. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor, soluble CD8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in Crohn's disease, celiac disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology. 1995 Jan, 87, (1): 21-26. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Stabile, R. J., Santoro, E., Dispaltro, F., and Sanfilippo, L. J. Reconstructive breast surgery following mastectomy and adjunctive radiation therapy. Cancer. 1980 Jun 1, 45, (11): 2738-2743. RADIATION/reconstruction.

Stafford, H. A., Anderson, C. J., and Reichlin, M. Unmasking of anti-ribosomal P autoantibodies in healthy individuals. J. Immunol. 1995, 155, 2754-2761. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Stanford, J. L, Weiss, N. S., Voigt, L. F., Daling, J. R., Habel, L. A., and Rossing, M. A. Combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy in relation to risk of breast cancer in women. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1995, 274, (2): 137-142. CANCER.

Stanislawski, L., Serne, H., Stanislawski, M., and Jozefowicz, M. Conformational changes of fibronectin induced by polystyrene derivatives with a heparin-like function. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1993, 27, 619-626. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/ general.

Stark, B., Göbel, M., and Jaeger, K. Intraluminal cyclosporine A reduces capsular thickness around silicone implants in rats. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990 Feb, 24, 156-161. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/capsule contracture.

Stark, G. B., and et al. Intraluminal cyclosporine A. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1990, 24, (15): 6-61. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Steen, V. D., Conte, C., Santoro, D., Casterline, G. L. Z., Oddis, C. V., and Medsger, T. A. Twenty-year incidence survey of systemic sclerosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1997 Mar, 40, (3): 441-445. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/ai-ctd background.

Steen, V. D., and Medsger, T. A. Epidemiology and natural history of systemic sclerosis. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 1990 Feb, 16, (1): 10. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Steen, V. D., Powell, D. I., and Medsger, Jr. T. A. Clinical correlations and prognosis based on serum autoantibodies in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1988, 31, 196-203. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Steenland, K., and Brown, D. Mortality study of gold miners exposed to silica and nonasbestiform amphibole minerals: An update with 14 more years of follow-up. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1995 Feb, 27, (2): 217-229. SILICA.

Steenland, K., and Goldsmith, D. F. Silica exposure and autoimmune diseases. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1995, 28, 603-608. SILICA.

Stefanek, M. E., Helzlsouer, K. J., Wilcox, P. M., and Houn, F. Predictors of and satisfaction with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. Preventive Medicine. 1995, 24, 412-419. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Stein, J., Lewis L. N. et al. In situ determination of the active catalyst in hydrosilylation reactions using highly reactive Pt(0) catalyst precursors. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 3693. SILICONE CHEMISTRY/toxicology.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Stein, Z. A. Silicone breast implants: epidemiological evidence of sequelae. American Journal of Public Health. 1999 Apr, 89, (4): 484-486. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Steinbach, B. G., Hardt, N. S., Abbitt, P. L., Lanier, L., and Caffee, H. H. Breast implants, common complications and concurrent breast disease. Radiographics. 1993, 13, 95-118. GENERAL/local complications.

Stern, K., Doyon, D., and Racine, R. Preoccupation with the shape of the breast as a psychiatric symptom in women. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal. 1959 Oct, 4, (4): 243-254. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Sternberg, E. M. Pathogenesis-Environmental. Systemic Sclerosis. p. 203-228. TOXICOLOGY.

Sternberg, T. R., Ashley, F. L., Winer, H. H., and Lehman, R. Tissue reactions to injected silicone liquids. Der Hautarzt. 1964, 15, 281. SILICONE INJECTION.

Stevens, L, McGrath, M, Druss, R, and et al. The psychological impact of immediate breast reconstruction for women with early breast cancer. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Apr, 73, (4): 619-626. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Stevens, P. E., Dibble, S. L., and Miaskowski, C. Prevalence, characteristics, and impact of postmastectomy pain syndrome: An investigation of women's experiences. Pain. 1995, 61, 61-68. PAIN/local complications.

Stewart, N. R., Monsees, B. S., Destouet, J. M., and Rudloff, M. A. Mammographic appearance following implant removal. Radiology. 1992, 185, (1): 83-85. MAMMOGRAPHY/ explantation.

Stocks, M. R., Williams, D. G., and Maini, R. N. Analysis of a positive feedback mechanism in the anti-Sm autoantibody reponse in MRL/MPJ-lpr/lpr mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 1991, 21, 267-272. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Stocks, M. R., Williams, D. G., and Maini, R. N. Differential induction of lupus associated antinuclear antibodies in MRL mice by monoclonal anti-Sm antibodies. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1987, 67, 492-499. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Stokes, K. B. Polyether polyurethanes: Biostable or not. Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 1988 Oct, 3, 228-259. POLYURETHANE.

Stombler, R. E. Breast implants and the FDA: Past, present, and future. ACS Bull. 1993, 78 (6), 11-15. GENERAL.

Stomper, P., Kopans, D., Sadowsky, N. L., Sonnenfeld, M. R., Swann, C. A., Gelman, R. S., Meyer, J. E., Jochelson, M. S., Hunt, M. S., and Allen, P. D. Is mammography painful? A multicenter patient survey. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1988 Mar, 148, 521-524. MAMMOGRAPHY/pain.

Stone, J., and Dowden, R. V. Breast implant endoscopy: Detecting leaks in silicone-gel breast implants. AORN Journal. 1994 May, 59, (5): 1007-1015. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/ rupture.

Stone, Jr. W. Alloplasty in the surgery of the eye. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1958 Mar 6, 258, (10): 486-490. GENERAL.

Stratton, K. R., Howe, C. J., and Johnston, R. B. Causality and evidence in adverse events associated with childhood vaccines: evidence bearing on causality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1994. GENERAL.

Strickland, R. W., Tesar, J. T., Berne, B. H., Hobbs, B. R., and Lewis, D. M. The frequency of sicca syndrome in an elderly female population. J. Rheumatol. 1987, 14, (4): 766-771. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Strom, B. L., Reidenberg, M. M., Freundlich, B., and Schinnar, R. Breast silicone implants and risk of systemic lupus erythematosis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1994, 47, (10): 1211-1214. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Strom, S.S., Baldwin, B. J., Sigurdson, A. J., and Schusterman, M. A. Cosmetic saline breast implants: A survey of satisfaction, breast-feeding experience, cancer screening, and health. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997, 100, (6): 1553-1557. PSYCHOSOCIAL/breast feeding/children's effects/saline.

Stroman, P. W., Rolland, C., Dufour, M., Grondin, P., and Guidoin, R. G. Appearance of low signal intensity lines in MRI of silicone breast implants. Biomaterials. 1996 May, 17, (10): 983-988. MAMMOGRAPHY/capsule-contracture/local complications/rupture.

Struyf, N. J., Snoeck, H. W., Bridts, C. H., and et al. Natural killer cell activity in Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus: stimulation with interferons and interleukin-2 and correlation with immune complexes. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1990, 49, 690-693. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Stuart, R., Littlewood, A., Maddison, P., and Hall, N. Elevated serum interleukin-6 levels associated with active disease in systemic connective tissue disorders. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 1995, 13, 17-22. IMMUNE EFFECTS/AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Su, C. W., Dreyfuss, D. A., Krizek, T. J., and Leoni, K. J. Silicone implants and the inhibition of cancer. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Sep, 96, (3): 513-518. CARCINOGENICITY/ polyurethane.

Sultan, M. R., Smith, M. L., Estabrook, A., Schnabel, F., and Singh, D. Immediate breast reconstruction in patients with locally advanced disease. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Apr, 38, (4): 345-349. CANCER/reconstruction.

Sundaram, K., and Kincl, F. A. Sustained release hormonal preparations. 2. Factors controlling the diffusion of steroids through dimethylpolysiloxane membranes. Steroids. 1968, 12, (4): 517-524. STEROIDS.

Suster, S., Phillips, M., Wallack, M., and Robinson, M. J. Carcinoma of the breast arising at the site of liquid silicone injection. South. Med. J. 1987, 80, 57. SILICONE INJECTION/cancer.

Sutherland, K., Mahoney, J. R. II, Coury, A. J., and Eaton, J. W. Degradation of biomaterials by phagocyte-derived oxidants. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1993, 92, 2360-2367. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

Svahn, J. K., Vastine, V. L., Landon, B. N., and Dobke, M. K. Outcome of mammary prostheses explantation: A patient perspective. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1996 Jun, 36, (6): 594-600. PSYCHOSOCIAL/explantation.

Swan, S. Disease occurrence in silicone breast implanted women: Estimates from the sample of domestic claimants. Journal of Womens Health. 1995 Oct 1. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Swan, S. H. Epidemiology of silicone-related disease. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994, 24, (1 (Supplement 1)): 38-43. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Swanson, A. B. Durability of silicone implants—An in vivo study. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 1973 Oct, 4, (4): 1097-1112. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION/general.

Swanson, A. B., Nalbandian, R. M., Zmugg, T. J., Williams, D., Jaeger, S., Maupin, B. K., and Swanson, G. G. Silicone implants in dogs. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1984 Apr, 184, 293-301. TOXICOLOGY.

Swanson J.W., and Lebeau, J. E. The effect of implantation on the physical properties of silicone rubber. Journal of Biomedical Materials. 1974 Jan, 8, 357-367. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Symmers, W. St. C. Silicone mastitis in topless waitresses and some other varieties for foreign-body mastitis. British Medical Journal. 1968, 3, 19-22. SILICONE INJECTION.

Szycher, M., Lee, S. J., and Siciliano, A. A. Breast prostheses: A critical review. Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 1991 Apr, 5, 256-281. POLYURETHANE/general.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Szycher, M., and Poirer, V. L. Polyurethanes in implantable devices. Medical Devices and Diagnostic Industry. 1984 May, 6, (5): 44-49. POLYURETHANE.

Szycher, M., and Siciliano, A. A. Polyurethane-covered mammary prostheses: A nine-year follow-up assessment. Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 1991b, 5, 282-322. POLYURETHANE/local complications.

Szycher, M., and Siciliano, A. A. An assessment of 2,4-TDA formation from Surgitek polyurethane foam under simulated physiological conditions. Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 1991a Apr, 5, 323-336. TOXICOLOGY/polyurethane.

Tabari, K. Augmentation mammaplasty with simaplast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1969 Nov, 44, (5): 468-470. GENERAL/saline.

Tabatowski, K., Elson, C. E., and Johnston, W. W. Silicone lymphadenopathy in a patient with a mammary prosthesis. Acta Cytologica. 1990 Jan-1990 Feb 28, 34, (1): 10-14. LYMPHADENOPATHY/granulomas/local complications.

Taggart, I., and Bantick, G. L. Mammography and breast implants. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1995, 48, 49-52. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Talmor, M., Rothaus, K. O., Shannahan, E., Cortese, A. F., and Hoffman, L. A. Sqamous cell carcinoma of the breast after augmentation with liquid silicone injection. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Jun, 34, (6): 619-623. CANCER/silicone injection.

Tan, E. M. Antinuclear antibodies: Diagnostic markers for autoimmune diseases and probes for cell biology. Advances in Immunology. 1989, 44, 93-151. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Tan, E. M. Immunologic changes in women with silicone breast implants. Today In Medicine/Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1993 Jan 1: 21-22. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Tan, E. M., Feltkamp, T. E. W., Smolen, J. S., Butcher, B., Dawkins, R., Fritzler, M. J., Gordon, T., Hardin, J. A., Kalden, J. R., Lahita, R. G., Maini, R. N., McDougal, J. S., Rothfield, N. F., Smeenk, R. J., Takasaki, Y., Wiik, A., Wilson, M. R., and Koziol, J. A. Range of antinuclear antibodies in healthy individuals. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1997 Sep, 40, (9): 1601-1611. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Tan, E. M., Rodnan, G. P., Garcia, I., Moroi, T., Fritzier, M. J., and Peebles, C. Diversity of antinuclear antibodies in progressive systemic sclerosis: Anti-centromere antibody and its relationship to CREST syndrome. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1980 Jun, 23, (6): 615-617. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Tanaka, K., Wakabayashi, M., Tanaka, M., Ohno, T., and Hoshi, E. A case of human adjuvant disease with polyneuropathy. Clinical Neurology. 1985 Sep 1, 25, (9): 1075-1080. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE/connective tissue disease.

Tanaka, T., Maeda, T., Hayashi, Y., Imai, S., Funakawa, K., and Nose, T. Silicon concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk in the postpartum period. Jpn. J. Hyg. 1990, 45, 919-925. BREAST FEEDING/silicon measurement.

Tang, L., and Eaton, J. W. Fibrin(ogen) mediates acute inflammatory responses to biomaterials. J Exp Med. 1993, 178, 2147-2156. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Tang, L., and Eaton, J. W. Inflammatory responses to biomaterials. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1995, 103, (4): 466-471. IMMUNE EFFECTS/polyurethane.

Tang, P. M., Petrelli, M., and Robecheck, P. J. Stromal sarcoma of the breast. Cancer. 1979, 43, 209-217. CANCER.

Tansini, I. Sopra il mio nuovo processo di amputazione della mamella. Gaz. Med. Ital. 1906, 57, 141. RECONSTRUCTION.

Tarpila, E., Ghassemifar, R., Fagrell, D., and Berggren, A. Capsular contracture with textured versus smooth saline-filled implants for breast augmentation: A prospective clinical study. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jun, 99, (7): 1934-1939. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Taupmann, R. E., and Adler, S. Silicone pleural effusion due to iatrogenic breast implant rupture. Southern Medical Journal. 1993 May, 86, (5): 570-571. MIGRATION/local complications/rupture.

Taylor, S. R., and Gibbons, D. F. Effect of surface texture on the soft tissue response to polymer implants. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1983, 17, 205-227. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Tebbetts, J. B. Transaxillary subpectoral augmentation mammoplasty: Long term follow up and refinements. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Nov, 74, (5): 636-647. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Tebbetts, J. B. What is adequate fill? Implications in breast implant surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Jun, 97, (7): 1451-1454. RUPTURE/local complications.

Tebbetts, J. B., and Barton, F. E. Augmentation mammaplasty. Selected Readings in Plastic Surgery. 1987, 4, (29): 1-18. GENERAL.

Teimourian, B., and Adham, M. N. Survey of patients' response to breast reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1982, 9, (4): 321-325. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Temple, W. J., Lindsay, R. L., Magi, E., and Urbanski, S. J. Technical considerations for prophylactic mastectomy in patients at high risk for breast cancer. The American Journal of Surgery. 1991 Apr, 161, 413-415. CANCER.

Tenenbaum, S. A., Rice, J. C., Espinoza, L. R., Cuellar, M. L., Plymale, D. R., Sander, D. M. Williamson L. L., Haislip, A.M., Gluck, O. S., Tesser, J. R. P., Nogy, L., Stribrny, K. M., Bevan, J. A., and Garry, R. F. Use of antipolymer antibody assay in recipients of silicone breast implants. The Lancet. 1997a Feb 15, 349, 449-454. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Terry, M. B., Skovron, M. L., Garbers, S., Sonnenschein, E., and Toniolo, P. The estimated frequency of cosmetic breast augmentation among U.S. women, 1963 through 1988. American Journal of Public Health. 1995 Aug, 85, (8): 1122-1124. PREVALENCE.

Teuber, S.S., and Gershwin, M. E. Autoantibodies and clinical rheumatic complaints in two children of women with silicone gel breast implants. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1994, 103, 105-108. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/children's effects.

Teuber, S.S., Howell, L. P., Yoshida, S. H., and Gershwin, M. E. Remission of sarcoidosis following removal of silicone gel breast implants. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1994, 105, 404-407. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Teuber, S.S., Ito, L. K., Anderson, M., and Gershwin, M. E. Silicone breast implant - Associated scarring dystrophy of the arm. Archives of Dermatology. 1995b Jan, 131, 54-56. MIGRATION/local complications.

Teuber, S.S., Reilly, D.A., Howell, L., Oide, C., and Gershwin, M.E. Severe migratory granulomatous reactions to silicone gel in 3 patients. Rheumatol. 1999, 26, (3): 699-704. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Teuber, S.S., Rowley, M. J., Yoshida, S. H., Ansari, A. A., and Gershwin, M. E. Anti-collagen autoantibodies are found in women with silicone breast implants. Journal of Autoimmunity. 1993 Jan, 6, 367-377. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Teuber, S.S., Saunders, R. L., Halpern, G. M., Brucker, R. F., Conte, V., Goldman, B. D., Winder, E. E., Wood, W. G., and Gershwin, M. E. Elevated serum silicon levels in women with silicone gel breast implants. Biological Trace Element Research. 1995a May, 48, 121-130. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Teuber, S.S., Yoshida, S. H., and Gershwin, M. E. Immunopathic effects of silicone breast implants. Western Journal of Medicine. 1995c May, 162, (5): 418-425. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Theophelis, L. G., and Stevenson, T. R. Radiographic evidence of breast implant rupture. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Nov, 78, (5): 673-675. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Thomas, 3rd W. O., Harper, L. L., Wong, S. W., Michalski, J. P., Harris, C. N., Moore, J. T., and Rodning, C. B. Explantation of silicone breast implants. The American Surgeon. 1997 May, 63, (5): 421-429. EXPLANTATION.

Thomas, C., and Robinson, J. A. The antinuclear antibody list. When is a positive result clinically relevant? Postgrad. Med. 1993, 94, 55-58. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Thomas, P. R. S., Ford, H. T., and Gazet, J. Use of silicone implants after wide local excision of the breast. British Journal of Surgery. 1993, 80, (7): 868-870. RADIATION/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Thomsen, J. L., Christensen, L., Nielsen, M., Brandt, B., Breiting, V. B., Felby, S., and Nielsen, E. Histologic changes and silicone concentrations in human breast tissue surrounding silicone breast prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Jan, 85, (1): 38-41. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Thomson, H. G. The fate of the pseudosheath pocket around silicone implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1973 Jun, 51, (6): 667-671. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Thornton, J. W., Argenta, L. C., McClatchey, K. D., and Marks, M. W. Studies on the endogenous flora of the human breast. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1988, 20, (1): 39-42. INFECTION.

Thuesen, B., Siim, E., Christensen, L., and Schroder, M. Capsular contracture after breast reconstruction with the tissue expansion technique. A comparison of smooth and textured silicone breast prostheses. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery. 1995, 29, (1): 9-13. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/expander/local complications.

Timberlake, G. A., and Looney, G. R. Adenocarcinoma of the breast associated with silicone injections. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1986, 32, 79-81. SILICONE INJECTION/ cancer.

Tinkler, J. Breast implants: Is there an association with connective tissue disease? Health Trends. 1994, 26, (1): 25-26. GENERAL.

Tirelli, U., Marotta, G., Improta, S., and Pinto, A. Immunological abnormalities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Immunol. 1994, 40, 601-608. IMMUNE EFFECTS/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Tiziani, V., Cintra, M. L., Raposo do Amaral, C. M., Sabbatini, R. M. E., and Lima, R. P. R. Lack of lymph-node reaction to subcutaneously injected silicone gel—histological and computer-aided morphometric study in rats. Scandanavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery. 1995, 29, (4): 303-311. TOXICOLOGY/ lymphadenopathy.

Tobin, G., Shaw, R. C., and Goodpasture, H. C. Toxic shock syndrome following breast and nasal surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987 Jul, 80, (1): 1111-1114. INFECTION/local complications.

Tobin, H. A. Incidence of capsular contracture in polyurethane versus smooth implants. American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery. 1989, 6, 177. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Tobin, H. R., and Middleton, W. G. Revision mammoplasty using the Replicon implant. The American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery. 1987, 4, (3): 201-204. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/polyurethane/local complications.

Todhunter, J. A., and Farrow, M. G. Current scientific considerations in regard to defining a ''silicone syndrome" disease and the formation of silica from silicone. International Journal of Toxicology. 1998, 17, 449-463. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/silica.

Toennissen, J., Schrudde, J., and Niermann, W. Experience with 250 cases of subcutaneous breast implants. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1982, 35, 458-465. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/reconstruction.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Tolhurst, D. E. Nutcracker technique for compression rupture of capsules around breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Nov, 62, (5): 795. RUPTURE/capsule-contracture/local complications/closed capsulotomy.

Tollefson, D. F., Bandyk, D. F., Kaebnick, H. W., and et al. Surface biofilm disruption: Enhanced recovery of microorganisms from vascular prostheses. Archives of Surgery. 1987 Jan, 122, 38-43. INFECTION.

Tomazic, V. J., Withrow, T. J., and Hitchines, V. M. Adverse reactions associated with medical device implants. Periodicum Biologorum. 1991, 93, 547-554. GENERAL.

Touchette, N. Silicone implants and autoimmune disease: Studies fail to gel. The Journal of NIH Research. 1992 May, 4, 49-52. GENERAL/connective tissue disease.

Trabulsy, P. P., Anthony, J. P., and Mathes, S. J. Changing trends in postmastectomy breast reconstruction: A 13-year experience. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Jun, 93 (7), 1418-1427. RECONSTRUCTION.

Travis, W. D., Balogh, K., and Abraham, J. L. Silicone granulomas: Report of three cases and review of the literature. Human Pathology. 1985 Jan, 16, 19-27. GRANULOMAS/local complications.

Trichopoulos, D., and Lipman, R. D. Mammary gland mass and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology. 1992, 3, 523-526. CANCER.

Troilius, C. Total muscle coverage of a breast implant is possible through the transaxillary approach. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Mar, 95, (3): 509-512. GENERAL.

Trolius, C. Correction of implant ptosis after a transaxillary subpectoral breast augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Oct, 98, (5): 889-895. GENERAL.

Truong, L. D., Cartwright, J., Goodman, M. D., and Woznicki, D. Silicone lymphadenopathy associated with augmentation mammaplasty: Morphologic features of nine cases. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 1988, 12, (6): 484. LYMPHADENOPATHY/local complications.

Truppman, E. S., Ellenby, J. D., and Schwartz, B. M. Fungi in and around implants after augmentation mammaplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Dec, 64, (6): 804-806. INFECTION/local complications.

Tsang, W. Y. W., Chan, J. K. C., and Ng, C. S. Kikuchi's lymphadenitis: A morphologic analysis of 75 cases with special reference to unusual features. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 1994, 18, (3): 219-231. LYMPHADENOPATHY.

Tsuchiya, T., Hata, H., and Nakamura, A. Studies on the tumor-promoting activity of biomaterials: Inhibition of metabolic cooperation by polyurethane and silicone. Journal of Biomedical Materials Researchives. 1995 Jan, 29, (1): 113-119. CANCER.

Turnbull, A. R., Turner, D. T., Fraser, J. D., Lloyd, R. S., Lang, C. J., and Wright, R. Autoantibodies in early breast cancer: a stage related phenomenon. Br. J. Cancer. 1978, 38, 461-463. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Turner, F. C. Sarcoma at sites of subcutaneously implanted Bakelite discs in rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1941, 2, 81-83. CARCINOGENICITY.

Tytherleigh, M., Koshy, C. E., and Evans, J. Phantom Breast Pain. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998, 102, (3): 921. PAIN.

Uchida, K., Fukami, A., Hori, M., and et al. Breast cancers following a breast implant. Rinshou-Geka. 1981, 36, 129-132. CANCER.

Ueki, A., Yamaguchi, M., Ueki, H., Watanabe, Y., Ohsawa, G., Kinugawa, K., Kawakami, Y., and Hyodoh, F. Polyclonal human t-cell activation by silicate in vitro. Immunology. 1994, 82, 332-335. IMMUNE EFFECTS/silica.

Umansky, C., and Wilkinson, T. S. Infection associated with polyurethane-coated implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985, 75, (6): 925-926. INFECTION/local complications/polyurethane.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Umeda, M. Production of rat sarcoma by injections of propylene glycol solution of M-Toluylenediamine (Plates XXIII and XXIV). GANN. 1955, 46, 597-603. POLYURETHANE/cancer.

Unger, P. D., and Friedman, M. A. High-performance liquid chromatography of 2,6- and 2,4-diaminotoluene, and its application to the determination of 2,4-diaminotoluene in urine and plasma. Journal of Chromatography. 1979, 174, 379-384. TOXICOLOGY/ polyurethane.

Unzeitig, G. W., Frankl, G., Ackerman, M., and O'Connell, T. X. Analysis of the prognosis of minimal and occult breast cancers. Archives of Surgery. 1983 Dec, 118, 1403-1404. CANCER/mammography.

Uretsky, B. F., O'Brien, J. J., Courtiss, E. H., and Becker, M. D. Augmentation mammoplasty associated with a severe systemic illness. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1979 Nov, 3, (5): 445-447. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Utell, M. J., Gelein, R., and Yu, C. P. et al. Quantitative exposure of humans to an octamethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane (D4) vapor. Toxicological Sciences. 1998, 44, 206-213. TOXICOLOGY.

Valaoras, V. G., MacMalom, B., Trichopoulos, D., and Polychronopoulou, A. Lactation and reproductive histories of breast cancer patients in greater Athens, 1965-1967. International Journal of Cancer. 1969, 4, 350-363. CANCER/breast feeding.

Van Dam, F. S. A. M., and Bergman, R. B. Psychosocial and surgical aspects of breast reconstruction. European Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1988, 14, 141-149. PSYCHO-SOCIAL/reconstruction.

Van Heerden, J. A., Jackson, I. T., Martin, J. K., and Fisher, J. Surgical technique and pitfalls of breast reconstruction immediately after mastectomy for carcinoma: Initial experience. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1987 Mar, 62, 185-191. RECONSTRUCTION/expander.

Van Ierssel, G. J., Mieremet-Ooms, M. A., van der Zon, A.M., and et al. Effect of cortisol and ACTH on corticosteroid-suppressed peripheral blood natural killer cells from healthy volunteers and patients with Crohn's disease. Immunopharmacology. 1996, 34, 97-104. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Van Kooten, T. G., Whitesides, J. F., and von Recum, A. F. Influence of silicone (PDMS) surface texture on human skin fibroblast proliferation as determined by cell cycle analysis. J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 1998, 43, 1-14. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/toxicology.

Van Natta, B. W., Thurston, J. B., and Moore, T. S. Silicone breast implants—Is there cause for concern? Indiana Med. 1990 Mar, 83, 184-185. GENERAL.

Van Nunen, S. A., Gatenby, P. A., and Basten, A. Post-mammoplasty connective tissue disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1982 Jun, 25, (6): 694-697. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Van Oss, C. J., Singer, J. M., and Gillman, C. F. The influence of particulate carriers and of mineral oil in adjuvants on the antibody response in rabbits to human gamma globulin. Immunological Communications. 1976, 5, (3): 181-188. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Van Rappard, J. H., Sonneveld, G. J., van Twisk, R., and Borghouts, J. M. Pressure resistance of breast implants as a function of implantation time. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1988, 21, 566-569. RUPTURE/local complications.

Van Venrooij, W. J., Charles, P., and Maini, R. N. The consensus workshops for the detection of autoantibodies to intracellular antigens in rheumatic diseases. Journal of Immunological Methods. 1991, 140, 181-189. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Van Wingerden, J. J., and van Staden, M. M. Ultrasound mammography in prosthesis-related breast augmentation complications. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1989 Jan, 22, (1): 32-35. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Vanderford, M. L., Smith, D. H., and Olive, T. The image of plastic surgeons in news media coverage of the silicone breast implant controversy. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Sep, 96, (3): 521-538. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Vanderhoof, J. A., Rapoport, P. J., and Paxson, C. L. Manometric diagnosis of lower esophageal sphincter incompetence in infants: Use of a small, single-lumen perfused catheter. Pediatrics. 1978, 62, (5): 805-808. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding.

Vanderwilde, R., Morrey, B., Melberg, M. W., and vinh, T. N. Inflammatory arthritis after failure of silicone rubber replacement of the radial head. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1994 Jan, 76-B, (1): 78-81. GENERAL/local complications.

Vann, R. D., Riefkohl, R., Georgiade, G. S., and Georgiade, N. G. Mammary implants, diving, and altitude exposure. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988 Feb, 81, (2): 200-203. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Vanore, J., O'Keefe, R., and Pikscher, I. Complications of silicone implants in foot surgery. Clinics in Podiatry. 1984 Apr, 1, (1): 175-196. GENERAL/local complications.

Varaprath, S., Frye, C. L., and Hamelink, J. Aqueous solubility of permethylsiloxanes (silicones). Environ Toxicol and Chem. 1996(8): 1263-1265. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Varga, J., and Jimenez, S. A. Augmentation mammoplasty and scleroderma: Is there an association? Archives of Dermatology. 1990 Sep, 126, (9): 1220-1223. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Varga, J., Schumacher, R., and Jimenez, S. A. Systemic sclerosis after augmentation mammoplasty with silicone implants. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989 Sep, 111, (5): 377-383. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Vargas, A. Shedding of silicone particles from inflated breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1979 Aug, 64, (2): 252-253. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/silicon measurement.

Vasconez, L. O., Psillakis, J., and Johnson-Giebeik, R. Breast reconstruction with contralateral rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 May, 71, (5): 668-675. RECONSTRUCTION.

Vasey, F. B. A rheumatologist's view of silicone. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995, 4, (1): 203-209. GENERAL.

Vasey, F. B., Havice, D. L., and Bocanegra, T. S. Clinical findings in symptomatic women with silicone breast implants. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Aug, 24, (1 (Supplement 1)): 22-28. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/explantation.

Vasquez, B., Given, K. S., and Houston, G. C. Breast augmentation: A review of subglandular and submuscular implantation. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1987, 11, 101-105. STEROIDS/saline/local complications.

Vaughan, G. T., and Florence, T. M. Platinum in the human diet, blood, hair and excreta. The Science of the Total Environment. 1992, 111, (1): 47-58. PLATINUM.

Vayssairat, M., Mimoun, M., Houot, B., Abuaf, N., Rouquette, A.M., and Chaouat, M. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and silicone breast implants: 2 cases [abstract]. Journal des Maladies Vasculaires. 1997 Jul, 22, (3): 198-199. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Venta, L. A., Salomon, C. G., Flisak, M. E., Venta, E. R., Izquierdo, R., and Angelats, J. Sonographic signs of breast implant rupture. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1996 Jun, 166, (6): 1413-1419. RUPTURE/mammography/local complications.

Verneuil. Memoires de Chirurgie, Paris. 1887. RECONSTRUCTION.

Vesterberg, O., Alessio, L., Brune, D., and et al. International project for producing reference values for concentrations of trace elements in human blood and urine - TRACY. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 1993, 19, ((Suppl 1)): 19-26. TOXICOLOGY.

Vial, T., and Descotes, J. Clinical toxicity of cytokines used as haemopoietic growth factors. Drug Safety. 1995, 13, (6): 371-406. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Victor, S. J., Brown, D. M., Horwitz, E. M., Martinez, A. A., Kini, V. R., Pettinga, J. E., Shaheen, K. W., Benitez, P., Chen, P. Y., and Vicini, F. A. Treatment outcome with radiation therapy after breast augmentation or reconstruction in patients with primary breast carcinoma. Cancer. 1998 Apr 1, 82, (7): 1303-1309. RADIATION/reconstruction.

Villota, R., and Hawkes, J. Food applications and the toxicological and nutritional implications of amorphous silicon dioxide. Clinical Reviews In Food, Science and Nutrition. 1986, 23, (4): 289-322. SILICA.

Vimalasiri, P. A. D. T., Burford, R. P., and Haken, J. K. Chromatographic analysis of elastomeric polyurethanes. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 60, 555-577. POLYURETHANE.

Vinnik, C. A. Spherical contracture of fibrous capsules around breast implants: Prevention and treatment. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1976b Nov, 58, (5): 555-560. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Vinton, A. L., Traverso, W., and Zehring, D. Immediate breast reconstruction following mastectomy is as safe as mastectomy alone. Archives of Surgery. 1990 Oct, 125, 1303-1308. RECONSTRUCTION.

Virden, C. P., Dobke, M. K., Stein, P., Parsons, C. L., and Frank, D. H. Subclinical infection of the silicone breast implant surface as a possible cause of capsular contracture. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1992, 16, 173-179. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/infection.

Vistnes, L. M., Bentley, J. W., and Fogarty, D. C. Experimental study of tissue response to ruptured gel-filled mammary prostheses. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Jan, 59, 31-34. RUPTURE/local complications.

Vistnes, L. M., Ksander, G. A., Isaacs, G., and Rozner, L. Elevated glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin 4-sulfate, and other properties of contracted human prosthesis capsules. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1981, 7, 195-203. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE.

Vistnes, L. M., Ksander, G. A., and Kosek, J. Effects of local instillation of tramcinolone on the capsules around silicone bag-gel prostheses in animals. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Nov, 62, (5): 739-750. STEROIDS/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Vistnes, L. M., Ksander, G. A., and Kosek, J. Study of encapsulation of silicone rubber implants in animals: A foreign body reaction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Oct, 62, (4): 580-588. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Vogt, P. A., Seider, H. A., Moufarrege, R., Leikensohn, J. R., Ersek, R. A., Eisenberg, H. V., and Armstrong, D. P. Surface-patterned silicone implants decrease contracture for soft breast prostheses. Contemporary Surgery. 1990 Sep, 37, 25-29. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Vojdani, A. Highlights of the recent Immunology of Silicone Workshop, National Cancer Institute, March 13-14, 1995. Intl. J. Occup. Med. Toxicol. 1995, 4(1), 197-201. IMMUNE EFFECTS/local complications/migration/connective tissue disease.

Vojdani, A. Neuroimmunologic evaluation of patients with silicone implants. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 1995a Jan 1, 4, (1): 25-62. IMMUNE EFFECTS/neurologic disease.

Vojdani, A., Brautbar, N., and Campbell, A. Immunologic and biologic markers for silicone. Journal of Toxicology and Industrial Health. 1994a, 10, (1/2): 25-41. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Vojdani, A., Brautbar, N., and Campbell, A. W. Antibody to silicone and native macromolecules in women with silicone breast implants. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 1994b, 16, (4): 497-523. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Vojdani, A., Campbell, A., and Brautbar, N. Immune functional impairment in patients with clinical abnormalities and silicone breast implants. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 1992b, 8, (6): 415-429. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Vojdani, A., Ghoneum, M., and Brautbar, N. Immune alteration associated with exposure to toxic chemicals. Toxicol. Ind. Hlth. 1992a, 8, (5): 239-254. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Von Frey, H.-P., Lemperle, G., and Exner, K. Siliconomas and rheumatoid symptoms—A known and a questionable complication of silicone implants. Hanchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 1992, 24, 171-177. GRANULOMAS/local complications/connective tissue disease.

Von Heimburg, D., Exner, K., Kruft, S., and Lemperle, G. The tuberous breast deformity: classification and treatment. Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 1996, 49, (6): 339-345. RECONSTRUCTION.

Von Mikecz, A., Konstantinov, K., Buchwald, D. S., Gerace, L., and Tan, E. M. High frequency of autoantibodies to insoluble cellular antigens in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1997 Feb, 40, (2): 295-305. AI-CTD BACKGROUND/immune effects.

Von Smitten, K., and Sundell, B. The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy on the outcome of immediate breast reconstruction by tissue expansion after mastectomy for breast cancer. European Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1992, 18, 119-123. EXPANDER/radiation/reconstruction/infection/local complications.

Vondracek, P., and Gent, A. N. Slow decomposition of silicone rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1982, 27, 4517-4523. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Vuursteen, P. J. The Krakatau syndrome, a late complication of retroglandular mammary augmentation. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1992, 45, 34-37. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications/calcification.

Wagner, H., Beller F.K., and Pfautsch, M. Electron and light microscopy examination of capsules around breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Jul, 60, (1): 49-55. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/polyurethane.

Wagner, S. K. Breast implant imaging homes in on tiny leaks. Diagn Imaging. 1996, 3, 51-57. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Wakabayashi, G., Gelfand, J. A., Jung, W. K., Connolly, R. J., Burke, J. F., and Dinarello, C. A. Staphylococcus epidermidis induces complement activation, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1: A shock-like state and tissue injury in rabbits without endotoxemia. Comparison to Escherichia coli. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1991 Jun, 87, 1925. INFECTION.

Walden, K. J., Thompson, J. K., and Wells, K. E. Body image and psychological sequelae of silicone breast explantation: Preliminary findings. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Oct, 100, (5): 1299-1306. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Walker, J., Walker, S., and Grace, A. Topographic quantitative evoked response to pattern-reversal visual stimuli patients with siliconosis following breast implantation: objective evidence for involvement of the central nervous system as a common complication. Intl. J. Occup. Med. Immun. Toxicol. 1996, 5, (1): 25-28. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Walker, L. E., Breiner, M. J., and Goodman, C. M. Toxic shock syndrome after explantation of breast implants: a case report and review of the literature. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Mar, 99, (3): 875-879. INFECTION.

Walker, Q. J., and Langlands, A. O. The misuse of mammography in the management of breast cancer. The Medical Journal of Australia. 1986 Sep, 145, (2): 185-187. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Wallace, D. J., Basbug, E., Schwartz, E., Clements, P., Metzger, A. L., Furst, D. E., and Klinenberg, J. R. A comparison of systemic lupus erythemotosus and scleroderma patients with and without silicone breast implants. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 1996 Oct, 2, (5): 257-261. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Wallace, J. R. Foreign body reaction to dimethylpolysiloxane (silastic): Report of case. Journal of the American Dental Association. 1967 Jul 1, 75, (1): 172-173. GENERAL/local complications.

Wallace, M. S., Wallace, A. M., Lee, J., and Dobke, M. K. Pain after breast surgery: A survey of 282 women. Pain. 1996, 66, 195-205. PAIN/local complications.

Walsh, F. W., Solomon, D. A., Espinoza, L. R., Adams, G. D., and Whitelocke, H. E. Human adjuvant disease: A new cause of chylous effusions. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1989 May, 149, 1194-1196. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Walsh, L. G., and Greene, W. B. Electron probe microanalysis of silicone: Problems in quantitation. Bull Southeastern Electron Microscopy Soc. 1992, 24, 28. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Wang, G. B., Santerre, J. P., and Labow, R. S. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometric identification of breakdown products associated with the biological hydrolysis of a biomedical polyurethane. Journal of Chromatography. 1997 Sep, 698, (2): 69-80. POLYURETHANE/toxicology.

Ward, C. M. Cosmetic and reconstructive surgery of the breast. British Journal of Medicine. 1985, 290, 1337-1339. GENERAL.

Ward, J., Cohen, I. K., and Brown, P. W. Immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expansion. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987 Oct, 80, (4): 559-566. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications/expander/reconstruction.

Warheit, D. B., McHugh, T. A., and Hartsky, M. A. Differential pulmonary responses in rats inhaling crystalline, colloidal or amorphous silica dusts. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 1995, 21, (2): 19-21. SILICA.

Warner, E., Lipa, M., Pearson, D., and Weizel, H. A. Silicone mastopathy mimicking malignant disease of the breast in Southeast Asian patients. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1991, 144, (5): 569-571. SILICONE INJECTION.

Wasicek, C. A., and Reichlin M. Clinical and serological differences between systemic lupus erythematosus patients with antibodies to Ro versus patients with antibodies to Ro and La. J Clin Invest. 1982 Apr, 69, (4): 835-843. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Watanabe, N., Yasuda, Y., Kato, K., and Nakamura, T. Determination of trace amounts of siloxanes in water, sediments and fish tissues by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The Science of the Total Environment. 1984, 34, 169-176. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Watkins, L. R., Wiertelak, E. P., Goehler, L. E., Smith, K. P., Martin, D., and Maier, S. F. Characterization of cytokene-induced hyperalgesia. Brain Research. 1994, 654, 15-26. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Watson, J. Some observations on breast augmentation procedures over the past two decades. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1976, 1, 89-97. GENERAL.

Watson, J. Some observations on free fat grafts: with reference to their use in mammaplasty. Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 1959, 3, 263-274. RECONSTRUCTION.

Webster, D. J., Mansel, R. E., and Hughes, L. E. Immediate reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy: Is it safe? Cancer. 1984, 53, (6): 1416-1419. RECONSTRUCTION.

Webster, R. C. Injectable silicone for small augmentations: Twenty year experience in humans. American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery. 1984, 1, (4): 1-10. SILICONE INJECTION.

Weightman, B., Simon, S., Rose, R., Paul, I., and Radin, E. Environmental fatigue testing of silastic finger joint prostheses. J. Biomed. Mat. Res. Symposium. 1972, 3, 15-24. SILICONE CHEMISTRY/silicone characterization.

Weiner, D. L., Aiache, A. E., and Silver, L. A new soft, round, silicone gel breast implant. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974, 53, (2): 174-178. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Weiner, S. R., and Paulus, H. E. Chronic arthropathy occurring after augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Feb, 77, (2): 185-192. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Weinreb, J. C., and Newstead, G. MR imaging of the breast. Radiology. 1995 Sep, 196, 593-610. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Weinzweig, J., Schnur, P. L., McConnell, J. P., Harris, J. B., Petty, P. M., Moyer, T. P., and Nixon, D. Silicon analysis of breast and capsular tissue from patients with saline or silicone gel breast implants: II. Correlation with connective-tissue disease. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1998 Jun, 101, (7): 1836-1841. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Weisman, M. H., Vecchione, T. R., Albert, D., Moore, L. T., and Mueller, M. R. Connective-tissue disease following breast augmentation: A preliminary test of the human adjuvant disease hypothesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988 Oct, 82, (4): 626-630. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Weizer, G., Malone, R. S., Netscher, D. T., Walker, L. E., and Thornby, J. Utility of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in diagnosing breast implant rupture. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Apr, 34, (4): 352-361. RUPTURE/local complications/mammography.

Wellisch, D. K., Schain, W. S., Noone, R. B., and Little, J. W. III. The psychological contribution of nipple addition in breast reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1987 Nov, 80, (5): 699-704. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Wellisch, D. K., Schain, WS., Noone, R. B., and Little, J. W. Psychosocial corelates of immediate versus delayed reconstruction of the breast. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1985 Nov, 76, (5): 713-717. PSYCHOSOCIAL/reconstruction.

Wells, A. F., Daniels, S., Gunasekaran, S., and Wells, K. E. Local increase in hyaluronic acid and interleukin-2 in the capsules surrounding silicone breast implants. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Jul, 33, (1): 1-5. IMMUNE EFFECTS/capsule contracture.

Wells, K. E., Cruse, C. W., Baker, Jr. J. L., Daniels, S. M., Stem, R. A., Newman, C., Seleznich, M. J., Vasey, F. B., Brozena, S., Albers, S. E., and Fenske, N. The health status of women following cosmetic surgery. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Apr, 93, (5): 907-912. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Wells, K. E., Roberts, C., Daniels, S. M., Hann, D., Clement, V., Reintgen, D., and Cox, C. E. Comparison of psychological symptoms of women requesting removal of breast implants with those of breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Mar, 99, (3): 680-685. PSYCHOSOCIAL/explantation.

Wells, K. E., Roberts, C., Daniels, S., Kearney, R. E., and Cox, C. E. Psychological and rheumatic symptoms of women requesting silicone breast implant removal. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Jun, 34, (6): 572-577. PSYCHOSOCIAL/explantation.

Wells, R. L. Experience with polyurethane-covered silicone-gel implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988 Jul, 82, (1): 193. POLYURETHANE.

Wengle, H-P. The psychology of cosmetic surgery: A critical overview of the literature 1960-1982, part I. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1986, 16, (5): 435-443. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

West, J. K. Thoeretical analysis of hydrolysis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 1997, 35, (4): 505-511. SILICON MEASUREMENT/ silicone characterization.

Wey, P. D., Highstein, J. B., and Borah, G. L. Immediate breast reconstruction in the high-risk adjuvant setting. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 Apr, 38, (4): 342-344. CANCER/ reconstruction.

Whalen, R. L. Improved textured surfaces for implantable prostheses. Transactions of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs. 1988, 34, 887-892. POLYURETHANE/ capsule-contracture/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Whalen, R. L., Bowen, M. A., Fukumura, F., Fukamachi, K., Muramoto, K., Higgins, P., Brown, J., and Harasaki, H. The effects of radiation therapy on the tissue capsule of soft tissue implants. ASAIO J. 1994, 3403, M365-M370. RADIATION/expander/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Whidden, P. G. Observations and conclusions from 20 years' experience with the single-lumen inflatable breast implant with 3500 patients. Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1993, 1, 39. SALINE.

White, B., Bauer, E. A., Goldsmith, L. A., Hochberg, M. C., Katz, L. M., Korn, J. H., Lachenbruch, P. A., LeRoy, E. C., Miltrane, M. P., Paulus, H. E., Postlethwaite, A. E., and Steen, B. Guidelines for clinical trials and systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 Mar, 38, (3): 351-360. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

White, E, Malone, K., Weiss, N., and Daling, J. Breast cancer among young US women in relation to oral contraceptive use. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1994 Apr 6, 86, (7): 505-514. CANCER.

White, Jr. KL and Klykken, PC. The non-specific binding of immunoglobulins to silicone implant materials: the lack of a detectable silicone specific antibody. Immunological Investigations. 1998, 27, (4&5): 221-235. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

White, K. L. Use of brown Norway rat and the NZBxW mouse models of SLE to assess effect of silicone gel, metals, and other xenobiotics on autoimmune disease. The Toxicologist. 1996, 42, 403. TOXICOLOGY/connective tissue disease.

Whitehouse, M. W., Orr, K. J., Beck, F. W. J., and Pearson, C. M. Freund's adjuvants: Relationship of arthritogenicity and adjuvanticity in rats to vehicle composition. Immunology. 1974, 27, 311-330. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Whiteside, T. L., and Friberg, D. Natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity in chronic fatigue syndrome. The American Journal of Medicine. 1998 Sep 28, 105, (3A): 247S-34S. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Whorton, D., and Wong, O. Scleroderma and silicone breast implants. Western Journal of Medicine. 1997 Sep, 167, (3): 159-165. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Wichems, D. N., Calloway, C. P. Jr., Fernando, R., Jones, B. T., and Morykwas, M. J. Determination of silicone in breast tissue by graphite furnace continuum source atomic absorption spectometry. Applied Spectroscopy. 1993 Oct, 47, 1577-1579. MIGRATION/silicon measurement.

Wickham, M. G., Rudolph, R., and Abraham, J. Silicon identification in prostheses-associated fibrous capsules. Science 199:437. 1978 Jan, 199, 437. SILICON MEASUREMENT/ capsule contracture/local complications.

Wickman, M. Breast reconstruction: past achievements, current status, and future goals. Scand. J. Plast. Reconstr. Hand. Surg. 1995, 29, 81-100. RECONSTRUCTION.

Wickman, M., Johansson, O., and Forslind, B. Dimensions of capsular collagen fibrils: Image analysis of rapid compared with slow tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1992, 26, 281-285. EXPANDER/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Wickman, M., Johansson, O., Olenius, M., and Forslind, B. A comparison of the capsules around smooth and textured silicone prostheses used for breast reconstruction. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive and Hand Surgery. 1993, 27, (1): 15-22. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/expander/reconstruction.

Wickman, M., and Jurell, G. Low capsular contraction rate after primary and secondary breast reconstruction with a textured expander prosthesis. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Mar, 99, (3): 692-697. EXPANDER/capsule-contracture/reconstruction/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Wigren, R., Elwing, H., Erlandsson, R., Welin, S., and Lundstöm, I. Structure of adsorbed fibrinogen obtained by scanning force microscopy. Federation of European Biomedical Societies. 1991 Mar, 280, (2): 225-228. IMMUNE EFFECTS/general.

Wilflingseder, P., Hoinkes, G., Hussl, H., Papp, C., Mikuz, G., and Propst, A. Silicone radiation measurements around mammary type implants: Animal model for evaluation of materials and implantation sites. Chir Plast. 1982, 6, 189. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Wilflingseder, P., Hoinkes, G., and Mikuz, G. Tissue reactions from silicone implant in augmentation mammaplasties. Congresso Nazionale di Chirurgia Plastica. 1983, 38, 877-880. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Wilflingseder, P., Propst, A., and Mikuz, G. Constrictive fibrosis following silicone implants in mammary augmentation. Chir. Plast. 1974 Jul, 2, 251. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications.

Wilkie, T. F. Late development of granuloma after liquid silicone injections. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1977 Aug, 60, (2): 179-188. SILICONE INJECTION.

Wilkinson, T. S. Polyurethane coated implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985, 75, 925. POLYURETHANE.

Williams, C. W. Silicone gel granuloma following compressive mammography. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 1991, 15, 49-51. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications/granulomas.

Williams, C. W., Aston, S., and Rees, T. D. The effect of hematoma on the thickness of pseudosheaths around silicone implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1975 Aug, 56, (2): 194-198. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/hematomas.

Williams, G. H., and Silman, A. J. Review of U.K. data on the rheumatic diseases: 9-Scleroderma. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1991, 30, 365-367. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Williams, H. J., Alarcon, G. S., and Neuner, R. Early undifferentiated connective tissue disease. V. An inception cohort five years later: disease remissions and changes in diagnoses in well established and undifferentiated connective tissue disease. The Journal of Rheumatology. 1998, 25, 261-268. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Williams, H. J., Weisman, M. H., and Berry, C. C. Breast implants in patients with differentiated and undifferentiated connective tissue disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1997, 40, (3): 437-440. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

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Williams, K., Walton, R., and Bunkis, J. Aspergillus colonization association with bilateral silicone mammary implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982. INFECTION/local complications.

Williford, M. E. Mammography: evaluation following breast augmentation. NCMJ. 1991 Oct, 52, (10): 515-519. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Wilsnack, R. E., and Bernadyn, S. A. Blood compatibility of medical device materials as measured by lymphocyte function. Biomaterials Medical Devices and Artifical Organs. 1979, 7, 527. IMMUNE EFFECTS/general.

Wilson, R. B., Gluck, O. S., Tesser, J. R. P., Rice, J. C., Meyer, A., and Bridges, A. J. Anti-polymer antibody reactivity in a subset of patients with fibromyalgia correlates with severity. J. Rheumatol. 1999, 26, 402-407. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Winder, A. E., and Winder, B. D. Patient counseling: Clarifying a woman's choice for breast reconstruction. Patient Education and Counseling. 1985, 7, 65-75. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Wise, R. J. A new inflatable implant for breast augmentation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1974a Mar, 53, (3): 360-363. GENERAL/expander.

Wolf, L. E., Lappé, M., Peterson, R. D., and Ezrailson, E. G. Human immune response to polydimethylsiloxane (silicone): screening studies in a breast implant population. FASEB. 1993 Oct, 7, 1265-1268. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

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Wolfe, F., Ross, K., Anderson, J., Russell, I. J., and Hebert, L. The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995b, 38, (1): 19-28. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Wolfe, F., Smythe, H. A., Yunus, M. B., Bennett, R. M., Bombardier, C., Goldenberg, D. L., Tugwell, P., Campbell, S. M., Abeles, M., Clark, P., Fam, A. G., Farber, S. J., Fiechtner, J. J., Franklin, C. M., Gatter, R. A., Hamaty, D., Lessard, J., Lichtbround, A. S., Masi, A. T., McCain, G. A., Reynolds, W. J., Romano, T. J., Russell, I. J., and Sheon, R. P. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1990 Feb, 33, (2): 160-172. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Wong, J. H., Jackson, C. F., Swanson, J. S., Palmquist, M. A., Oyama, A. A., Miller, S. H., and Fletcher, W. S. Analysis of the risk reduction of prophylactic partial mastectomy in Sprague-Dawley rats with 7,12 dimethylbenzanthracine-induced breast cancer. Surgery. 1986, 99, 67-91. GENERAL/cancer.

Wong, O. A critical assessment of the relationship between silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 1996, 23, 74-85. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Woods, J. E., Irons, Jr. G. B., and Arnold, P. G. The case for submuscular implantation of prostheses in reconstructive breast surgery. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1980, 5, 115-122. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/reconstruction.

Woods, J. E., and Mangan, M. A. Breast reconstruction with tissue expanders: Obtaining an optimal result. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1992 Apr, 28, (4): 390-396. EXPANDER/ reconstruction/saline.

Worden, J. W., and Weisman, A. D. The fallacy in postmastectomy depression. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1977 Mar-1977 Apr 30, 273, (2): 169-175. PSYCHOSOCIAL/cancer.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Worseg, A., Kuzbari, R., Tairych, G., Korak, K., and Holle, J. Long term results of inflatable mammary implants. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1995, 48, (4): 183-188. EXPANDER/local complications/capsule-contracture/rupture.

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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Bertolin, S. M., Gonzalez, R., and Amorrurtu, J. Leakage of silicone gel through a cutaneous fistula [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Jun, 93, (7): 1531-1532. RUPTURE/local complications/letter.

Bestler, J. M. Ruptured breast implant [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Jul, 96, (1): 234. IMMUNE EFFECTS/rupture/letter.

Bignail, J. Silicones and connective tissue disease [letter]. The Lancet. 1993 Apr 17, 341, 1019. LETTER/capsule contracture.

Bischoff, F., and Bryson, G. Carcinogenesis through solid state surfaces. Progress in Experimental Tumor Research. New York: Nafner Publishing Company, Inc., 1964, p. 85-133. CARCINOGENICITY.

Black, C. M., Impose, S., and Stevens, W. M. R. Augmentation mammoplasty and connective tissue disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1989, 32, 578. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Black, O. Vestibular and auditory function abnormalities in silicone breast implant patients [abstract]. Presented at Combined Otolaryngological Spring Meetings, 1997 May. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Blackburn Jr., W. D., Grotting, J., and Everson, M. P. Lack of findings of systemic rheumatic disorders in symptomatic women with silicone breast implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1992 Oct, 35, (9 (Supplement)): S212. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Blais, P. Problems with Saline-Filled Implants: A 10-Year Retrospective. Presented to the IOM Committee on the Safety of Silicone Breast Implants, 1998 Jul 24, Washington, D.C. SALINE/infection/local complications.

Bleiweiss, I. J., and Copeland, M. Capsular synovial metaplasia and breast implants, with reply by Raso, et al. [letter]. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1995 Feb, 119, (2): 115. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/saline/letter.

Blocksma, R., and Braley, S. Implantation Materials. in. Plastic Surgery: A Concise Guide to Clinical Practice. 1968. GENERAL.

Boley, W. F., and LeVier, R. R. Immunological Enhancing Activities of Organosilicon Compounds and Non-functional Fluids. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1974 Oct 2. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Bommer, J., Ritz, E., Waldherr, R., and Gastner, M. Silicone cell inclusions causing multiorgan foreign body reaction in dialysed patients [letter]. The Lancet. 1981 Jun 13: 1314. SILICON MEASUREMENT/local complications/letter.

Borenstein, D. Clinical manifestations of 100 consecutive women with silicone breast implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Sep, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S117. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Borenstein, D. Operational Criteria for Systemic Silicone Related Disease (SSRD), Executive Committee of the Silicone Related Disease Research Group. in Tugwell, P., 1998. 1994a. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Borenstein, D. Siliconosis: A spectrum of illness. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994b Aug, 24, (1 (Supplement 1)): 1-7. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Borzelleca, J. History of Toxicology. in: Hayes. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. 3rd edition ed. New York: Raven Press, 1994.

Bostwick III, J. Plastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery. St. Louis, Mo.: Quality Medical Publishing, 1990. GENERAL.

Botti, G., Villedieu, R., and Garibaldi, V. Postoperative self-expansion in augmentation mammaplasty [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 May, 93, (6): 1310. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Bowlin, S. J., Perkins, L. L., and Duel, L. A (Dow Corning Corp.). Clinical Evaluation of Dow Corning Silicone Breast Implants. in. Amer. Soc. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Nurses, 1998 Oct 3-1998 Oct 8, Boston, MA. 1998. RUPTURE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Braley, S. The present status of mammary implant materials. In: Masters, F. W., and Lewis, Jr. J. R., Eds. Symposium on Aesthetic Surgery of the Face, Eyelid, and Breast. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1972, p. 149-151. GENERAL.

Braley, S. Silicone fluids with added adulterants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1970, 45, (3): 288. SILICONE INJECTION.

Brand, K. G. Polyurethane-coated silicone implants and the question of capsular contracture [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Mar, 73, (3): 498. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/letter.

Brandon, H. J., Wolf, C., Jerina, K., and Young, L. Mechanical, Chemical, and Physical Analyses of Explanted Silicone Gel Breast Implants. 1998a Mar. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young, L., Jerina, K., and Wolf, C. Effect of Implantation on Breast Implant Material Properties. 1997d Oct. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young, L., Jerina, K., and Wolf, C. Long Term Aging of Silastic II Silicone Gel Breast Implants. 1998d May. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young, L., Jerina, K., and Wolf, C. Variability in the Properties of Silicone Gel Breast Implants. 1998c Apr. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young, L., Jerina, K., Wolf, C., and Schorr, M. A. Diagnosis of Ruptured Breast Implants Using Scanning Electron Microscopy. 1997a Oct. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young, L., Jerina, K., Wolf, C., and Schorr, M. W. Comparison of Breast Implant Shell Strengths and Rupture Rates. 1998f Oct. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young, V. L., Jerina, K. L., and Wolf, C. J. Assessment of Long Term Aging of Silicone Gel Breast Implants. 1998b Apr. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Brandon, H. J., Young, V. L., Jerina, K. L., and Wolf, C. J. Tear Strength of Explanted Silicone Gel Breast Implants. 1998e Sep. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young V. L., Jerina, K. L., Wolf, C. J., and Schorr, M. W. Case Studies of Breast Implant Failure Using Scanning Electron Microscopy. 1997b Oct. RUPTURE.

Brandon, H. J., Young, V. L., Wolf, C. J., and Jerina, K. L. Long-Term Material Stability of Explanted Breast Implants. 1997c Sep. RUPTURE.

Brautbar, N., and Vojdani, A. Immunologic and clinical aspects of silicone in women with breast implants. in: Gorczyca, D. P., and Brenner, R. J., eds. The Augmented Breast: Radiologic and Clinical Perspectives. New York and Stuttgart: Thieme, 1997, p. 189-205. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Brautbar, N., Vojdani, A., and Campbell, A. W. Silicone implants and systemic immunological disease: Review of the literature and preliminary results [editorial]. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 1992, 8, (5): 231-237. GENERAL/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brawer, A. E. (Monmouth Medical Center). Bones, Groans, and Silicone: Beauty and the Beast. Arthritis and Rheumatism: Abstracts of Scientific Presentations, 1994 Jun: p. 365. IMMUNE EFFECTS/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brawer, A. E. Silicon and matrix macromolecules: New research opportunities for old diseases from analysis of potential mechanisms of breast implant toxicity. (unpublished). 1998 Jun. GENERAL.

Brent, J. (University of Colorado Health Sciences Center). The Medical Toxicology of Silicone Breast Implants. transcript of IOM Committee on the Safety of Silicone Breast Implants, 1998 Jul 24, Washington, D.C. TOXICOLOGY.

Bridges, A. J. Silicone implant controversy continues [letter]. The Lancet. 1994 Nov 26, 344, 1451-1452. GENERAL/letter.

Bridges, A. J., Anderson, J. D., Bums, D. E., Kemple, K., Kaplan, J. D., and Lorden, T. Autoantibodies in patients with silicone implants. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunolgoy, Immunology of Silicones. 1996, 210, 277-282. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Bridges, A. J., Conley, C., Wang, G., Bums, D., and Vasey, F. A clinical and immunologic evaluation of women with SBI and symptoms of rheumatic disease. American College of Rheumatism Meeting. 1993b Nov: Abstract #184. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/ immune effects.

Bridges, A. J., and Lorden, T. Sicca syndrome in women with silicone implants: Absence of serum autoantibodies [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Sep, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S70. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Bright, R. A., and Moore, Jr. R. M. Estimating the prevalence of women with breast implants [letter]. American Journal of Public Health. 1996 Jun, 86, (6): 891-892. PREVALENCE/letter.

Brody, G. S. The effect of breast implants on the radiographic detection of microcalcification and soft-tissue masses [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989, 84, (5): 779-780. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/calcification.

Brody, G. S. Knowledge, concern, and satisfaction among augmentation mammaplasty patients [discussion]. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1993 Jan, 30, (1): 20-22. PSYCHOSOCIAL.

Brody, G. S. Lactation after augmentation mammaplasty [letter]. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996 Jun, 87, (6): 1062-1063. BREAST FEEDING/letter.

Brody, G. S. The Même implant [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984, 73, 420. POLYURETHANE.

Brody, G. S. Reconstruction of the breast using polyurethane-coated prostheses [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Mar, 73, (3): 420-421. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications/reconstruction.

Brody, G. S. Scleroderma after silicone augmentation mammoplasty [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1988 Nov 25, 260, (20): 236-238. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brody, G. S. Scleroderma-like esophageal disease in children of mothers with silicone breast implants [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994a Sep 14, 272, (10): 770. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding/letter.

Brody, G. S. Silicone breast implant safety: Physical, chemical, and biologic problems [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jan, 99, (1): 260-261. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/migration/rupture/letter.

Brody, G. S. Silicone gel breast implants [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Jul 27, 272, (4): 271. GENERAL/letter.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Brody, G. S., and Deapen, D. M. Breast cancer diagnosis in the augmented patient [letter]. Archives of Surgery. 1989 Feb, 124, 256-257. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Brooks, P. M. Silicone breast implantation: Doubts about the fears [editorial]. Medical Journal of Australia. 1995 Apr 17, 162, 432-434. GENERAL.

Broughton, A., and Thrasher, J. D. Autoantibodies associated with silicone breast implants [abstract]. Clinical Chemistry. 1993, 39, (6): 1139. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Brown, S. L., Mann, J., Merner, M. L., and Woo, E. Toxic Shock Syndrome: Post-Surgical Infection in Women after Mammoplasty. Unpublished FDA report: 1997a Oct 6. INFECTION/local complications.

Brown, S. L., and Silverman, B. G. Silicone Gel Breast Implants: A Regulatory Perspective and Report On Published Epidemiologic Studies (Abstract No. T64). 1996 Annual Conference of ISEE, 1996 Jul. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Brown, S., Patten, B. M., Cooke, N., Ostermeyer-Shoaib, B., and Jhingran, S.C. Silicone breast implants: Association with abnormal SPECT scans and memory defects [abstract]. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 1993(Supplement 4): S177. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Brownstein, M. L., and Owsley, Jr. J. Q. Augmentation mammaplasty: A survey of the major complications. in: Owsley, J. Q., and Peterson, R. A., eds. Symposium on Aesthetic Surgery of the Breast. St. Louis: Mosby, 1978, p. 267. INFECTION/steroids/ capsule-contracture/local complications.

Brucker, R. Bleed of a biologic response to triglyceride filler used in radiolucent breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 197 Jun, 99, (7): 2107-2108. GENERAL.

Bryant, H. H. Project BBL 722: X3-0294-70D (RP) Radiopaque Silicone Rubber, X3-0146-50D (RP) Radiopaque Silicone Rubber. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1982 Aug 23. TOXICOLOGY.

Bryant, H., Brasher, P.M. A., van de Sande, J. H., and Turc, J-M. Review of methods in breast augmentation: A risk factor for breast cancer [letter]. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1994, 330, (4): 293. CANCER/letter.

Bui, H. X., Del Rosario, A. D., Ballouk, F., and et al. Reaction to silicone breast implants: Morphologic, immunofluorescent, and electron probe x-ray microanalytic (EPXMA) findings. Modem Pathology. 1993, 6, 12A. immune effects.

Bulpitt, K., Weiner, S. R., and Paulus, H. E. Comparison of the systemic manifestations associated with polyurethane-coated and non-coated silicone breast implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1992 Sep, 35, (9 (Supplement)): S161. POLYURETHANE/connective tissue disease/local complications.

Burkhardt, B. R. 1985 supplement to augmentation mammaplasty and capsular contracture. An annotated review and guide to the literature. Privately published, Tucson Arizona. 1985. GENERAL.

Burkhardt, B. R. Absence of visible bacteria in capsules around silicone breast implants [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Jul, 72, (1): 32-35. INFECTION/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Burkhardt, B. R. Are the polyurethane-covered implants really as good as they're cracked up to be? If so, why haven't I switched? [expert commentary]. Perspectives in Plastic Surgery. 1988, 2, (1): 165-167. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications.

Burkhardt, B. R. Breast implants: A brief history of their development, characteristics, and problems. Grant, Vasconez, and Williams, Eds. Postmastectomy Reconstruction. 2 ed. 1988, pp. 68-83. GENERAL.

Burkhardt, B. R. Comparing contracture rates: Probability theory and the unilateral contracture [editorial]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1984 Oct, 74, (4): 527-529. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Burns, C. G. The Epidemiology of Systemic Sclerosis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study [doctoral dissertation]. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 1994. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Busch, H. Silicone toxicology. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Aug, 24, (1 (Supplement 1)): 11-17. GENERAL/toxicology.

Butler, J. E., Lu, E. P., Navarro, P., and Christiansen, B. The adsorption of proteins on a polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (pep) and their antigenic behavior. Current Topics in Immunology and Microbiology: Immunology of Silicones. 1996, 210, 75-84. IMMUNE EFFECTS/silicone characterization.

Cabot Corporation. Cab-O-Sil, properties and functions. Tuseola Ill.: 1990. SILICA.

Cadier, M. A., and Hobby, J. A. Silicone breast implants and drug-induced arthralgia [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Apr, 99, (5): 1464. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Caffee, H. H. The biophysical and histologic properties of capsules formed by smooth and textured silicone implants in the rabbit [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992b Jun, 89, (6): 1043-1044. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. Capsular contracture: A prospective study of the effect of local antibacterial agents [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Jun, 77, (6): 919-932. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection.

Caffee, H. H. Capsule thickness and breast firmness [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992c Feb, 89, (2): 380. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. Classification of capsular contracture after prosthetic breast reconstruction [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Oct, 96, (5): 1124. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. The conventional and low-bleed implants for augmentation mammoplasty. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992a, 90, (2): 343. BLEED-LEAKAGE/letter.

Caffee, H. H. Could tight breast capsules squeeze a significant amount of silicone gel out of an implant? [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993a Sep, 92, (3): 558. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. The effect of siltex texturing and povidone-iodine irrigation on capsular contracture around saline inflatable breast implants [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Jan, 93, (1): 123-128. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Caffee, H. H. The effects of hematomas on implant capsular contracture. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1986b, 16, 102. HEMATOMA.

Caffee, H. H. Intraductal migration of silicone from intact gel breast prostheses [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Mar, 95, (3): 563-566. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Caffee, H. H. Life span of silicone gel-filled mammary prostheses [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Dec, 100, (7): 1727-1728. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/infection/rupture/pain.

Caffee, H. H. Methyl prednisolone in double-lumen gel-saline submuscular mammary pros-theses: A double-blind, prospective, controlled clinical trial [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Mar, 87, (3): 488-489. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/steroids.

Caffee, H. H. Rupture and aging of silicone gel breast implants [discussion]. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1993b Apr, 91, (5): 835-836. RUPTURE.

Caffee, H. H. Short-term effect of silicone gel on peripheral nerves: A histologic study [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992d May, 89, (5): 941-942. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Caldwell, J. R. Silicone and silliness. Probabilistic prevarication in the legal arena [editorial]. Journal of the Florida Medical Association. 1994, 81, (9): 596-598. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Campbell, A. W. List of Symptoms Frequently Caused by Silicone Implants [Web Page]. Accessed 1997 Nov 6. Available at: http://wee.geocities.com/HotSprings/8689/symptoms.html. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Cantoch, S., and Fairclough, P. Breast augmentation and the risk of subsequent breast cancer [letter]. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1993 Mar 4, 329, (9): 662. CANCER.

Capozzi, A. Polyurethane-covered gel mammary implants [letter]. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery. 1982 May, 69, 904. POLYURETHANE/letter.

Carlisle, E. M. Silicon as an essential trace element in animal nutrition. Evered, D., and O'Connor, M., eds. Silicon Biochemistry: CIBA Foundation Symposium 121. New York: Wiley, 1986, p. 123-129. GENERAL.

Carlström, D., and Falkenberg, G. The crystal and molecular structure of 2,6-cis-diphenyl-hexamethylcyclotetrasiloxane. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1975 Jan 1, 36 (Supp. III), 17-24 ,Chapter II. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Carter, D. Tissue reaction to breast implants [editorial]. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1994 Nov, 102, (5): 565-566. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Carver, J. F., inventor. Cast gel implantable prosthesis. 4,470,160. 1984 Sep 11. GENERAL.

Casarett, L. J. Chapter 1. in: Cassarett, L. J., and Doull, J. D. Eds. Toxicology. first edition ed. McMillan, 1975. TOXICOLOGY.

Cash, T. F., Winstead, B. A., and Janda, L. H. The great American shape up. Psychology Today. 1986 Apr: 30-37. GENERAL.

Cederna, J.P. Hematoma as a late complication in breast reconstruction with silicone gel prostheses [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Jul, 96, (1): 235-236. HEMATOMA/local complications/letter.

Cederna, J.P. Partial deflation of a saline breast implant [letter]. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1996 Mar, 97, (3): 684. SALINE/local complications/rupture.

Celli, B. R., and Kovnat, D. M. Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone [letter]. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1983 Oct 6, 309, (14): 856-857. SILICONE INJECTION.

Centeno, J. A., Luke, J. L., Kalasinskyi, V. F., and Mullick. Biophysical Characterization of Silicone Breast Explants by Laser Raman Microprobe and Infrared Microspectroscopy. American Chemical Society Aug. 21-26: 1994. SILICONE MEASUREMENT/silicone characterization.

Centeno, J. A., Ramos, M. S., Mullick, F. G., Offiah, O. O., Rastogi, T., and Panos, R. G. Biophysical findings associated with silicone-gel breast implants: Determination of silicon, calcium, and magnesium levels in capsular tissues. in. Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine. Paris: Eurotext, 1998, p. 362-366. SILICON MEASUREMENT/capsule-contracture/local complications/saline/calcification.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Diagnostic tests for silicone breast disease. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1996, 45, 111-112. GENERAL.

Chan, E. K. L., and Pollard, K. M. Autoantibodies to ribonucleoprotein particles by immuno-blotting. Rose, N. R., Friedman, H., and Fahey, J. L., eds. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology. 4th ed. ed. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology, 1992, p. 755-761. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Chandler Jr., P. J. Re: Connective tissue disease and other rheumatic conditions following breast implants in Denmark [letter]. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1998 Jan, 40, (1): 103-104. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Chang, Y. Pathogenesis of adjuvant arthritis in rats. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1978 ]an-1978 Feb 28, 21, (1): 169-170. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Chantelau, E. Silicone oil released from disposable insulin syringes. Diabetes Care. 1986 Nov-1986 Dec 31, 9, (6): 672-673. TOXICOLOGY/letter.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Chantelau, E. A., and Berger, M. Pollution of insulin with silicone oil, a hazard of disposable plastic syringes. The Lancet. 1985 Jun 22, 1, (8443): 1459. GENERAL/letter.

Chase, D. R., Mallot, R. L., Weeks, D. A., Oberg, K. C., and Chase, R. L. Correspondence re: J.A. Emory, S.S. Spanier, G. Kasnic, Jr., N.S. Hardt. The Synovial Structure of Breast-Implant-Associated Bursae. Modern Pathology 7:728, 1994. [letter]. Modem Pathology. 1996, 9, (2): 157-158. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/letter.

Chase, D. R., Obert, K. C., Chase, R. L., Mallot, R. L., and Weeks, D. A. Silicone breakdown and capsular synovial metaplasia in textured-wall saline breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Jan, 97, (1): 249. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Chastre, J., Basset, F., and Gilbert, C. Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone [letter-reply]. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1983b Oct 6, 310, (14): 856-857. SILICONE INJECTION/letter.

Chawla, A., and Hinberg, I. Laboratory evaluation of explanted gel filled silicone breast implants. Fifth World Biomaterials Congress, Toronto, Canada. 1996 Jun. EXPLANTATION/rupture.

Chilcote, W. A., Dowden, R. V., Paushter, D. M., Hale, J. C., Desberg, A. L., Singer, A. A., and et al. Detection with US of silicone gel breast implant leaks: A prospective analysis [abstract]. Radiology. 1993 Nov, 189, (P): 155. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications.

Chin, H. P., Harrison, E. C. Blankenhorn D. H., and Moacanin, J. Lipids in silicone rubber valve prosthesis after human implantation. Circulation. 1971, 43, ((Supplement 1)): I-51-I-56. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Chow, H. Y., Calabrese, L. H., Wilke, W. S., and Cash, J. M. Is silicone associated illness really chronic fatigue syndrome? [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 Sep, 38, (9 (Supplement)): 264. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Chow, H. Y., Cash, J. M., Calabrese, L. H., and Wilke, W. S. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and silicone-associated illness (SAI) are similarly disabled [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996 Sep, 39, (9 (Supplement)): S52. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Claman, H. N. Autoimmunity after silicone breast implants [letter, with response by Ellis, T.M., Hardt, N.S., and Atkinson, M.A.]. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. 1997 Aug, 79, (2): 89-90. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Claman, H. N. Breast implants and autoimmunity [letter-reply]. Western Journal of Medicine. 1994 Jul, 161, (1): 91-92. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Claman, H. N., and Giorno, R. C. Silicone and antinuclear antibodies [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993, 92, 212. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Claman, H. N., and Robertson, A. D. Antinuclear antibodies in apparently healthy women with breast implants. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology: Immunology of Silicones. 1996, p. 265-268. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Clarson, S. J., and Semlyen, J. A. Siloxane Polymers. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PTR Prentice Hall, 1993. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Clayton, G. D., and Clayton, F. E. 33, Tin. in. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. TOXICOLOGY.

Coble, Jr. Y. D. Silicone gel breast implants [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Jul 27, 272, (4): 273. GENERAL/letter.

Coccaro, S. F. Dealing with the ruptured silicone gel breast implant [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Sep, 92, (3): 557. RUPTURE/local complications/letter.

Cocke, W. M. "Nutcracker" technique for compression rupture of capsules around breast implants. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978 Nov, 62, (5): 772-773. CLOSED CAPSULOTOMY/ rupture.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Cohen, F. J. Identification and location of extravasated silicone gel using magnetic resonance imaging [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Jun, 91, (7): 1371. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Cohen, I. K. Antibiotics in the tissue expander to decrease the rate of infection [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1988 Jan, 81, (1): 138. PAIN/infection/local complications/expander.

Cohen, I. K. The effectiveness of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in reducing the incidence of spherical contracture around breast implants [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1981 Nov, 68, (5): 699. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications.

Cohen, I. K. Impact of the FDA ban on silicone breast implants [editorial]. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 1994, 56, (1): 1. GENERAL.

Cohen, I. K. Leakage of Breast Prostheses. Arch Surg. 1984 May, 119, 615. RUPTURE/ deflation.

Cohen, I. K. On mammography in the presence of breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978b Aug, 62, (2): 287. MAMMOGRAPHY/letter.

Cohen, I. K. On the use of soluble steroids within inflatable breast prostheses [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1978a Jul, 62, (1): 105-106. STEROIDS/local complications/capsule-contracture.

Cohen, I. K., and Roberts, C. Lidocaine relieves pain with tissue expansion of the breast [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1987 Mar, 79, (3): 489. PAIN/local complications/expander/letter.

Cohen, I. K., and Scheflan, M. The value of xeromammography for ruptured breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1982 May, 69, (5): 898-890. MAMMOGRAPHY/ letter.

Cohen, J. J. T-cell response in women with silicone breast implants [letter]. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 1995 Mar, 2, (2): 253. IMMUNE EFFECTS/letter.

Collier, F. C., and Dawson, A. D. Insulin syringes and silicone oil. Lancet. 1985 Sep 14. TOXICOLOGY.

Collis, N., Dhoo, C. T. K., and Sharpe, D. T. Media are too eager to link silicone to disease [letter]. British Medical Journal. 1998 Feb, 316, (7129): 477. GENERAL/letter.

Cook, R. R. Sclerodermalike esophageal disease in children of mothers with silicone breast implants [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Sep 14, 272, (10): 767-768. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/letter.

Cook, R. R., Curtis, J. M., and Perkins, L. L. Rupture of silicone-gel breast implants. The Lancet. 1998, 351, 520-521. RUPTURE/letter.

Cook, R. R., Delongchamp, R. R., Woodbury, M., and et al. Breast Implant Prevalence. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1993 Mar 17. PREVALENCE.

Cook, R. R., Hoshaw, S. J., and Perkins, L. L. Failure of silicone gel breast implants: Analysis of literature data for 1652 explanted prostheses [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1998 Apr, 101, (4): 1162. RUPTURE/letter/local complications.

Cook, R. R., and Perkins, L. L. The prevalence of breast implants among women in the United States. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology: Immunology of Silicones. 1996, p. 419425. PREVALENCE.

Cooper, C., and Dennison, E. Do silicone breast implants cause connective tissue disease: There is still no clear evidence that they do [editorial]. British Medical Journal. 1998 Feb, 316, 403-404. GENERAL/connective tissue disease.

Copeland, M. Capsular synovial metaplasia as a common response to both textured and smooth implants [discussion]. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1996 Jun, 97, (7): 1434-1435. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE.

Corrin, B. Silicone lymphadenopathy [letter]. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1982, 35, (8): 901-902. LYMPHADENOPATHY/local complications/letter.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Courtiss, E. Inflatable breast implants [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Mar, 95, (3): 600. EXPANDER/rupture/local complications/capsule-contracture/letter.

Crase, B. L. (La Leche League International, Center for Breast Feeding Information). Letter To: Dear Friend [La Leche position paper]. Schaumburg, Ill., 1996 May. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Crofoot, S. D., and Plotzke, K. P. A Pilot Study for the Determination of 14C-Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) Pharmacokinetics in Fischer 344 Rats Following a Single Nose-Only Vapor Inhalation Exposure to 700 ppm 14D-D4. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1996 Jun 25. TOXICOLOGY.

Cronin, T. D. One-stage reconstruction of a projecting nipple: The quadrapod flap [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983b Jan, 71, (1): 133. RECONSTRUCTION.

Cronin, T. D. Silicone breast implant. Rubin, L. R., Ed. Biomaterials In Reconstructive Surgery. St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1983a. GENERAL.

Cronin, T. D., and Gerow, F. J. Augmentation mammoplasty: A new "natural feel" prosthesis. Transactions of the Third International Congress of Plastic Surgery, Oct. 13-18, 1963. Excerpta Medica Foundation. 1963: 41-49. GENERAL.

Cruz-Korchin, N. Re: Effectiveness of silicone sheets in the prevention of hypertrophic breast scars [letter-reply]. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1997 May, 38, (5): 547. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/letter.

Cuéllar, M. L., Citera, G., Scopelitis, E., Sandifer, M., Cabrera, G., Gutierrez, M., Silveira, L. H., and Espinoza, L. R. High prevalence of serum antinuclear antibodies in women with silicone breast implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Sep, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S219. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Cuéllar, M. L., and Espinoza, L. R. Chest pain and breast implants [letter]. Southern Medical Journal. 1996 Jan, 89, (1): 97. PAIN/local complications/letter.

Cuéllar, M. L., and Espinoza, L. R. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease [letter]. J. Rheumatol. 1994, 21, (10): 1979. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects/letter.

Cuéllar, M. L., Espinoza, L. R., Ochs, R., and Tan, E. M. Clinical outcome of silicone breast implant (SBI) women following implant removal [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 Sep, 38, (9 (Supplement)): S264. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease / explantation.

Cuéllar, M. L., Gutiérrez, M., Cabrera, G., Gharavi, A., and Espinoza, L. R. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule I (sICAM-1) and other acute phase reactants such as ESR and CRP are not elevated in silicone breast implant patients [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Sep, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S219. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Cuéllar, M. L., Scopelitis, E., Citera, G., Gutiérrez, M., Silveira, L. H., and Espinoza, L. R. A prospective clinical evaluation of 300 women with silicone breast implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Sep, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S219. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Cuéllar, M. L., Stein, Jr. T. W., Espinoza, L. R., Tan, E. M., and Ochs, R. L. Immunoblot analysis of sera from women with silicone breast implants (SBI) [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Sep, 37, (9 (Supplement)): S422. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Cuéllar, M. L., Stein, T., Espinoza, L. R., Tan, E. M., and Ochs, R. L. Prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) in women with silicone breast implants (SBI): Clinical associations [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Sep, 37, (9 (Supplement)): S270. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Cunningham, B. L. Distribution of organosilicon polymers in augmentation mammaplasties at autopsy [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jul, 100, (1): 204-205. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Cunningham, B. L. Enhanced activity of lysosomal b-galactosidase after silicone implantation: An experimental study in rats [editorial]. J Lab Clin Med. 1993, 121, 734-736. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Curtis, J. M. Non-Regulated Study: Determination of low levels of silicones in human breast milk by aqueous silanol functionality test: Amendment to Report No. 1991-I0000-36332. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1997. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Curtis, J. M., Bejarano, M. A., and Zimmer, M. A. Determination of low levels of silicones in human breast milk by aqueous silanol functionality test. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1991. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding/silicon measurement.

Curtis, J. M., and Hoshaw, S. J. Mechanical (Tensile) Test Data of Explanted Silastic Breast Implants Demonstrate Elastomer Stability In Vivo. Midland, MI: Dow Corning Corporation, 1998 Mar. RUPTURE.

Cutting, W. C. Toxicity of silicones. Stanford Medical Bulletin. 1952 Feb, 10, (1): 23-26. TOXICOLOGY.

Davis, G. S. Immunologic Aspects of Pneumoconioses in Asbestosis and Silicosis. Lynch, J. P., and DeRemee, R. A., Eds. Immunologically Mediated Pulmonary Disease. 1991, p. 111-155. SILICA.

Davis, J., Campagna, J., Perrillo, R., and Criswell, L. Clinical Characteristics of 343 Patients With Breast Implants. J. Rheumatol. 1995 Oct: S263. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/ expander/rupture/local complications.

Davis, P. Augmentation mammoplasty: Beauty or beast? [editorial]. J. Rheumatol. 1993, 20, (6): 927-928. GENERAL/local complications/connective tissue disease.

De Camara, D. L., and Sheridan, J. M. Leaking gel implants [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Dec, 92, (7): 1411. RUPTURE/local complications/letter.

De Jong, W. H., Spiekstra, S. W., and van Loveren, H. Detection of antipolymer antibodies (APA) in serum of women with silicone breast implants. Introduction and performance of the assay in the RIVM. The Netherlands: Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports, Public Health Supervisory Service, Inspectorate of Health Care, 1998 Oct. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

De Lange, E. E., Bosworth, J. E., DeAngelis, G. A., and Morgan, R. F. MR imaging of breast implants [abstract]. Radiology. 1992, 185, 378. MAMMOGRAPHY.

De Vries, C. P., and Siddiqui, W. H. Acute Oral Toxicity of a Platinum Catalyst. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1982 Aug 18. PLATINUM/toxicology.

de Waal, J. C., Vaillant, W., Baltzer, J., and Zander, J. Carcinoma of the breast behind a breast prosthesis [letter]. Computerized Radiology. 1987, 11, (4): 207. MAMMOGRAPHY/cancer/letter.

Deapen, D. M., and Brody, G. Re: Induction of plasmacytomas with silicone gel in genetically susceptible strains of mice [letter]. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1995 Feb 15, 87, (4): 315. MYELOMA.

Deapen, D. M., and Brody, G. S. Breast augmentation and the risk of subsequent breast cancer [letter]. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1993 Mar 4, 328, (9): 662-663. CANCER.

DeGussa Corp., Ridgefield Park N. J. Aerosil Fumed Silica. SILICA.

DETector Engineering and Technology, Inc. Selective detection of cyclic silicon compounds extracted from silicone breast implants. DET Report No. 22. Walnut Creek, Calif.: DETector Engineering and Technology, Inc., 1992 Mar. TOXICOLOGY.

Digby, J. M., and Wells, A. L. Malignant lymphoma with intranodal refractile particles after insertion of silicone prostheses [letter]. The Lancet. 1981 Sep 12, 2, (8246): 580. CANCER.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Dobbie, J. W., and Smith, M. J. B. Urinary and serum silicon in normal and uremic individuals. Evered, D., and O'Connor, M., eds. Silicon Biochemistry: CIBA Foundation Symposium 121. New York: Wiley, 1986, p. 194-213. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Dolsky, R. L. Infection after augmentation mammaplasty [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1986 Sep, 78, (3): 425. INFECTION/polyurethane/letter/local complications.

Dolsky, R. L. Polyurethane-coated implants [letter]. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1985 Dec, 76, (6): 974-975. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications/infection/letter.

Donis, R. K. Breast implants and contracture, with replies by Biggs, T.M., and Gylbert, L. [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Oct, 86, (4): 809-810. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications/letter.

Dow Corning Corporation. A 28-day Oral Gavage Study of Octamthylcyclotetrasiloxane in Male and Female Rats with Attachments and Cover Letter Dated 04/08/88. Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Acute Toxicity and Industrial Handling Hazards of Dow Corning® Platinum No. 1 and Dow Corning® Platinum No. 2. 1973 Sep 10. PLATINUM/ TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Acute Toxicologic Properties and Industrial Handling Hazards of Dow Corning® X-2-7018. 1973 Sep 10. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Comparative eye irritation of specially prepared Dow Corning 200 fluids with cover letter. Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1985. CANCER.

Dow Corning Corporation. Comparison of the Primary Skin Irritation Potential and the Effects of Repeated Prolonged Skin Exposures to Various Volatile Experimental Cosmetics Fluids with SD Alcohol 40. Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Dermal absorption of Dow Corning F-218 Fluid in the Adult Male Rat, Primate, and Human. Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Dimethypolysiloxane fluid - C14 (Dow Corning® 360 medical fluid C14) distribution and disposition in rats following subcutaneous injection. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1972 Apr 7. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Evaluation of the dermal irritation potential of 13 personal care fluids. TSCA 8d submission 87-8215092, microfiche number OTS-0206762. Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1985. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Gel Silicone Mammary Implant Rupture Complaint History. Dallas, Tex.: Jim Curtis, 1996 Nov 9. RUPTURE.

Dow Corning Corporation. Implant Information Booklet: Silicone Breast, Chin and Testicular Implants. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1998 Sep. GENERAL.

Dow Corning Corporation. Inhalation Studies and Industrial Hygiene Survey for Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4). Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Mammary implant material formulations, MDF-077, and Q7-2423. Surgery Device Panel, U. S. Food and Drug Administation. Silicone Breast Implant Team Leaders' Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1968, pp. 42, 51. GENERAL.

Dow Corning Corporation. Medtox Project—Analysis of internal safety studies relevant to health care materials and products. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1987 Feb 23. TOXICOLOGY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Dow Corning Corporation. Metabolism of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in the Monkey. Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Platinum. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1995. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Dow Corning Corporation. Range Finding Eye Irritation Test on Hexamethyldisiloane (DC 200 Fluid). Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. Results of range finding toxicological tests on dimethyl cyclic tetramer. Washington, D.C.: OPPT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1985. TOXICOLOGY.

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Dow Corning Corporation. Two-Year Implant Studies with Silastic Materials in Dogs. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1970 Apr 14. TOXICOLOGY.

Dow Corning Corporation. U.S., and International Studies of Breast Implants and Rupture. 1997 Dec. RUPTURE.

Dowden, R. V. Definition of terms for describing loss of gel from breast implants [letter]. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1993 Jun, 160,1360. RUPTURE.

Dowden, R. V. Proper terminology for status of breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 May, 91, (6): 1174. RUPTURE/letter.

Dowden, R. V., and Anain, S. Leaking gel implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1993 Dec, 92, (7): 1411. RUPTURE/local complications/letter.

Dowden, R. V., Young, V. L., and Colon, G. A. Failed implant versus silicone bleed [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Dec, 98, (7): 1323. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/rupture/ letter.

Dugowson, C. E., Daling, J., Koepsell, T. D., Voigt, L., and Nelson, J. L. Silicone breast implants and risk for rheumatoid arthritis [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1992 Sep, 35, 9 (Supplement): 66. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Duvic, M. Sézary syndrome in association with silicone breast implant [letter-reply]. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 1995 Dec, 33, (6): 1060-1061. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/cancer/letter.

Eaborn, C. Reactions of silicon-carbon bonds. Organosilicon Compounds. London: Butterworths Scientific Publications, 1960, p. 122-505, Chapters 4-17. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Edelman, D. A., Grant, S., and van Os, W. A. A. Breast cancer and silicone breast implants. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 1994, 47, 295-296. CANCER/letter.

Edelman, D. A., Grant, S., and Van Os, W. A. A. Breast cancer and silicone breast implants. International Journal of Gyn Obstetrics. 1994 Dec, 47, (3): 295-296. CANCER/letter.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Edison, R. B. Capsular contracture: A new concept for an old problem [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1991 Jan, 87, (1): 198. POLYURETHANE/capsule-contracture/local complications/letter.

Edlavitch, S. Antipolymer antibodies, silicone breast implants, and fibromyalgia [letter]. The Lancet. 1997 Apr 19, 349, (9059): 1170. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/letter.

Edminston, Jr. C. E., and Sanger, J. R. Re: Fibroblast behavior in vitro is unaltered by products of staphylococci cultured from silicone implants [letter]. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1994 Jun, 32, (6): 650-653. INFECTION/local complications/letter.

Edmond, J., and Versaci, A. D. Late complication of closed capsulotomy of the breast. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1980 Sep. RUPTURE/closed capsulotomy/local complications/letter.

Edworthy, S. M., and Martin, L. Local connective tissue effects of saline and silicone breast implants: The Alberta experience. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 Sep, 38, (9 (Supplement)): S325. CAPSULE CONTRACTURE/local complications/immune effects/connective tissue disease/saline.

Edworthy, S. M., Martin, L., and Talavera, R. Symptoms reported by breast implant patients: rheumatic disease or not? Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Sep, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S118. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Egilman, D. S., and Stubbs, C. Evaluating the health risks of breast implants [letter-reply]. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1996 Oct 10, 335, (15): 1154-1155. GENERAL/ letter.

Ehrlich, G. E. Regarding silicone implants and rheumatic disorders [letter]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 May, 38, (5): 721-722. GENERAL/letter.

Eisenbaum, A. M. The safety of silicone for ophthalmic use [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Nov, 94, (6): 895. GENERAL/letter.

Eklund, G. W. Collapse of a breast implant after mammography [letter-reply]. AIR American Journal of Roentgentology. 1990 Jun, 154, 1345-1346. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/ local complications/rupture/mammography/letter.

Elbaz, J. S., and Ohana, J., Prostheses mammaires. Medicine et Sciences Internatinales, Paris. 1982. GENERAL.

Ellenberg, A. H. Steroids in breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Feb, 71, (2): 282-283. STEROIDS/local complications/letter.

Engel, A., and Lamm, S. H. Risk of sarcomas of the breast among women with breast augmentation [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Mar, 89, 571-572. CANCER/letter.

Englert, M., Morris, D., and March, L. Silicone? Silica? Scleroderma. A need to look further? [letter]. Australia New Zealand Journal of Medicine. 1996, 26, (6): 858. GENERAL/ connective tissue disease/silica/letter.

Environ Corporation. Evaluation of the safety of silicone gel-filled breast prostheses: issues related to human health. Arlington, VA: Environ Corporation, 1991 Jul 3. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS.

Epstein, W. A. Sclerodermalike esophageal disease in children of mothers with silicone breast implants [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Sep 14, 272, (10): 768. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding/letter.

Epstein, W. A. Silicone breast implants and breast feeding [letter]. J. Rheumatol. 1997, 24, (5): 1013. BREAST FEEDING/children's effects.

Epstein, W. A. Silicone breast implants and sclerodermalike esophageal disease in breast-fed infants [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1996 Jan 17, 275, (3): 184. CHILDREN'S EFFECTS/breast feeding/letter.

Erlank, J. D. Ultrasound for diagnosis of ruptured breast implant [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 May, 89, (5): 995. MAMMOGRAPHY/rupture/local complications/letter.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Ersek, R. A. Capsule thickness and breat firmness [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1992 Feb, 89, (2): 380. CAPSULE-CONTRACTURE/local complications/letter.

Ersek, R. A. Textured silicone breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Apr, 95, (4): 771-772. POLYURETHANE/letter.

Ersek, R. A. Total implant tracking system [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1990 Oct, 86, (4): 808-809. GENERAL/letter.

Eschbach, C. S., and Schulz, C. O. Chemical characterization of silicone gel-filled breast prosthesis materials, redacted. McGhan Medical Corporation, 1994 Jan 19. TOXICOLOGY.

European Committee on Quality Assurance and Medical Devices in Plastic Surgery. Consensus Declaration EQUAM—June 28, 1996 [position paper]. Regensburg: EQUAM, 1996 Jun. GENERAL.

European Committee on Quality Assurance and Medical Devices in Plastic Surgery. Consensus Declaration on Breast Implants-July 4, 1998. Regensburg: EQUAM, 1998 Jul. GENERAL.

Evans, G. R. D. Silicone tissue assays [letter-reply]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Apr, 95, (4): 770-771. SILICON MEASUREMENT/letter.

Everson, M. P. Silicone immunology [letter]. Science and Medicine. 1997 Jan-1997 Feb 28, 4, (1): 3. IMMUNE EFFECTS/letter.

Everson, M. P., and Blackburn Jr., W. D. Antipolymer antibodies, silicone breast implants and fibromyalgia [letter]. The Lancet. 1997 Apr 19, 349, (9059): 1171. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/letter.

Everson, M. P., Bradley, Jr. E. L., and Blackburn, Jr. W. D. Silicone gel and hypersensitivity [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Dec, 98, (7): 1324-1325. IMMUNE EFFECTS/letter.

Everson, M. P., Koopman, W. J., and Blackburn, Jr. W. D. Elevated expression of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatol. 1992, 35, (Supplement): S48. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Felix, K., Janz, S., Pitha, J., Williams, J. A., Mushinski, E. B., Bornkamm, G. W., and Potter, M. Cytotoxicity and membrane damage in vitro by inclusion complexes between gamma-cyclodextrin and siloxanes. Potter, M., and Rose, N., eds. Current Topics In Microbiology and Immunology: Immunology of Silicones. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 93-99. TOXICOLOGY.

Fenske, N. A., and Vasey, F. B. Silicone associated connective-tissue disease: The debate rages [editorial]. Archives of Dermatology. 1993 Jan, 129, (1): 97-98. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Ferdinandi, E. S., and Beattie, G. Method Development for the Determination of 14C-Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) Pharmacokinetics in the Rat Following Single Nose-Only Vapor Inhalation Exposure to 14C-D4. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1996a Jul 31. TOXICOLOGY.

Ferdinandi, E. S., and Beattie, G. Pharmacokinetics of 14C-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) in the Rat Following 14 Repeat Daily Nose-Only Vapor Inhalation Exposures to Unlabeled D4 and a Single Exposure (Day 15) to 14C-D4 at Two Dose Levels. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1997 Aug 25. TOXICOLOGY.

Ferdinandi, E. S., and Beattie, G. Pharmacokinetics of 14C-Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) in the Rat Following Single Nose-Only Vapor Inhalation Exposure to 14C-D4 at Three Dose Levels. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1996b Sep 27. TOXICOLOGY.

Field, T., and Bridges, A. J. Clinical and laboratory features of patients with scleroderma and silicone implants. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology: Immunology of Silicones. 1996, p. 419-425. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Findlay, J., and Krueger, J. F. Skin sensitization study of Dow Corning® 2-0707 Intermediate (platinum #4) using the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT). Chicago, Ill.: IIT Research Institute, 1996b Oct 30. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Findlay, J., and Krueger, J. F. Skin sensitization study of Dow Corning® 3-8015 Intermediate (platinum #2) using the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT). Chicago, Ill.: IIT Research Institute, 1996a Oct 30. PLATINUM/toxicology.

Finegold, I. Silicone gel breast implants [letter]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Jul 27, 272, (4): 271-272. GENERAL/letter.

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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Garrido, L., and Ackerman, J. L. Re: Do patients with silicone-gel breast implants have elevated levels of blood silicon compared with control patients? [letter]. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 1995 Oct, 35, (4): 441-442. SILICON MEASUREMENT/letter.

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Goldberg, E. P., Widenhouse, C., Marotta, J., and Martin, P. Failure of silicone gel breast implants: Analysis of literature data for 1652 explanted prostheses [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997 Jul, 100, (1): 281-284. RUPTURE/local complications/letter.

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Goldman, J. A., Lamm, S. H., Cooper, W., and Cooper, L. Breast implants are not associated with an excess of connective tissue disease (CTD). Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1992, 35 Suppl, S65 (Abstr.). CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

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Goldsmith, Silverman, and Solomon. Methodology for Estimating Sensitivity and Specificity for Systemic Silicone-Related Disorders (Ssrd) (Abstract T128). 1996 Annual Conference of ISEE, 1996, 1996 Jul. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

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Greene, W. B. Silicon in rat knee joints after subcutaneous injection of dimethylpolysiloxane gel breast implant material. 52nd annual meeting of the Microscopy Society of America and the 29th annual meeting of the Microbeam Analysis Society, 1994: pp 182-183. SILICON MEASUREMENT/local complications.

Greene, W. B., and Walsh, L. G. Silicone in remote tissues after breast augmentation mammoplasty. Bull. Southeast Electron Microscopy Society. 1992, 24, 27A. MIGRATION/ local complications.

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Guidoin, R., Rolland, C., King, M., Roy, P., and Therrien, M. Morphological analysis of 269 surgically excised mammary prostheses. In: Food and Drug Administration. Silicone in Medical Devices, 1991 Feb, Baltimore, Md. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991 Feb 1, c1991. RUPTURE/expander/local complications.

Guidoin, R., Rolland, C., Roy, P. E., Marois, M., and Blais, P. Foam Separation in Polyurethane-Covered Breast Prostheses. In: High Performance Biomaterials, Szycher, M. Ed. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Co. 1991a, pp. 191-206. POLYURETHANE.

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Hall, F. M. Breast augmentation and the risk of subsequent breast cancer [letter]. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1993 Mar 4, 329, (9): 661. CANCER/letter.

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Heaney, P. J., Prewitt, C. T., and Gibbs, G. V. Silica physical behavior, geochemistry and materials applications. in. Reviews in Mineralogy. Washington, D.C.: Mineralogical Society of America, 1994. SILICA.

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Hennekens, C. H. Lee I-Min, Cook, N. R., Hebert, P. R., Karlson, E. W., LaMotte, F., Manson, J. E., and Buring, J. E. Breast implants and connective-tissue disease [letter-reply]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1996 Jul 10, 276, (2): 103. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/letter.

Hepburn, C. Polyurethane elastomers. Applied Science. New York, 1982, p. Chapter 11. POLYURETHANE.

Herman, S. Infection surrounding Meme implants (letter). Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1985, 75, (6): 926. INFECTION/local complications/letter.

Herrinton, L. J. The epidemiology of monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance: A review. In: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology: Immunology of Silicones. 1996, p. 389-395. MYELOMA.

Hersemann, S. Health Outcomes in Women With Silicone Breast Implants: Analysis of The 1988 NHIS Data [abstract]. Presented at Sept. 1995 Meeting of American College of Epidemiology, 1995 Sep. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

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Herzog, P. Silicone granuloma detection by ultrasonography [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1989 Nov, 84, (5): 856-857. MAMMOGRAPHY/granulomas/local complications/letter.

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Hill, S. L., Landavere, M. G., and Rose, N. R. The adjuvant effect of silicone gel and silicone elastomer particles in rats. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 1996, 210, 123-137. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

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Hochberg, M. C. Silicone breast implants and rheumatic disease [editorial]. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1994, 33, (7): 601-602. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hochberg, M. C., and Perlmutter, D. L. The association of augmentation mammoplasty with connective tissue disease, including systematic sclerosis (scleroderma): A meta-analysis. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology: Immunology of Silicones. 1996, p. 411-417. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hochberg M.C., Perlmutter, D. L., White, B., Steen, V., Medsger, T. A., Weisman, M., and Wigley, F. M. The association of augmentation mammoplasty with systemic sclerosis: Results from a multi-centered case-control study [abstract]. Arthritis And Rheumatism. 1994, 37, (9 (Supplement)): S369. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Hochberg, M. C., Schein, O. D., Munoz, B., Anhalt, G., Provost, T. T., and West, S. The prevalence of dry eye, dry mouth, autoimmunity and primary Sjögren's syndrome in the general population [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996 Sep, 39, (9 (Supplement)): S66. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Hochberg, M. C., White, B., Medsger, T. A., Weisman, M., and Wigley, F. M. The association of augmentation mammoplasty with systemic sclerosis: preliminary results from a case-control study [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S71. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

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Hoffman, S. Breast augmentation with autologous tissue: An alternative to implants [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Aug, 96, (2): 385. GENERAL.

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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Holten, I. W. R. Intraductal migration of silicone [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1996 Oct, 98, (5): 903. MIGRATION/local complications/letter.

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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Jackson, L. W., and Dennis, G. J. Blood silicon determination in patients with silicone breast implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1997 (Supplement). SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Jackson, LW., Dennis, G. J., and Centeno, J. A. Analytical determination of blood silicon in patients with silicone breast implants. In: Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine. 5 ed. Paris, 1998, p. 33-38. SILICON MEASUREMENT.

Jacobs, J. C., and Fimundo, L. F. Silicone implants and autoimmune disease [letter]. The Lancet. 1994 Feb 5, 343, 354-355. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/letter.

Jacobs, J. C., Hensle, T. W., Imundo, L. F., and D'Agati, V. Do silicone testicular implants increase the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in children? Micro-vascular immune complexes may be demonstrated in the fibro-muscular tissue around silicone implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Sep, 37, (9 (Supplement)): S271. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease.

Jacobs, J. C., Imundo, L., and Chander, P. Do silicone implants increase the risk of systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE) in children? [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1994 Jun, 37, (6 (Supplement)): R42. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Jahr, J. Possible health hazards from different types of amorphous silicas. Health Effects of Synthetic Silica Particulates. ASTM Special Technical Publication ed. pp. 199-210. SILICA.

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Jobe, R. P. in. Symposium on Aesthetic Surgery of the Breast. St Louis, Mo.: C. V. Mosby, Co., 1978. GENERAL.

Jordan, M. E., and Blum, R. W. M. Should breast-feeding by women with silicone implants be recommended? Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 1996, 150, (8): 880-881. BREAST FEEDING/letter.

Kaminski, N. Scientific evaluation of Dow Corning studies designed to determine potential effects on host defense and immunogenicity of silicone fluid, gel and elastomer. 1995 Jan 5. TOXICOLOGY/immune effects.

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Karstedt, B. D., inventor. Platinum Complexes of Unsaturated Siloxanes and Platinum Containing Organopolysiloxanes. General Electric Company, assignee. US 3,775,452. 1973 Nov 27. PLATINUM.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Karstedt, B. D., inventor. Platinum Complexes of Unsaturated Siloxanes and Platinum Containing Organopolysiloxanes. General Electric Company, assignee. US 3,814,730. 1974 Jun 4. PLATINUM.

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Katzin, W. E., and Feng, L. J. Phenotype of lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory reaction to silicone-gel breast implants [abstract]. Mod Pathol. 1994, 7, 17A. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

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Kayler, L. K., and Goodman, P. H. Breast implants increase the risk of arthralgia: An epidemiological meta-analysis [abstract]. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 1995 Feb, 43, (1): 129a. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Keech, Jr. M. A. Anaplastic T-cell lymphoma in proximity to a saline-filled breast implant [letter]. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1997 Aug, 100, (2): 554-555. SALINE/ cancer.

Kemple, K. L., Black, F. O., and Pesznecker, S. C. Disturbances in Vestibular Function in Women With Silicone Breast Implants. Abstract from the Am. Coll. Rheum. Meeting: October 22-26, 1995, San Franciso. 1995 Oct 22-1995 Oct 26. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Kemple, K. L., and Pestronk, A. Antiglycolipid antibodies in symptomatic women with silicone breast implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 Sep, 38, (9 (Supplement)): S264. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

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Kerkvlliet, N. I. Review of animal studies relevant to silicone toxicology. In: Silicone breast implants in relation to connective tissue diseases and immunologic dysfunction. National Science Panel, 1998 Nov 17. TOXICOLOGY.

Kerr, L., and Speira, H. Graves disease following silicone breast implantation [letter-reply]. J. Rheumatol. 1994, 21, (11): 2169. GENERAL/letter.

Kessler, D. A., Merkatz, R. B., and Schapiro, R. A call for higher standards for breast implants [commentary]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1993 Dec 1, 270, (21): 2607-2608. GENERAL.

Kessler, D. A., Merkatz, R. B., and Schapiro, R. Silicone gel breast implants [letter-reply]. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1994 Jul 27, 272, (4): 273-274. GENERAL/letter.

Keystone, E., Peters, W., Snow, K., Rubin. L., and Smith, D. Frequency of autoantibody detection in patients with silicone-gel implants [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1993 Sep, 36, (9 (Supplement)): S71. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kim, D. C., and Buinewicz, B. R. Removal of silicone from breast implants [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Nov, 96, (6): 1486. GENERAL.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Kirk, J. F., Marotta, J. S., Widenhouse, C. W., and Goldberg, E. P. (University of Florida, Gainesville). A Novel Method for Characterizing Silicone Breast Implant ''Gel" Flow Properties. In: 23rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials, 1997 Apr 4, New Orleans, La. Society for Biomaterials, c1997. SILICONE CHARACTERIZATION.

Kirwan, L. Two cases of apparent silicone allergy [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1995 Jul, 96, (1): 236-237. LOCAL COMPLICATIONS/immune effects/letter.

Klykken, P. C. A Life-time Implant Study with Dow Corning® Q7-2159A in Rats. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1998 Jun 30. TOXICOLOGY.

Klykken, P. C., Duew, R., Galbraith, T., and Isquith, A. Absence of an immunological reaction to Dow Corning® Q7-2159A gel, 36321. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1991a Jun 6. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Klykken, P. C., Duwe, R. L., Galbraith, T. W., and Isquith, A. J. Absence of an Immunological Reaction to Dow Corning® Q7-2423 H.P. Elastomer [abstract] 36323. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1991b. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Klykken, P. C., Duwe, R. L., Galbraith, T. W., and Isquith, A. J. Absence of an Immunological Reaction to Dow Corning® Q7-2870 PDMS Fluid [abstract] 36322. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1991c. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Klykken, P. C., Duwe, R. L., Galbraith, T. W., and Isquith, A. J. Host Resistance to Listeria Monocytogenes: Absence of an Immunomodulatory Effect by Q7-2159A Silicone Gel [abstract]. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1991d. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ toxicology.

Klykken, P. C., Duwe, R. L., Galbraith, T. W., and Isquith, A. J. Host Resistance to Listeria Monocytogenes: Absence of an Immunomodulatory Effect by Q7-2423 H.P. Elastomer [abstract]. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1991e. IMMUNE EFFECTS/ toxicology.

Klykken, P. C., Galbraith, T. W., and Kolesar, G. B. A Subchronic Toxicology Evaluation and Splenic Antibody Forming Cell Response to Sheep Erythrocytes following a 28-day Whole Body Inhalation Exposure with Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) in Rats. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1997 Sep 30. TOXICOLOGY.

Klykken, P. C., Galbraith, T. W., and Woolhiser, M. R. A Humoral Adjuvancy Study of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Mammary Gel Bleed and the Following Dow Corning® Mammary Implant Components after Intramuscular Injection in the Rat: Q7-2159A Gel, 7-2317 Int Fluid (1000 CS), SFD-119 fluid, Q1-0043 Int, 4-2776 Fluid, and 3-8015 Int (Platinum II). Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1994 Mar 29. IMMUNE EFFECTS/platinum/toxicology.

Klykken, P. C., Galbraith, T. W., Woolhiser, M. R., and et al. A Humoral Adjuvancy Study of Dow Corning® Silicone Fluids Alone (360 fluid, 20 CS, 7-2317, 1000 CS) and Dow Corning® 360 fluid, 20 CS, Mixed with Dow Corning® Mammary Gel (Q7-2159A) or McGhan Mammary Gel in the Rat. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning, 1993. IMMUNE EFFECTS/toxicology.

Klykken, P. C., Levier, R. R., and Mast, R. W. Immunological investigations of silicone gel in mice and rats [abstract]. Toxicolgist. 1994 Mar, 14, 20. TOXICOLOGY/immune effects.

Klykken, P. C., and White, K. The adjuvancy of silicones: Dependency on compartmentalization. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology: Immunology of Silicones. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, 1996, pp. 113-121. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Klykken, P. C., Woolhyiser, N., Nelson, S., Goodman, D., and Mast, R. A lifetime implant study of silicone mammary gel in female Sprague Dawley rats (Dow Corning, annual meeting) [abstract]. Society of Toxicology. 1995 Mar: Abstract # 1066. TOXICOLOGY.

Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Koeger, A-C and Nguyen, J-M. Epidemiology of scleroderma among women: Assessment of risk from exposure to silicone and silica [letter]. The Journal of Rheumatology. 1997, 24, (9): 1853. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/silica/letter.

Koeger, A. C., Rozenberg, S., Chaibi, P., Gutmann, L., and Bourgeois, P. Connective tissue disease associated with silicone alveolitis due to silicone spray. A prospective series [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995 Sep, 38, (9 (Supplement)): S342. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Koeger, C., Alcaix, D., Rozenberg, S., Arnaud, J., Camns, J.-P., and Bourgeois, P. Silica-induced connective tissue diseases do still occur [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1992, 35 (Supplement), S67. SILICA/connective tissue disease.

Kolesar, G. B. 1 Month repeated dose inhalation study with decamethylchclopentasiloxane in rats. 1995c: Dow Corning Corp, Midland, Mich., 1995c. TOXICOLOGY.

Kolesar, G. B. 1-Month repeated dose inhalation toxicity study with octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in rats. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, Health and Environmental Sciences, 1995a Mar 14. TOXICOLOGY.

Kolesar, G. B. 3 month repeated dose inhalation study with decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in rats. Dow Corning Corp., Midland, Mich., 1995d. TOXICOLOGY.

Kolesar, G. B. 3-Month repeated dose inhalation toxicity study with octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in rats with 1-month recovery period. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, Health and Environmental Sciences, 1995b Mar 6. TOXICOLOGY.

Kolesar, G. B. An acute whole body vapor inhalation toxicity study with hexamethyldisiloxane in albino rats. Midland, Mich.: Dow Corning Corporation, Health and Environmental Sciences, 1997 Jan 17. TOXICOLOGY.

Koons, C. R. Breast implants and autoimmunity [letter]. Western Journal of Medicine. 1994 Jul, 161, (1): 91. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/letter.

Korn, J. H. Antipolymer antibodies, silicone breast implants and fibromyalgia [letter]. The Lancet. 1997 Apr 19, 349, (9059): 1171. IMMUNE EFFECTS/connective tissue disease/ letter.

Kossovsky, N. Death of the "non-specific foreign body reaction" [editorial]. Trends in Polymer Science. 1, (7): 190-191. GENERAL.

Kossovsky, N. Pathophysiological basis of silicone bioreactivity. in: Stratmeyer, M. E., Project Officer. Silicone in Medical Devices, 1991 Feb, Baltimore, Md. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991 Dec. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., Conway, D., Kossovsky, R., and Petrovich, D. Novel anti-silicone surface-associated antigen antibodies (anti-SSA(x)) may help differentiate symptomatic patients with silicone breast implants from patients with classical rheumatological disease. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 1996, 210, 327-336. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., Gelman, A., Hnatyszyn, H. J., Rajguru, S., Mena, E. A., Crowder, J., Torres, M., and Zemanovich, G. Adjuvant effect of silicone on the formation of anti-insulin and anti-fibronectin antibodies [abstract]. Arthrtis and Rheumatism. 1994 Sep, 37, (9 (Supplement)): S271. IMMUNE EFFECTS.

Kossovsky, N., Heggers, J.P., Parsons, R. W., and Robson, M. C. Analysis of the surface morphology of recovered silicone mammary prostheses [discussion]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1983 Jun, 71, (6): 803-804. INFECTION/capsule contracture.

Kossovsky, N., Heggers, J. P., and Robson, M. C. The bioreactivity of silicone. Williams, D. F., ed. CRC Critical Reviews in Biocompatibility. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1987, p. 53-85. GENERAL/immune effects.

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Suggested Citation:"Reference Lists." Institute of Medicine. 1999. Safety of Silicone Breast Implants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9602.
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Krech, J. A. Jr. Anaplastic T-cell lymphoma in proximity to a saline-filled breast implant [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1997, 100, 554-555. CANCER.

Kruggell, J. L. MRI for diagnosis of breast implant rupture [letter]. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 1994 Oct, 94, (5): 741-742. MAMMOGRAPHY/local complications/rupture/letter.

Kulig, K., Brent, J., and Phillips, S. Chest pain and breast implants [letter]. Southern Medical Journal. 1996 Jan, 89, (1): 98-99. PAIN/local complications/letter.

Kurland L.T. Lack of association of multiple sclerosis and silicone breast implants, World Federation of Neurology. World Federation of Neurology Meeting, 1995 May, University of Washington. 1995. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE.

Kurland, L. T., and Homburger, H. A. Epidemiology of autoimmune and immunological diseases in association with silicone implants: is there an excess of clinical disease or antibody response in population-based or other controlled studies? Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 1996, 210, 427430. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Kvistad, K. A., Smenes, E., Thuomas, K. A., Gribbestad, I. S., and Samdal, F. Magnetic tomography in diagnosis of breast implant rupture [abstract]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1997 Sep 20, 117, (22): 3226-3228. MAMMOGRAPHY.

Kyle, R. A. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. Current Topics in Microbiol Immunology. 1996, 210, 375-383. MYELOMA.

Lacey, J. V. Jr. The epidemiology of undifferentiated connective tissue disease in women: assessment of risks of reproductive history and exogenous estrogens, medical devices, and environmental chemicals. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 1998, c1998. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE.

Lacey, Jr. J. V., Laing, T. J., Gillespie, B. W., and Schottenfeld, D. Epidemiology of scleroderma among women: Assessment of risk from exposure to silicone and silica [letter-reply]. The Journal of Rheumatology. 1997, 24, (9): 1854-1855. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/letter.

Laing, T. J., Gillespie, B. W., and Lacey, Jr. J. V. et al. The association between silicone exposure and undifferentiated connective tissue disease and women in Michigan and Ohio (abstract). Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1996, 39, S150. CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE/immune effects.

Laing, T., Gillespie, B., Burns, C., Garabrant, D., Heeringa, S., Alcser, K., and Schottenfeld, D. Risk factors for scleroderma among Michigan women [abstract]. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 1995, 38, (9 (Supplement)): S341. AI-CTD BACKGROUND.

Lake, R. S., and Radonovich, M. F. Action of Polydimethylsiloxanes on the Reticuloendothelial System of Mic