1. Industrial Research Institute (IRI), Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable (GUIRR), Council on Competitiveness (CoC). Industry-University Research Collaborations: Report of a Workshop. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996.
2. J. D. Roessner. University-industry collaborations: Choose the right metric. Science's Next Wave June 1996.
3. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable and Academy Industry Program. New Alliances and Partnerships in American Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable and the Industrial Research Institute. Industrial Perspectives on Innovation and Interactions with Universities—Summary of Interviews with Senior Industry Officials . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1991. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. Intellectual Property Rights in Industry-Sponsored University Research—A Guide to Alternatives for Research Agreements . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable and the Industrial Research Institute. Simplified and Standardized Model Agreements for University-Industry Cooperative Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988.
4. N. Rosenberg and R. R. Nelson. American universities and technical advance in industry. Research Policy 23(1994): 323–348.
5. Several of the examples discussed at the workshop, such as the National Textile Center and the University Research Consortium, have this focus.
6. D. C. Mowery. Collaborative R&D: How effective is it?" Issues in Science and Technology. Fall 1998. U.S. General Accounting Office. Technology Transfer: Administration of the Bayh-Dole Act by Research Universities, GAO/RCED-98-126, Washington, D.C., 1998.
7. D. E. Massing, ed. AUTM Licensing Survey: FY 1996. Association of University Technology Managers, Inc., 1997. For example, in 1996, 2,095 patents were issued to universities (up 14% from 1995), 248 start-up companies were formed (up 11% from 1995), and licensing income reached $591.7 million (up 19.6%).
8. See Note 1.
9. G. Blumenstyk. Turning off spin-offs; Bucking a trend, University of Arizona ends direct commercializing of faculty research. Chronicle of Higher Education, July 21, 1995, p. A33.