NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
The project that is the subject of this report is supported by funds provided by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.
Additional copies of this report are available from:
Board on Children, Youth, and Families
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Suite HA 156
Washington, DC 20418
A summary of this report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu
Printed in the United States of America
Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES
JACK P. SHONKOFF(Chair),
Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University
EVAN CHARNEY (Vice Chair) ,
Department of Pediatrics (Emeritus), University of Massachusetts Medical Center
Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington
John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley
Department of Child Psychiatry, Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital, Yale University
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Community and Family Health, Department of Health, Olympia, Washington
Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University Hospital
School of Social Work, Columbia University
School of Nursing, University of Rochester
School of Public Affairs, Baruch College
HONORABLE CINDY LEDERMAN,
Circuit Court Judge,
Juvenile Division, Dade County, Florida
Office of Population Research, Princeton University
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco
Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department of Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical Center
Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center
WILLIAM ROPER (Liaison),
Council Member, Institute of Medicine
RUTH T. GROSS (Liaison),
Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine
ELEANOR MACCOBY (Liaison),
Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
MICHELE D. KIPKE, Director
DEBORAH A. PHILLIPS,
ELENA O. NIGHTINGALE,
Scholar in Residence
NANCY GEYELIN MARGIE,
Senior Project Assistant
RUTH T. GROSS (Workshop Chair), Professor of Pediatrics, Emerita, Stanford University
MARK APPELBAUM, Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego
AMY BAKER, The Children’s Village, Dobbs Ferry, New York
STEVEN BARNETT, Graduate School of Education, Rutgers University
ROBIN BRITT, United Child Development Services, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina
JEANNE BROOKS-GUNN, Teachers College, Columbia University
DONNA BRYANT, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
TERRY CARRILIO, Policy Institute, San Diego State University School of Social Work
DEBORAH DARO, National Center on Child Abuse and Prevention Research, Chicago, Illinois
JANET DEAN, Community Infant Program, Boulder, Colorado
ANNE COHN DONNELLY, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University
ANNE DUGGAN, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University
CLAIRE DUNHAM, Ounce of Prevention Fund, Chicago, Illinois
LINDA ESPINOSA, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, University of Missouri
DEANNA GOMBY, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, California
ROBERT GRANGER, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, New York
BRENDA JONES HARDEN, Department of Human Development, University of Maryland
CHRISTOPH HEINICKE, Family Development Project, University of California, Los Angeles
ELLEN ELIASON KISKER, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey
DAVID KOLKO, Department of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and Child and Parent Behavior Clinic, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
JOHN LANDSVERK, Services Research Center, Children’s Hospital, San Diego, California
JEAN LAYZER, Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts
JENS LUDWIG, Department of Public Policy, Georgetown University
TAMMY MANN, Early Head Start National Resource Center, ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC
MATTHEW MELMED, ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC
DAVID OLDS, Kempe Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health, University of Colorado, Denver
JOANN ROBINSON, Kempe Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health, University of Colorado, Denver
LISBETH SCHORR, Project on Effective Services, Harvard University
ANN SEGAL, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
MONICA SWEET, Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego
DOUGLAS TETI, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
MARY WAGNER, Center for Education and Human Services, SRI International, Menlo Park, California
HEATHER WEISS, Harvard Family Research Project, Harvard University
MILDRED WINTER, Parents as Teachers National Center, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri
The Board on Children, Youth, and Families would like to thank all who participated in the Workshop on Revisiting Home Visiting for sharing their expertise and experiences through stimulating discussions and for their thoughts and comments that lent to the shaping of this report. We especially thank Ruth Toby Gross for serving as chair.
We would also like to thank Deanna Gomby and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation for devoting their Spring/Summer 1999 issue of The Future of Children to home visiting, and for funding the Workshop on Revisiting Home Visiting. In addition, we are grateful to the many people who helped formulate the agenda and identify possible speakers.
We also gratefully acknowledge the contributions of those who worked to organize the workshop and prepare this report. Deborah Phillips led and oversaw the undertaking of this workshop, from its conceptualization and funding to the writing of this report. Nancy Geyelin Margie helped organize and coordinate the workshop and helped to write and prepare the workshop summary. Ronné Wingate provided invaluable assistance by coordinating meeting logistics and ensuring that the meeting ran smoothly. Thanks also to Emily Perkins, Heather Schofield, Drusilla Barnes, Amy Gawad, Margo Cullen, Anne Bridgman, and Beth Wallace, for assisting with meeting preparation and staffing.
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Kathryn Barnard, School of Nursing, University of Washington; Anne Kubisch, Aspen Institute Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives, New York; Rebecca Maynard, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania; Douglas Powell, Child Development and Family Studies Department, Purdue University; and David Wolfe, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario.
Although the individuals listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.