National Academies Press: OpenBook

Science and Human Rights (1988)


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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: AFFILIATIONS OF PARTICIPANTS." National Research Council. 1988. Science and Human Rights. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9733.
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: AFFILIATIONS OF PARTICIPANTS." National Research Council. 1988. Science and Human Rights. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9733.
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: AFFILIATIONS OF PARTICIPANTS." National Research Council. 1988. Science and Human Rights. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9733.
Page 83

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Appendix A Affiliations of Participants SPEAKERS Juan Luis Gonzalez is a surgeon and president of the independent Medical Association of Chile (Colegio Medico de Chile). He has been a leader and spokesman for the many Chilean physicians who have actively and courageously condemned the widespread use of torture in Chile and has testified before the U.S. Congress on torture in Chile. Dr. Gonzalez received the Scientific Freedom and Responsi- bility Award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was president of the National Civic Assembly in Chile, which called for a work stoppage to protest human rights abuses and press for return to a Chilean democracy. Dr. Gonzalez was arrested in July 1986 and charged with "violating Chile's state security laws." He was released on bad! in mid-August and acquitted in January 1987. Ismai] Mohamed is an algebraist and associate professor of mathe- matics, University of Witwatersrand. At the time of the symposium, he was on sabbatical at the City College of the City University of New York. Dr. Mohamed is vice-president of the Transvaal United Democratic Front and a founding member of the Detainees' Parents Support Committee, both of which, along with 15 other organi- zations, were placed under severe restrictions by the government of South Africa on February 24, 1988. An outspoken opponent of apartheid, he has been subjected to detention without trial for polit- ical reasons on several occasions. His latest arrest was in February 81

1985 when he was charged with high treason, a capital offense. Dr. Mohamed was not released until early December of that year, when all charges against him were dropped. Yuri OrIov is a high-energy physicist and a senior scientist at the Newman Laboratory, Cornell University. Early in his career he was employed at the Institute of Theoretical and Exper~rnental Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences but was dismissed for political reasons. He was a corresponding member of the Armenian Academy of Sciences. In 1975 Dr. OrIov became a founding member and chair of the Moscow Helsinki Monitoring Group. He was arrested in February 1977 on charges of "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda" and was sentenced to seven years' strict-regime labor camp and five years' internal exile. Dr. OrIov was released from exile in Siberia at the end of September 1986 and arrived in the United States a week later. He was cowinner of the 1986 International Human Rights Award from the Jimmy Carter Presidential Center. DISCUSSANTS Lipman Bers is former chair, Committee on Human Rights; Davies Professor Emeritus of Mathematics, Columbia University; visiting professor of mathematics at the City University of New York Grad- uate Center. Carol Carillon is director, Committee on Human Rights, National Academy of Sciences, and Committee on Health and Human Rights, Institute of Medicine. Gerard Debreu is professor of economics and mathematics, Univer- sity of California at Berkeley; 1983 Nobel Prize laureate. Paul Doty is MallinckroUt Professor of Biochemistry and director emeritus, Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Uni- versity. William Gordon is foreign secretary, National Academy of Sciences; Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Space Physics, Rice University. M. Alfred Haynes is professor, Department of Community Medicine, and former dean and president, Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Med- ical School, I,os Angeles.

83 Robert Bates is former chair, Committee on Human Rights; uni- versity professor and director, Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, Brown University. Ranch Low is institute professor, Department of Physics, Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology. Helen Rmney is chair, Department of Medicine, University of Cali- fornia at San Diego; Distinguished Physician, Veterans Administra- tion Medical Center, La JolIa, California. Walter Rosenblith is former foreign secretary, National Academy of Sciences; vice-president, International Council of Scientific Unions; institute professor emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Albert Soinit is Sterling Professor of Pediatrics and Psychology, Child Study Center, Yale University. Eliot Stellar is chair, Cornrnittee on Human Rights; president, Amer- ican Philosophical Society; professor of physiological psychology, In- stitute of Neurological Sciences and Department of Anatomy, Uni- versity of Pennsylvania. Victor Weisekopf is institute professor emeritus, Department of Phys- ics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Gilbert White is Gustavson Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Insti- tute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado; foreign member, Soviet Academy of Sciences.

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Why does the National Academy of Sciences have a Committee on Human Rights? How does the committee define human rights and which rights are fundamental? Does a focus on human rights undermine efforts toward international scientific cooperation , development, political stability, or nuclear disarmament? Why does the committee work only in behalf of scientists and how do scientists become victims of human rights violations? How and why do some health professionals collude with torturers? These questions are typical of those asked frequently of the members and staff of the academy's Committee on Human Rights. They are important questions that this document helps to answer.

Science and Human Rights is the summary of the presentation and discussion of a Symposium convened by the National Academy of Sciences to discuss these issues. Also included in this report are three major papers written by former prisoners from Chile, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.

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