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Suggested Citation:"References." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 1999. Improving Surface Transportation Security: A Research and Development Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9689.
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References

Aymeric, M. 1999. Personal communication from M. Aymeric, Department of Transport (France), to D. Morgan, June 8, 1999.


Brewin, B. 1998. Rogue transmitter knocks out GPS signals. Federal Computer Week 12(10): 1.


CIAO (Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office). 1998. Preliminary Research and Development Roadmap for Protecting and Assuring Critical National Infrastructures. Washington, D.C.: Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office.


Davis, J. 1998. Presentation to the Committee on R&D Strategies to Improve Surface Transportation Security, Washington, D.C., November 4, 1998.

DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation). 1998a. Surface Transportation Vulnerability Assessment (classified document). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.

DOT. 1998b. Worldwide Terrorism and Violent Criminal Attacks Against Transportation—1996. Background paper prepared for this study. Washington, D.C. : Office of Intelligence and Security, U.S. Department of Transportation.

DOT. 1999a. DOT Budget in Brief—FY 2000. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.

DOT. 1999b. FY 2000 President's Budget, Budget Authority Table for Research, Development and Technology, January 28, 1999. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.


GAO (General Accounting Office). 1997. Combating Terrorism: Spending on Governmentwide Programs Requires Better Management and Coordination. GAO/NSIAD-98-39. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.

GAO. 1998. Combating Terrorism. GAO/NSIAD-98-74. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.

Giuliano, G., and J. Golob. 1998. Impacts of the Northridge earthquake on transit and highway use. Journal of Transportation and Statistics 1(2): 1–20.

Gordon, P., H.W. Richardson, and B. Davis. 1998. Transport related impacts of the Northridge earthquake. Journal of Transportation and Statistics 1(2): 21–36.


Henderson, D.A. 1999. The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science 283: 1279–1282.

Suggested Citation:"References." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 1999. Improving Surface Transportation Security: A Research and Development Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9689.
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IOM and NRC (Institute of Medicine and National Research Council). 1999. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Keeney, R.L., and H. Raiffa. 1976. Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Trade-Offs. New York: John Wiley and Sons.


Mineta Institute (Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies). 1997. Protecting Surface Transportation Systems and Patrons from Terrorist Activities: Case Studies of Best Security Practices and a Chronology of Attacks. San Jose, Calif.: San Jose State University.


Neifert, A. 1996. Case study: sarin poisoning of subway passengers in Tokyo, Japan, in March, 1995. Medical NBC Information Server of the U.S. Army Medical Department (posted August 2, 1996). http://www.nbcmed.org/csjapan.html.

NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Trust in Cyberspace. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999. Final Report of the Committee on Commercial Aviation Security. National Materials Advisory Board. In progress.


Ohbu, S., A. Yamashina, N. Takasu, T. Yamaguchi, T. Murai, K. Nakano, Y. Matsui, R. Mikami, K. Sakurai, and S. Hinohara. 1997. Sarin poisoning on Tokyo subway. Southern Medical Journal 90(6): 587–593.


PCCIP (Presidential Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection). 1997. Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructures. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Available on the Internet at www.pccip.gov/report_index.html.


Swansiger, W.A. 1997. Defending Subways Against Chem-Bio Terrorism. SAND 98–8210. Livermore, Calif.: Sandia National Laboratories.


Thompson, K. 1984. Reflections on trusting trust (half of the 1983 Turing Award lecture). Communications of the ACM 27: 761–764.


U.S. Air Force. 1998. Internet home page of the GAS-1 GPS antenna system. http://gps.laafb.af.mil/user/products/gas-1/ (update of October 30, 1998).

U.S. Department of State. 1997. Patterns of Global Terrorism 1996. 10433. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State.


Weinstein, B.L., and T.L. Clower. 1998. The impacts of the Union Pacific service disruptions on the Texas and national economies: an unfinished story. Report to the Railroad Commission of Texas, February 9, 1998. http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/divisions/rail/UPFINAL3.html.

Suggested Citation:"References." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 1999. Improving Surface Transportation Security: A Research and Development Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9689.
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Suggested Citation:"References." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 1999. Improving Surface Transportation Security: A Research and Development Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9689.
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Page 64
Suggested Citation:"References." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 1999. Improving Surface Transportation Security: A Research and Development Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9689.
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Page 65
Suggested Citation:"References." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 1999. Improving Surface Transportation Security: A Research and Development Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9689.
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Page 66
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The surface transportation system is vital to our nation's economy, defense, and quality of life. Because threats against the system have hitherto been perceived as minor, little attention has been paid to its security. But the world is changing, as highlighted by dramatic incidents such as the terrorist chemical attack on the Tokyo subway in 1995. As a consequence, security concerns are now attracting more attention--appropriately so, for the threat is real, and responding to it is hard. Although the surface transportation system is remarkably resilient, it is also open and decentralized, making a security response challenging. Research and development can contribute to that response in important ways.

Some important themes emerge from analysis of this strategy. First, a dual-use approach, in which security objectives are furthered at the same time as other transportation goals, can encourage the implementation of security technologies and processes. Second, modeling could be used more to develop a better understanding of the scope of the security problem. Third, DOT can play an important role in developing and disseminating information about best practices that use existing technologies and processes, including low-technology alternatives. Finally, security should be considered as part of a broader picture, not a wholly new and different problem but one that is similar and closely connected to the transportation community's previous experience in responding to accidents, natural disasters, and hazardous materials.

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