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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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Index

A

Acid pollution, 49, 86, 140, 155, 157, 189, 207, 217

Europe, 86, 140, 155, 157

Advanced Research Projects Agency, 300

Aerosols, 84, 86, 210, 217, 248

Aesthetics, 14, 23, 97, 99, 242, 314, 317

Africa, 66

agricultural production, 12-13, 308, 309

desertification, 44

hunger, 33, 45, 47

population, 63

unemployment, 37

urban housing, 35

Agenda 21, see International Conference on an Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st Century

Agricultural sector, 7, 11, 12-13, 74, 93-95, 96, 191, 196-199, 206-207, 209, 212, 222-223, 307-309, 317

Africa, 12-13, 308, 309

alien species, 77

biotechnology, 13, 94-95, 197, 199, 280, 308, 309

animals, 257-258

consumption data, 70

deforestation, 5, 77, 95-96, 99-100, 101, 215, 313

degradation syndrome, 287

developing countries, 12-13, 308, 309

desertification, 44, 66, 94, 191, 287

diseases linked to irrigation, 99

ecosystem protection, 221, 308-309

employment, 37-38

historical perspectives, 93-94

integrated assessment models, 143

irrigation, 91, 94, 99, 157, 197, 198, 199, 212, 221, 284, 316

market forces, 94, 197

nongovernmental organizations, 12-13, 309

pesticides, 94, 100, 221, 284

pollination, 221

private sector, 308

regional information systems, 156-157

technological factors, general, 13, 74, 94-95, 197, 199, 308;

see also "biotechnology," "irrigation," and ''pesticides" supra

urbanization, 94, 309

see also Food and nutrition; Rural areas

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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Air pollution, 7, 13, 14, 31, 45, 83-87, 188-189, 190, 194, 203, 204, 209, 210-211, 215, 216-219, 237, 250-251, 310

acid pollution, 49, 86, 140, 155, 157, 189, 207, 217

aerosols, 84, 86, 210, 217, 248

carbon dioxide, 84, 166, 204, 207, 209, 210, 217, 219, 220, 248, 250-251

carbon monoxide, 86

chlorofluorocarbons, 41-42, 45, 83-84, 187, 264

developing countries, 87, 166-167

indoor air pollution, 188, 189, 190

integrated assessment models, 139, 140, 218-219

methane, 84, 204, 219

nitrogen oxides, 41, 46, 204, 205, 209, 217

ozone-layer depletion, 4, 7, 10, 16, 41-42, 44, 46, 48, 83-84, 138, 143, 187, 188-189, 190, 237, 248, 264, 281;

see also "Chlorofluorocarbons" supra

place-based research, 286

regional, 4, 5, 44, 86-87, 139, 140, 218-219, 248-249, 279, 288, 316-317

scenarios, 154

sulfates, 41, 46, 80, 86, 204, 205, 217, 248-249

transboundary, 41, 140

urban areas, 78, 86-87, 195, 217, 316-317

volatile organic compounds, 41, 46, 217

see also Climate; Greenhouse gases

Alien species, 77, 96-97, 215, 250-251, 316

ASCEND 21, see International Conference on an Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st Century

Asia, 66, 309

air pollution, 87

economic integration, 75

South and Southeast Asia, 33, 45

urban housing, 35

Assessment methodologies

Driving Force-State-Response framework, 242

experts, use of, 136, 137-138, 156-157, 186

integrated assessment models, 5, 49, 139-149, 159, 218-219

interdisciplinary approaches, 10, 11, 17, 18, 135, 136-137, 148, 208, 280, 281-282, 283-285, 289, 296, 298, 301-302, 306, 318

place-based initiatives, 10, 222-223, 279, 285-288, 298, 299, 302

Pressure-State-Response framework, 235-239, 254-255, 260, 261-262

scenarios, 5, 49, 136, 137, 139, 147-154, 156, 158, 161-176, 295

sensitivity analyses, 146, 153

strategic gaming, 138-139

sustainability science, 10-11, 51, 279-288, 318-320

see also Indicators; Uncertainty

B

Bangladesh, 34

Barbarization, 150, 161

Biodiversity, 4, 13-14, 23, 24, 31, 43, 44, 47, 80, 95, 96-97, 101, 191, 208, 212, 220, 256-258, 281, 286, 312-316

alien species, 77, 96-97, 215, 250-251, 316

see also Endangered species

Biogeochemical cycles, 9, 60, 80, 188, 210, 220, 282

see also Pollution

Biotechnology, 13, 94-95,197,199, 280, 308, 309

animals, 257-258

Birds, 4, 43, 47, 97

Birth control, see Contraceptives and contraception; Family planning

Birth rates, 5, 12, 60, 61, 101, 303-305

see also Family planning

Brundtland Commission, 2, 21, 22, 26, 27, 136, 188, 189, 243, 275

air pollution, 203

food and nutrition, 197, 308

funds and financing, 28

ecosystems, 312

materials production and consumption, 200, 206

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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population growth, 192, 195, 197, 303

sectoral goals, general, 7, 11, 186, 192, 223, 302, 316

sustainable development defined, 23, 25

urban areas, 195, 305

water supply, 212

C

Carbon dioxide, 84, 166, 204, 207, 209, 210, 217, 219, 220, 248, 250-251

Carbon monoxide, 86

Carbon tetrachloride, 42

Caring for the Earth, 281

Carnegie Commission, 299

Carrying capacities, 11, 27, 289-290

CGIAR, see Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

Children, 24, 34-35, 38-40, 245

birth rates, 5, 12, 60, 61, 101, 303-305

death rates, 34, 64, 245

family planning, 12, 192, 193, 303-305

UNICEF, 38, 245, 246-247

China, 33, 47, 204

Chlorofluorocarbons, 41-42, 45, 83-84, 187, 264

Circulatory systems, see Planetary circulatory systems

CITES, see Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Cities, see Urban areas

Climate, 14, 210-211

El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 77, 88, 93

global change, general, 7, 42, 45, 49, 84-85, 101, 141, 145, 186, 189, 209, 210, 214, 220, 222-223, 237, 279, 281

Framework Convention on Climate Change, 41, 46, 290

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 26, 136, 147, 209, 288, 295-296

World Climate Research Program, 282, 285, 300

see also Greenhouse gases

integrated assessment models, 139, 140, 141, 145, 146, 147

place-based research, 286

scenarios, 153, 162, 164, 165-176

Club of Rome, 139

Coastal zones, 88, 90, 98

Commission on Sustainable Development, see United Nations

Communications, see Telecommunications

Compass and Gyroscope, 30

Computer technology, 74, 75, 235, 249, 311

databases, intellectual property rights, 293-294

Internet, 76, 277

Conference on the Human Environment, 22

Conference on the Transition to Sustainability, 17, 289

Conservation, 8, 99, 256-257, 312-316

ecosystem restoration, 13, 255-258, 261-262, 312-316

fisheries, 89, 90, 207, 313

local inventories, 9

see also Biodiversity; Fish and fisheries; Forests and forestry; Wildlife

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 299-300

Consumption and consumption patterns, 5, 9, 11, 25, 30-31, 59, 69-71, 80-81, 83, 199-200, 202, 249, 291-292, 303, 309-312

energy resources, 30, 31, 69-71, 174-175, 200, 263-264, 292, 303

materials, general, 30, 31, 69, 70-71, 80-81, 199-201, 262, 303

scenarios, 152

technology and, 69-70, 72

water, 90-91, 92, 212-214;

see also Drinking water; Irrigation

Contraception and contraceptives, 12, 193, 304-305

see also Family planning

Conventional Worlds, 150, 151, 152, 161

Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft, 43

Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, 43

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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Convention on Biological Diversity, 44

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, 43, 46

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 44

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 41, 140

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory species of Wild Animals, 43

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 43

Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, 41

Convention on the Protection of birds, 43

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Water-fowl Habitat, 44

Coral reefs, 89, 97-98

Critical loads, 11, 41, 249, 252-254, 289-290

Cultural factors, 24, 98

aesthetics, 14, 23, 97, 99, 242, 314, 317

endangered species, 23, 25

ethical and moral considerations, 14, 23, 32, 97

globalization, 76, 78

integrated assessment models, 143

regional information systems, 157

scenarios, 152

see also Political factors; Social factors

Current Forces and Trends, 161-164, 165-166, 167-176

D

Death rates, 5, 60, 61, 101, 192

children/infants, 34, 64, 245

Decarbonization, 13, 137, 262, 291, 310

Degradation syndrome, 287

Demographic factors, 17, 81, 101

elderly persons, 303

integrated assessment models, 143

local inventories of landscapes and ecosystems, 9

scenarios, 162

see also Birth rates; Children; Death rates; Gender factors; Population growth; Rural areas; Urban areas

Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 318

Department of Defense, ARPA, 300

Desertification, 44, 66, 94, 191, 287

Developing countries, 1, 15, 18, 22, 30

African agricultural sector, 12-13, 308, 309

agriculture, other, 94

air pollution, 87, 166-167

children, 34-35

disasters, 33, 40, 94, 189

economic inequality within, 69

employment, 37, 76

energy production, 204

GDP, 67

globalization, 27, 76

Human Development Index, 64

private sector investment, 28, 195

urban areas, 35, 36, 39, 83, 195-196

water supply, 92;

see also Drinking water

Disasters, 4, 38, 100, 150, 188, 189, 191, 287

famine, 33, 40, 94

see also Surprises, environmental

Diseases and disorders, 5, 40, 60, 65-66, 101, 189, 191, 193-194, 200

children, 34, 40

emergence and reemergence, 5, 66, 99-100, 101, 187, 250-251

fertility and, 304

indoor air pollution, 188, 189, 190

plant and animal, 82

water-related, 93, 99

see also Death rates

DIVERSITAS program, 281

Drinking water, 5, 12, 31, 35, 36, 39, 40-41, 64, 83, 90-93, 188, 190, 195, 196, 245

see also Sanitation

Driving Force-State-Response framework, 242

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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E

Earth Summit, see "Conference on Environment and Development" under United Nations

Earth Transformed, 80

Eco-communalism, 152

Ecological Principles for Economic Development, 280-281

Economic factors, 8, 25, 31, 43, 240-241, 263

European integration, 75, 235, 299

fertility, 303, 304

GDP, 64, 67, 69, 70, 170-171, 234, 260

GNP, 75

global connectedness, 4-5, 11, 30, 59, 75-79, 101, 153, 186, 283, 291

indicators, general, 237, 260;

see also specific indicators

input-output analyses, 13, 71, 206, 311

integrated assessment models, 139, 142, 143, 144, 146-147

market forces, 11, 60, 76, 94, 197, 202, 205, 307

national capital accounts, 9, 237, 242, 259, 261, 313

per capita income, 64

R&D investment, 16, 28, 300-301, 315

regional information systems, 157

scenarios, 148, 150-152, 162, 163-165

taxation, 203

urban areas, 195, 306-307

wealth disparities, 5, 69, 71, 78, 101, 163, 165, 168, 195

see also Consumption and consumption patterns; Developing countries; Employment; Funding; Poverty

Ecosystems, 5, 44, 83, 97-99, 101, 206-208, 220-221, 250-251, 256-258, 286

agricultural, protection of, 221, 308-309

carrying capacities, 11, 27, 289-290

coastal, 88, 90, 98

coral reefs, 89, 97-98

critical loads, 11, 41, 249, 252-254, 289-290

degradation syndrome, 287

desertification, 44, 66, 94, 191, 287

ecosystem services, 13-14, 23, 67, 97-98, 101, 255, 306, 313

environmental hazards, 188

fisheries, 89, 90

freshwater, 41-42, 46, 97-98, 211, 214

global targets, 4

human domination, 80-81, 101, 313-314

integrated assessment models, 143

local inventories, 9

regional, 6, 9, 158, 287, 290

restoration, 13, 255-258, 261-262, 312-316

wetlands, 41-42, 44, 46, 97-98, 215

see also Biodiversity

Education, 7, 12, 25, 29, 31, 36-37, 48, 192, 237

family planning, 305

gender disparities, 36, 39

employment and, 74

international targets, 4, 38, 39

learning disabilities, 34

lifelong learning, 66

literacy, 36-37, 39, 64

mass media, 27, 28, 33

school enrollment ratios, 64

see also Social learning

Elderly persons, 303

El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 77, 88, 93

EMEP, see Geneva Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe

Employment, 4, 37-38, 39, 66, 75, 192, 201-202

Africa, 37

developing countries, 37, 76

fertility and, 305

globalization and, 75-76

hours of work, 74, 75

minimum wage, 37

Endangered species, 4, 5, 23, 43-44, 97, 99, 256

cultural factors, 23, 25

extinction, 96, 101

Endangered Species Act, 256

Energy resources, 7-8, 11, 13, 26, 31, 75, 80, 203-206, 212, 302, 309-312

automobiles, energy-efficient, 310

consumption patterns, 30, 31, 69-71, 174-175, 200, 263-264, 292, 303

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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globalization, 76, 77

historical perspectives, 70, 264

household efficiency, 13

incentives, 201, 311-312

place-based research, 286

private sector, 311-312

recycling and reuse of materials, 201

regional information systems, 157, 158

scenarios, 174-175

taxation, 203

technological factors, 13, 72, 203-207, 310-312

water supply and, 93

ENSO, see El Niño-Southern Oscillation

Environmental hazards, 185-192, 263, 282, 287

see also Surprises, environmental

Environmental Protection Agency, 188-189

Equity, 2, 25, 166, 172

education, gender disparities, 36, 39

wealth disparities, 5, 69, 71, 78, 101, 163, 165, 168, 195

Ethical and moral considerations, 14, 23, 32, 97

Europe, 250-251, 293, 296, 299

acid pollution, 86, 140, 155, 157

birth/death rates, 61

critical loads, 290

economic integration, 75, 235, 299

homelessness, 35

hunger, 47

unemployment, 37

urbanization, 62-63, 195

Exotic species, see Alien species

Expertise, 136, 137-138, 156-157, 186

F

Family planning, 12, 192, 193, 303-305

see also Contraceptives and contraception

Famine, 33, 40, 94

FAO, see UN Food and Agricultural Organization

Federal government, 239, 240-241, 242, 299, 300, 302

defense technology, 72, 300

endangered species legislation, 256

Environmental Protection Agency, 188-189

fisheries protection legislation, 89

Forest Service, 318

Fertility, see Birth rates

Fish and fisheries, 4, 5, 46, 87, 88-90, 101, 191, 207, 313

marine mammals, 4, 43, 46, 97, 316

Food and nutrition, 4, 32-33, 39, 92, 190, 196-199, 307-309

children, 29, 34-35, 245

famine, 33, 40, 94

hunger, 4, 13, 31, 32-33, 40, 45, 47, 48, 94, 101, 161-176, 196-197, 246-247, 306, 307-308

indicators, 245, 246-247

production, general, 7, 70; see also Agricultural sector

toxins, 200

transportation, 77

Forests and forestry, 60, 80, 95, 98, 101, 191, 207, 318

tropical deforestation, 5, 77, 95-96, 99-100, 101, 215, 313

Framework Convention on Climate Change, 41, 46, 290

Funding, 16, 28, 300-301, 315

G

Gaming techniques, see Strategic gaming techniques

GDP, see Gross Domestic Product

Gender factors, 36, 39, 64-65, 74, 305

Genetic engineering, see Biotechnology

Geneva Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe, 250-251

German Advisory Council on Global Change, 137, 287, 288

German Enquette Commissions, 136

Global Environmental Outlook 2000, 27

Global Environment Facility, 28, 315

Global Scenario Group, 150-153, 159, 161-176

Great Transition, 150, 152, 161

Greenhouse gases, 4, 5, 7, 13, 44, 46, 84-85, 101, 138, 203-204, 209, 210, 211, 217-219, 248

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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decarbonization, 13, 137, 262, 291, 310

integrated assessment models, 141, 146-147

scenarios, 153, 162, 164, 165-176

temporal factors, 43, 84

see also Carbon dioxide; Carbon monoxide; Methane

Gross Domestic Product, 64, 67, 69, 70, 170-171, 234, 260

Gross National Product, 75

H

Harvard Water Program, 156

Hazards, see Environmental hazards

HFCs, see Hydro fluorocarbons

Health issues, 7, 24, 192, 193-194, 200, 208, 237

children, 34-35, 40, 64, 245

indoor air pollution, 188, 189, 190

life expectancy, 64, 65-66

quality of life, 24, 25, 74

sanitation, 35, 36, 39, 83, 195-196, 245

see also Birth rates; Death rates; Diseases and disorders; Drinking water; Food and nutrition

Historical perspectives, 15-16, 18-19, 59-101, 196, 237

agricultural land use, 93-94

air pollution, 205

carrying capacities, 289-290

demographic transition, 61-67, 101

energy consumption, 70, 264

environmental surprises, 263-264

GDP, 67-68, 69

integrated assessment models, 139-140, 144-145

regional information systems, 155-157

scenarios, 149

sustainability science, 279, 280-283, 319

sustainable development, concept, 2, 21, 22-23, 26-29, 275, 280-282

technological development, 71-73, 282-283

water consumption, 90-91

well-being trends (HDI), 64

Homeless persons, 35-36, 66

Hours of work, 74, 75

Households, 83

energy efficiency, 13

GDP accounting for value of family work in, 67

hunger, 45

Housing, 31, 35-36, 39, 48, 66, 237

homeless persons, 35-36, 66

indicators, 245

international targets, 4

urban areas, 12, 35

Human Development Index, 64

Hunger and Carbon Reduction, 161, 165-176

Hydro fluorocarbons, 209, 210

I

Incentives, 3, 11

energy and materials use, 201, 311-312

technological development, 11, 292-293

India, 34, 189, 305

Indicators, general, 3, 5-6, 8-10, 11, 19, 50, 82, 233-265, 294-295, 315

defined, 233-234, 249

Driving Force-State-Response framework, 242

food and nutrition, 245, 246-247

life support systems, 234, 240

Pressure-State-Response model, 235-239, 254-255, 260, 261-262

regional factors, 9, 237, 243, 248-254

social learning, 264-265

see also specific indicators (e.g., Birth rates; Gross Domestic Product)

Industrial sector, see Materials issues

Infant mortality, 64

Information technology, see Computer technology

Input-output analyses, 13, 71, 206, 311

Institutional factors, general, 3-4, 24, 133, 139, 240, 311

agricultural sector, 309

categorization of perturbations, 8

fisheries, 90

globalization, 31, 79

industrial organization, 73

interdisciplinary approaches, 10, 11, 17, 18, 135, 136-137, 148, 208, 280, 281-282, 283-285, 289, 296, 298, 301-302, 306, 318

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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national capital accounts, 242, 259, 261

regional information systems, 154, 155

research initiatives, 288, 293-294, 298, 299-300

urban areas, 306, 307

Integrated assessment models, 5, 49, 139-147, 159

air pollution, general, 139, 140, 218-219

climate change, 139, 140, 141, 145, 146-147

described, 6, 139, 143

economic factors, 139, 142, 143, 144, 146-147

greenhouse gases, 141, 146-147

international agreements and conferences, general, 6, 146, 159

list of models and modellers, 141-142

local factors, 145, 146

regional factors, 139-143 (passim), 145, 146, 154

scenarios vs, 148-149

social factors, 6, 140, 144-145

summary characterizations of specific models, 143

uncertainty, 141, 143, 144

Intellectual property, 293-294

see also Technology transfer

InterAcademy Panel on International Issues, 17, 289

Interdisciplinary approaches, 10, 11, 135, 136-137, 208, 280, 281-282, 283-285, 289, 296, 298, 301-302, 306, 318

report at hand, 17, 18

scenarios, 148

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 26, 136, 147, 209, 288, 295-296

International agreements and conferences, general, 2, 3, 4, 9, 26, 28, 31, 256, 281, 288-289

integrated assessment models, 6, 146, 159

see also Nongovernmental organizations; specific agreements, conferences, and organizations

International Conference on an Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st Century, 26-29 (passim), 288

freshwater, 41, 46

International Conference on Nutrition, 40

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, 43

International Council for Science, 29, 282, 288, 289

International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 36

International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, 208, 282, 285, 287, 288, 300

International Human Dimensions Program, 208, 282, 285, 288, 300

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 139

International Monetary Fund, 250-251

International Organization for Standardization, 311

Internet, 76, 277

Invasive species, see Alien species

Irrigation, 91, 94, 99, 157, 197, 198, 199, 212, 284, 316

K

Kyoto Protocol, 41, 42, 46, 164

L

Landscapes, 13, 50, 91, 99, 206, 216, 221, 244, 254, 282, 287, 302, 314, 317

aesthetics, 14, 23, 97, 99, 242, 314, 317

Latin America, 66, 309

air pollution, 87

hunger, 47

urban housing, 35

Life expectancy, 64, 65-66

Life support systems, 3, 7, 8, 9, 13, 18, 23, 24, 31-32, 40-45, 101, 188, 275, 276

critical loads and carrying capacities, 11, 27, 41, 249, 252-254, 289-290

indicators, 234, 240

local impacts, 5, 31

quantitative targets, 4

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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regional impacts, 31

scenarios, general, 295

war, 30

see also Agricultural sector; Ecosystems; Energy resources; Food and nutrition; Materials issues; Wildlife

Limits to Growth, 139, 149

Literacy, 36-37, 39, 64

Local factors, 29, 98, 300

air pollution, 86

degradation syndrome, 287

global scale and, 2,187

indicators, 249-250

integrated assessment models, 145, 146

inventories of productive landscapes and ecosystems, 9

place-based initiatives, 10, 222-223, 279, 285-288, 298, 299, 302

scenarios, 153-154

surprises, 188

M

Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 89

Marine environment, 31, 42-43, 46, 87-90, 210-211

coastal zones, 88, 90, 98

coral reefs, 89, 97-98

ocean dumping, 4, 43, 44-45

sanctuaries, 44

see also Fish and fisheries

Marine mammals, 4, 43, 46, 97, 316

Market forces, 11, 202, 205, 307

agricultural sector, 94, 197

globalization, 11, 60, 75-76

Mass media, 27, 28, 33

Materials issues, 13, 31, 199-203, 282-283, 291, 309-312

consumption patterns, 30, 31, 69, 70-71, 80-81, 199-201, 262, 303

globalization, 76

incentives, 201, 311-312

material balance modeling, 13

private sector, 311-312

substitution of services for products, 13, 75

see also Waste and waste management

Methane, 84, 204, 219

Methyl bromide, 42

Methyl chloroform, 42

Migration (human), 76-77, 78, 79, 153, 249

Migratory species, 4, 43, 47

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 41, 46

Moral considerations, see Ethical and moral considerations

Mortality rates, see Death rates

Multidisciplinary approach, see Interdisciplinary approach

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 282

National capital accounts, 9, 237, 242, 259, 261, 313

National Climate Impact Assessment, 146

National Science Foundation, 300

Natural resources, general, 20, 188, 191, 206-208, 237, 240, 250-253

concept of, 23

place-based research, 286

see also Conservation; Ecosystems; Energy resources; Forests and forestry; Landscapes; Marine environment; Wildlife

Netherlands Environmental Policy Performance Indicators Adriaanse, 240

New Sustainability Paradigm, 152

Nitrogen oxides, 41, 46, 204, 205, 209, 210, 217-218, 248-249

Nongovernmental organizations, general, 2, 22, 29, 79, 236

Africa agricultural production, 12-13, 309

see also specific organizations

North America, 318

Columbia Basin, 157-158, 296, 318

economic integration, 75

endangered species, 97

homelessness, 35

Northwest Power Planning Council, 157-158

Nutrition, see Food and nutrition

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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O

Oceans, see El Niño-Southern Oscillation; Fish and fisheries; Marine environment

Office of Management and Budget, 299

Office of Science and Technology Policy, 299

Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, 47, 67, 86, 163-167 (passim)

Our Common Future, 22, 28, 189

Ozone layer depletion, 4, 7, 16, 41-42, 44, 46, 48, 83-84, 138, 143, 188-189, 190, 237, 248, 264, 281

chlorofluorocarbons, 41-42, 45, 83-84, 187, 264

surprise diagnosis, 10, 187

P

Pakistan, 34

Parametric analyses, 146

Pesticides, 94, 100, 221, 284

Place-based initiatives, 10, 222-223, 279, 285-288, 298, 299, 302

Planetary circulatory systems, 9, 248-249, 250

Policy assessments, 9, 10, 16, 139, 260, 261-262, 295-296

experts, use of, 136, 137-138, 156-157, 186

integrated assessment models, 5, 49, 139-149, 159, 218-219

interdisciplinary approaches, 10, 11, 17, 18, 135, 136-137, 148, 208, 280, 281-282, 283-285, 289, 296, 298, 301-302, 306, 318

place-based initiatives, 10, 222-223, 279, 285-288, 298, 299, 302

scenarios, 5, 49, 136, 137, 139, 147-154, 156, 158, 161-176, 295

strategic gaming, 138-139

sustainability science, 10-11, 51, 279-288, 318-320

see also Uncertainty

Political factors, 7, 9, 16, 30, 299

democratization, 5, 22, 60

global, 2, 18

legitimacy, 134, 135

mass media, 27, 28, 33

regional information systems, 156-157

scenarios, 151-152, 153

surprises, 188

sustainable development concept, 2, 22, 27, 275

urban areas, 306-307

Pollution, 5, 27, 30-31, 60, 80, 101, 138, 188, 190, 202, 210-211, 237

GDP accounting, 67

global connectedness and, 77

pesticides, 94, 100, 221, 284

regional, 60

transboundary, 41, 140

see also Air pollution; Waste and waste management; Water pollution

Population growth, 1, 7, 11, 15, 61-62, 91, 186, 192-194, 249, 276

age distributions, 303, 304

birth rates, 5, 12, 60, 61, 101, 303-305

Brundtland Commission, 192, 195, 197, 303

child health and, 34

coastal areas, 88

death rates, 5, 60, 61, 101, 192

children/infants, 34, 64, 245

elderly persons, 303

family planning, 12, 192, 193, 303-305

hunger and, 33, 196-197

life expectancy, 64, 65-66

migration, 76-77, 78, 79, 153, 249

poverty and, 27, 192

projections, 1, 4, 12, 30, 61-62, 66, 70, 71, 163, 192, 193, 303, 304, 307

regional population distribution, 47, 163, 169

urbanization, 4-5, 12, 62-64, 194-196, 305-307

Poverty, 4, 15, 18, 31, 32, 48, 64, 101, 237, 306

Driving Force-State-Response framework, 242

GDP and, 67

homeless persons, 35-36, 66

hunger, trends, 4, 13, 31, 32-33, 40, 45, 163, 246-247, 306

indicators, 246-247

minimum wage, 37

population growth and, 27, 192

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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Pressure-State-Response model, 236, 238

scenarios, 163, 165

shelter, 35-37, 66

see also Developing countries

Pressure-State-Response model, 235-239, 254-255, 260, 261-262

Private sector, 29

agricultural production, 308

contraceptives, 304

developing countries, investment in, 28, 195

energy and materials issues, 311-312

food production, 197

research, 300-301, 315

Public goods, 293

Q

Quality of life, 24, 25, 74

life expectancy, 64, 65-66

literacy, 36-37, 39, 64

see also Recreation

R

Radioactive wastes, 4, 44-45

RAINS, see Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation

Ramsar, see Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat

Recreation, 16, 23, 88, 90, 208, 215, 216, 237, 242, 287

aesthetics, 14, 23, 97, 99, 242, 314, 317

Recycling and reuse of waste, 7, 13, 72, 83, 92, 201, 254-255, 310-311

Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation, 139, 140, 146

Regional factors, 25, 29, 60, 83, 139, 187, 221, 302, 316-317

air pollution, 4, 5, 86, 139, 140, 218-219, 248-249, 279, 288

comprehensive accounting frameworks, 138

degradation syndrome, 287

GDP, 67-68, 170-171

fishing stocks, 4

forests, 5

hunger and population, 47

indicators, 9, 237, 243, 248-254

integrated assessment models, 139-143 (passim), 145, 146, 154

global initiatives and, 2

place-based initiatives, 10, 222-223, 279, 285-288, 298, 299, 302

population distribution, 47, 163, 169

scenarios, 169-174, 176

social learning, 6, 49, 158-159

unsustainablity, 81-82

critical loads, 11, 41, 249, 252-254, 289-290

water resources, 91, 93, 101, 216

zones of critical vulnerability, 9, 250-251

see also Ozone layer depletion

Regional information systems, 5, 49, 154-159

agriculture, 156-157

described, 6, 154

energy resources, 157, 158

institutional factors, 154, 155

integrated assessment modeling and, 154

political factors, 156-157

scenarios and, 154, 156, 158

temporal factors, 158-159

Resources for the Future, 138

Rome Declaration on World Food Security, 33

Royal Society of London, 69

Rural areas, 37, 212, 287, 291, 306

see also Agricultural sector

S

Sanitation, 35, 36, 39, 83, 195-196, 245

see also Drinking water

Scenarios, 5, 49, 136, 139, 147-154, 161-176, 295

climate change, 153, 162, 164, 165-176

described, 6, 137

economic factors, 148, 150-152, 162, 163-165

energy resources, 174-175

Global Scenario Group, 150-153, 159, 161-176

integrated assessment models vs, 148-149

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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local factors, 153-154

political factors, 151-152, 153

poverty, 163, 165

regional factors, general, 169-174, 176

regional information systems and, 154, 156, 158

social factors, 148, 149, 150-151, 168

spatial factors, 140, 150, 153, 154

technological factors, 162, 164

temporal factors, 150, 152, 164, 166, 169-176

urban areas, 163, 164

Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, 243, 282

Sensitivity analyses, 146, 153

Service sector, 309-310

national capital accounts, 242

substitution of services for products, 13, 75, 310-311

Sex-based factors, see Gender factors

Shell International Petroleum Company, 149

Shelter, see Drinking water; Housing; Sanitation

Silent Spring, 137

Social factors, 7-11 (passim), 16, 24, 25, 83, 160, 240-241, 276, 282, 308, 313

aesthetics, 14, 23, 97, 99, 242, 314, 317

degradation syndrome, 287

ethical and moral considerations, 14, 23, 32, 97

gender factors, 36, 39, 64-65

global connectedness, 4-5, 11, 30, 59, 75-79, 101, 153, 186, 283

integrated assessment models, 6, 140, 144-145

International Human Dimensions Program, 208, 282, 285, 288, 300

mass media, 27, 28, 33

national capital accounts, 242

place-based initiatives, 10, 222-223, 279, 285-288, 298, 299, 302

population growth, family choice, 192;

see also Family planning

Pressure-State-Response model, 235-239, 254-255, 260, 261-262

regional information systems, 154, 155, 156

regional zones of critical vulnerability, 9, 250-254

research linked to, 11, 282-284, 298-299

scenarios, 148, 149, 150-151, 168

social capital, 25, 188

surprises, 188, 264

technology and, 74, 75

see also Cultural factors; Demographic factors; Political factors

Social learning, 3, 21, 48-51, 133, 160, 277

indicators, 264-265

nutrition, 40

regional, 6, 49, 158-159

spatial factors, 48, 49, 50, 83, 194, 255

surprises, 188, 264

sustainability science, 279-280

temporal factors, 48, 49, 255

see also Education; Indicators

South and Southeast Asia, 33, 45, 47, 67

Spatial factors, 14, 219, 222, 243, 244, 255, 258, 265, 293, 318

ecosystem services, 255

environmental hazards, 186

health institutions, 194

housing, 35-36

indicators, 50

place-based initiatives, 10, 222-223, 279, 285-288, 298, 299, 302

planetary circulation systems, 248

regional information systems, 155

scenarios, 140, 150, 153, 154

social learning, 48, 49, 50, 83, 194, 255

space conditioning, 292

surprises, 188

urban areas, 239

see also Landscapes; Local factors; Regional factors; Regional information systems

Stakeholders, 136, 145, 158

Statistical analyses, 136

integrated assessment models, 143

scenarios, 153

see also Indicators

Stewardship, 23

Strategic gaming techniques, 138-139

Sulfates, 41, 46, 80, 86, 204, 205, 217, 248-249

Surprises, environmental, 9-10, 137, 187-188, 260, 263-264

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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diseases, emergence and reemergence, 5, 66, 99-100, 101, 187, 250-251

ozone layer depletion, 10, 187

social learning, 188, 264

see also Disasters; Environmental hazards

Sustainability, general, 1-3, 6-7, 279

defined, 1, 2, 9, 21, 22-26

historical perspectives, 2, 21, 22-23, 26-29, 275, 280-282

political factors, 2, 22, 27, 275

social learning, 279-280

sustainability science, 10-11, 51, 279-288, 318-320

Sustainable Biosphere Initiative, 281

Sustainable Seattle project, 240-242, 254-255

SysTem for Analysis, Research and Training, 285, 288, 300, 302

T

Taxation, 203

Technological factors, 2, 7, 14, 16, 17-18, 51, 71-75, 160, 202, 237, 275, 276, 282, 296-298, 300, 302, 311

Agricultural sector, 13, 74, 94-95, 197, 199, 308;

see also Biotechnology; Irrigation; Pesticides

computer technology, 74, 75, 235, 249, 311

databases, intellectual property rights, 293-294

Internet, 76, 277

consumption patterns, 69-70, 72

contraception, 305

defense technology, 72, 300

developed/developing countries gap, 27

disease and, 66

education, 29

energy, 13, 72, 203-207, 310-312

global connectedness, 4-5, 30, 59, 75, 101, 186, 283

historical perspectives, 71-73, 282-283

incentives, 11, 292-293

Internet, 76, 277

planetary circulatory systems, 9

scenarios, 162, 164

social factors, 74, 75

surprises, 187-188

telecommunications, 72, 74, 76, 249, 277

transboundary water pollution, 41

transportation, 72, 75, 77, 204

water management, 214, 216;

see also Irrigation

Technology transfer, 3, 16, 293-294, 296-298

intellectual property issues, 293-294

Teeming with Life, 281

Telecommunications, 72, 74, 76, 249

Internet, 76, 277

Temporal factors, 3, 7, 8, 38, 293, 295

birth/death rates, 61

connectedness, 72, 74, 76, 101

consumption, 71

ecosystem services, 255

environmental hazards, 186, 187, 188

greenhouse gases, 43, 84

hunger/famine, 33, 40, 164

regional information system, 158-159

scenarios, 150, 152, 164, 166, 169-176

social learning, 48, 49, 255

sustainability concept, general, 26

see also Historical perspectives

Transboundary pollution, 41, 140

Transportation technology, 72, 75, 77, 204

Tropical regions, deforestation, 5, 77, 95-96, 99-100, 101, 215, 313

U

Unfinished Business, 188

Urban areas, 4-5, 7, 11, 12, 31, 35, 83, 101, 194-196, 206-207, 212, 237, 250-251, 254-255, 291, 305-307

agricultural land displaced, 94, 309

air pollution, 78, 86-87, 195, 217, 316-317

Brundtland Commission, 195, 305

developing countries, 35, 36, 39, 83, 195-196

economic factors, 195, 306-307

Europe, 62-63, 195

globalization, 77, 78

housing, 12, 35

institutional factors, 306, 307

migration to, 77, 78, 79

place-based research, 286

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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political factors, 306-307

pollution, 77, 195, 220

population growth, 4-5, 12, 62-64, 194-196, 305-307

scenarios, 163, 164

transition to urban life, 12, 62-64

Uncertainty, 3, 6, 26, 135-138 (passim), 187, 211

climate change, 84

fisheries, 89

integrated assessment models, 141, 143, 144

see also Surprises, environmental

United Nations, 294, 298

Commission on Sustainable Development, 26-27, 28, 239, 240-243, 288

Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), 2, 22, 26-27, 28, 29, 164, 288-289

Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), 35-36, 39

Convention of Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, 44

Convention on the Law of the Sea, 42-43, 46

Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, 59

Development Program, 64, 247, 299

Environment Program, 27, 188, 208, 299-300

FAO, 245, 247, 299

hunger, data on, 33, 45, 165

Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, 243

System of National Accounts, 259

UNCHS, 245

UNESCO, 289, 316

UNICEF, 38, 245, 246-247

V

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 41

Volatile organic compounds, 41, 46, 217

W

War and armed conflicts, 30, 78, 79, 287

Waste and waste management, 7, 11, 13, 200-202, 287, 310-311

ocean dumping, 4, 43, 44-45

radioactive wastes, 4, 44-45

see also Recycling and reuse of waste

Water pollution, 4, 14, 42-43, 46, 91, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193-194, 195, 210-211, 212, 215, 237

acid pollution, 49, 86, 140, 155, 157, 189, 207, 217

fisheries, impact on, 89

place-based research, 286

sanitation, 35, 36, 39, 83, 195-196, 245

transboundary, 41, 140

see also Marine environment

Water supply, 7,14, 80-81, 90-93, 157, 186, 209, 212-216, 284

consumption patterns, 90-91, 92, 212-214

developing countries, 92

drinking water, 5, 12, 31, 35, 36, 39, 40-41, 64, 83, 90-93, 188, 190, 195, 196, 245

irrigation, 91, 94, 99, 157, 197, 198, 199, 212, 221, 284, 316

regional factors, 91, 93, 101, 216

technological factors, 214, 216;

see also Irrigation

Wealth disparities, 5, 69, 71, 78, 101, 163, 165, 168, 195

Wetlands, 41-42, 44, 46, 97-98, 215

WGBU, see German Advisory Council on Global Change

Wildlife, 23, 43, 96-99, 256-258

alien species, 77, 96-97

birds, 4, 43, 47, 97

extinction, 96, 101

migratory species, 4, 43, 47

see also Biodiversity; Endangered species; Fish and fisheries; Marine mammals

World Bank, 40, 45, 240-241, 242-243, 259, 299

World Business Council on Sustainable Development, 149

World Climate Research Program, 282, 285, 300

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9690.
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World Commission on Environment and Development, see Brundtland Commission

World Conference on Education for All, 36, 39

World Conservation and Monitoring Centre, 250-251

World Conservation Strategy, 16, 22, 280-81

The World Environment: 1972-1982, 189

World Food Summit, 32, 39, 40

World Health Organization, 36, 39, 195, 245, 250-251

World Meteorological Organization, 282

World Summit for Children, 35, 36-40 (passim)

World Summit for Social Development, 39

World 3 model, 149

World Wide Web, see Internet

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Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability Get This Book
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World human population is expected to reach upwards of 9 billion by 2050 and then level off over the next half-century. How can the transition to a stabilizing population also be a transition to sustainability? How can science and technology help to ensure that human needs are met while the planet's environment is nurtured and restored?

Our Common Journey examines these momentous questions to draw strategic connections between scientific research, technological development, and societies' efforts to achieve environmentally sustainable improvements in human well being. The book argues that societies should approach sustainable development not as a destination but as an ongoing, adaptive learning process. Speaking to the next two generations, it proposes a strategy for using scientific and technical knowledge to better inform future action in the areas of fertility reduction, urban systems, agricultural production, energy and materials use, ecosystem restoration and biodiversity conservation, and suggests an approach for building a new research agenda for sustainability science.

Our Common Journey documents large-scale historical currents of social and environmental change and reviews methods for "what if" analysis of possible future development pathways and their implications for sustainability. The book also identifies the greatest threats to sustainability--in areas such as human settlements, agriculture, industry, and energy--and explores the most promising opportunities for circumventing or mitigating these threats. It goes on to discuss what indicators of change, from children's birth-weights to atmosphere chemistry, will be most useful in monitoring a transition to sustainability.

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