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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Index

A

Abecedarian Project, 134–135, 144, 319

Abstract reasoning, 5, 38, 40, 43, 208

Academic success

class size and, 146

fine motor skills and, 117

interest and, 110

peer relations and, 53

quality of preschool programs and, 131, 132

social skills and, 85

teacher-child relationships and, 7, 50, 58

teacher preparation and, 262

Access to programs, 20

Accountability, assessment for, 11, 12, 17, 20, 233, 240, 257–258

Achievement tests, 233, 239.

See also Standardized tests

Activity level, parents’ reports of children’s difficulties, 123–125, 126

Adaptability, 97, 105, 113

Adjustment to school, 49, 113, 144

Adolescence, mental health adjustment, 53

Aesthetics, content standards, 281, 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295

Affective-social development, 4, 39

Age at kindergarten entry

and activity level, 123

and articulation difficulties, 123

and arts and crafts with family, 79

and attentiveness, 84–85, 91, 123

and books and music recordings in the home, 70–73

and eagerness to learn, 84, 91

and math proficiency, 82

and motor skills, 118, 120, 123

and print familiarity, 65, 66–67

and problem/antisocial behaviors, 102–103, 106–107

and prosocial behaviors, 94–95, 98–99

and reading proficiency, 68–69

and song singing with family, 78

and story reading and telling, 74–75

and task persistence, 86, 90

Age groupings, classroom, 20

Agency dimension, 163

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Aggression, 50, 226

Alabama, 262

Alphabet song, 193.

See also Letter recognition

American Academy of Pediatrics, 259

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 278

American children. See also Culture/race/ethnicity

competitiveness, 162–163, 226

independence and autonomy, 111

interpersonal values, 162–163

language learning, 63–64

mathematics, 63

prototypical nuclear family, 112–113

American Indians

activity level of children, 126

attentiveness of children, 126

Choctaw culture, 114

Navaho language and culture, 63, 113, 115

Pueblo culture, 114

Amygdala, 56

Analogies, 43

Anger, 103, 105, 107, 109

Anterior cingulate gyrus, 56

Arguing, 102, 104, 106, 108

Arizona At-Risk Preschool Program, 280–281, 297

Arkansas Better Chance, 280–281, 296

Arts and crafts, 9, 67, 79, 81, 185

Asian children. See also Culture/race/ethnicity

articulation, 126

behavior of, 93

Chinese language and culture, 62, 111

English-language learning, 116

motor skills, 118, 126

task persistence, 85

Assessment. See also Standardized tests

for accountability reasons, 11, 12, 17, 20, 233, 240, 257–258

attention/attentiveness and, 237

“authentic,” 244, 247–248

beneficence considerations, 235

challenges, 234–235

of child-caregiver interactions, 49, 273

of children with disabilities, 11, 167, 239–240, 243, 245, 253–254, 258

clinical interview, 12, 243–245, 254

of cognitive skills, 137, 156

of competencies in young children, 12, 242–249

critical conditions for, 249–250

cultural considerations, 237–239, 252, 257

curriculum-embedded, 20, 137–143, 242, 314–315

diagnostic, 20, 234, 252, 253–254, 259

documentation methods, 248–249

dynamic system of, 246–247

of economically disadvantaged children, 256–257, 258

environments for, 236

of functional emotional skills, 253–254

guiding principles, 235

for instructional improvement, 11, 16, 17, 20, 234, 241–252, 257, 259–260, 267–269

interviewer qualifications, 244

of motor skills, 117, 246

observational modes of, 227–228, 237, 250–251

obstacles to implementation, 251–252

pedagogy and, 11, 16, 17, 234, 241–252

performance, 12, 45, 247–249, 250–251

for program evaluation, 11

for public policy reasons, 11, 20, 234, 257–259

reasons for using, 234–235

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

research needs, 20, 320–321

of teacher preparation, 300

teachers as assessors, 16, 227–228, 244, 249–251, 252, 260, 267, 314

of temperament, 96–97, 101

tests distinguished from, 233n.1

validity of measurements, 11, 137, 235, 238, 253

in Vygotskian mode, 245–247

Attachment networks, 49

Attachment security, 2, 49–50, 51–52, 58, 85, 130, 303, 306–307

Attachment theory, 49, 50

Attention/attentiveness, 9

age at kindergarten entry and, 84–85, 91, 123

and assessment, 237

and brain circuitry, 56–57, 58

in children with disabilities, 173

control of, 57, 112

culture/race and, 112, 124–125, 126

family structure and, 91, 93, 123, 125, 126

gender and, 84–85, 91, 122, 123, 126

infants’ indicators of, 37–38

maternal education and, 91, 93, 123, 125, 126

mathematics curriculum and, 207

orienting of, 57

parents’ reports of, 84–85, 123–125, 126

to story reading, 187

teachers’ ratings of children on, 84, 85, 91, 93

welfare status and, 91, 124, 126

Attention deficit disorder, 122, 123–126, 254

Australia, 145

Austria, 26–27

Autism, 121, 165, 166, 173, 254

Autonomy-heteronomy continuum, 163

B

Bag It, 207

Behavior of children

anxious, 145

childrearing and, 33, 47–48

classroom environment and, 48, 50, 145

comforting, 88, 95, 97, 99, 101

culture/race and, 92–93, 94–97, 100–101, 104–105, 108–109

curriculum and, 213

problem/antisocial, 49, 50, 58, 89, 92, 102–109, 139, 213, 226, 303

prosocial, 88–89, 94–97, 98–101, 139, 177–178

self-regulation of, 9, 47, 51–52, 56, 173, 212, 218–219, 229, 236

staff qualifications and, 149–150

teaching strategy and, 139–140

Behaviorist view of learning, 4, 39, 47, 266

Belgium, 26–27

Beliefs about learning/subject matter

IQ tests/scores, 266

of parents/public, 18, 33, 37

of teachers, 263–267, 269, 273, 275

Bermuda child care study, 153

Bias

evaluator, 140

in measurement of treatment implementation, 137–138, 142

Big Math for Little Kids™, 204–207

Bilingual Syntax Measure, 157–158

Black children. See also Culture/race/ethnicity

articulation, 126

behavior, 93

interaction styles, 115

language learning style, 116

motor skills, 118, 126

street talk, 115

Bodrova, Elena, 218–219

Bookmaking, 193

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Books in the home, and literacy skills, 67, 70–73, 187–188, 190

Bowlby, John, 49

Brain development

attention and, 56–57, 58

constructivist view, 54–55, 57–58

environment and, 5, 54–55, 56, 58, 306

experience and, 53, 54, 56, 306

genetics and, 5, 54–55, 306

neuroimaging, 55–56

plasticity of, 56–58

postnatal, 54

selectionist view, 54

Brain research

applicability to instruction/pedagogy, 53

needs, 19

Brookline Early Education Project, 134–135

Brown, Ann, 208

Bruner, Jerome, 39, 161

“Building Blocks” project, 229

C

California, 203, 280–281, 297

Canada, 203

Caregiver Interaction Scale, 273

Carpinteria Preschool Classroom, 157–159

Categorization strategies, 8, 136

Center-based preschool programs

accreditation, 298

common elements of, 133

federal funding of, 17–18

focus of report on, 31–32

recommendations for high-risk children, 317

teacher credentialing, 300

Cerebral palsy, 121, 173

Chess, Stella, 97

Chicago Early Assessment and Remediation Laboratory, 159

Child Care Development Block Grant, 275

Child care programs

class size restrictions, 146

education mission, 25

international, 153, 155

literacy environments in, 195

natural variation, 6–7, 143–144

preschool distinguished from, 25

quality of, 8, 137

in rural areas, 275

and socioemotional development, 25

state licensing standards, 274, 303–304

Child care providers

attachment of children to, 50

credentialing, 300

education/training of, 263, 270, 273–275

interaction with children, 274–275

mentoring programs, 275

professional networks, 274

supervision of, 274

Child-caregiver relationship. See also Child-parent relationship

and academic achievement, 7, 50, 58

assessment of, 49, 273

and assessment of learning, 249–251

child-parent relationship and, 49

children with disabilities, 122, 173

class size and, 145

and cognitive development, 39, 44, 46

communicative interactions, 48, 62

cultural/ethnic differences in, 115–117

and emergent literacy, 187–188, 190–191, 194–195

emotional communication, 48

importance of, 7, 16, 18, 32–33, 49–52, 58, 213

interaction styles, 44, 48–49, 50–52, 115–117, 190–191

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

and language development, 44, 62, 149–150, 157

and learning, 7, 32–33, 67, 69, 307

and motivation, 163–164

mutually reciprocal, 50–52

negative communication, 48

and peer relationships, 39, 49, 50, 58

and problem solving, 42–43, 116–117

and quality of programs, 20–21, 133, 136, 139

research needs, 19, 20–21

Sameroff-Chandler transactional model, 48–49

secure attachment, 50, 85

teacher/caregiver preparation and, 271, 273

verbal interaction, 190–191

Child-child interactions, 11.

See also Peers and peer groups

and academic performance, 53

and adolescent mental health, 53

child-caregiver relationship and, 39, 49, 50, 58

child-parent relationship and, 49, 52

children with disabilities, 122, 172–173, 177–178, 226

classroom environment and, 172

culture and beliefs and, 52, 113

developmentally appropriate practices and, 144

dimensions of, 52

family experience and, 52

importance of, 52–53, 85

and learning, 85, 221–222

play and, 52, 219–220

promotion of, 172

scaffolding, 221–222

and social competence, 52–53, 222

Child development associate certification, 17, 263, 297, 299–300

Child-initiated instruction, 138–139, 222, 223–224

Child Observation Record, 250–251

Child-parent relationship, 4

behavioral control strategies, 33

and child-teacher relationships, 49

cultural differences in interaction styles, 115–117

infants, 48, 64, 216

and language development, 64, 67, 220

maternal, 49, 115, 116, 173–174

and peer relationships, 49, 52

reading and story telling, 67

scaffolding behaviors, 220

socioeconomic status and, 64, 67

verbal interaction, 67

Child-teacher relationship. See Child-caregiver relationship

Childrearing

and behavior, 47–48

perceptions of poor families’ abilities, 148

Children with disabilities. See also Developmental disabilities

aptitude-treatment interaction, 167

assessment of, 11, 167, 239–240, 243, 245, 253–254, 258

attentiveness, 173

cognitive development, 176

computer use, 225, 226, 228–229

curriculum for, 167

effectiveness of early intervention, 28–29, 175–176

family culture, 121

homebound/hospital settings, 169

in inclusive settings, 122, 166, 168–169, 175–179, 276

individualized plans, 166–167, 173, 253

interactions with caregivers, 122, 173

language development and skills, 121–122, 170–171, 173–174, 176, 228–229

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

least restrictive environment, 166, 298

legislation affecting, 165–166

mathematics scores, 176

meta-analysis of interventions, 167–168

parent involvement, 167, 174–175

peer relations, 122, 172–173, 177–178, 226

public attitudes about care, 165

public education requirements, 122

quality of preschool programs, 129, 164–179

reading scores, 176

residential facilities, 169

resource rooms, 168–169

segregated programs, 169, 176

self-regulation, 173

socioemotional skill development, 172–173, 176, 177–178

special education, 132, 140, 166, 170–171, 240, 253, 298–299

standardized assessment of, 11, 239–240

teacher training and support, 176–177, 298–299

teaching strategies, 170, 171–173

temperament, 121

variation in type and severity, 121–126, 166–167

Chinese language and culture, 62, 111

Choctaw culture, 114

Choral responses, 114

Circle time, 173, 221n.2

Civic activity participation, 139

Class size, 7, 16, 20, 134, 137, 140, 144–146, 161, 296, 309, 316

Classroom, Behavior Inventory, 154

Classroom environment, 11, 48–49

activities and materials and, 136, 153–157, 192, 193, 296

and behavior of children, 48, 50, 145

for children with disabilities, 122, 166, 168–169, 175–179, 276

computer arrangements, 226

cultural accommodations, 113–114

layout, 192, 195, 226, 296

least restrictive, 166, 298

open, 139

and peer interactions, 172

socioemotional, 50, 58, 172

standards, 296–297

structures, 8, 11, 296–297, 307–308

Classroom management, 50–52

Clinical interview, 12, 243–245, 254

Coconstruction, 42

Cognitive development. See also Learning

affective-social systems and, 39

assessment of skills, 137, 156

attachment security and, 2

behavioral objectives and, 39

brain area activated by high-level tasks, 56, 55

child-caregiver interaction and, 39, 44, 46

children with disabilities, 176

class size and, 145

cognitive stimulation and, 46–47

content standards, 281, 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295

in context, 42–46, 58

culture and, 42, 45, 63

curriculum, 139, 184

in English-language learners, 159

environment and, 41–42, 46, 58, 130, 155

instruction and, 43

knowledge acquisition and, 40–42, 307

physical development and, 7, 307

Piagetian stage theory, 4–5, 39–40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 58

play and, 217–218

quality of preschool programs and, 7, 58, 128–129, 131, 136, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

research needs, 19

socialization and, 7, 34, 85, 237–237

sociocultural theory of, 42–46

socioeconomic status and, 6, 7, 58, 64, 128–129, 130, 131

and socioemotional development, 307

staff-child ratio and, 145

stimulation of, 46–47

teaching strategy and, 43, 139

theories of, 39–47

variations in skills, 59, 60–85

Cognitive Skills Assessment Battery, 156

Cognitive socialization, defined, 34

Collectivist/group-oriented values, 111

Color naming, 63, 223

Colorado Preschool Program, 282–283, 296n.3

Comforting behaviors, 88, 95, 97, 99, 101

Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy

charge to, 3–4, 30–31

perspectives of, 32–35

Communication skills, 48, 52, 62.

See also Speech

Community-based partnership programs, 15

Competence. See also Social skills/competence

contextual support and, 44–45

knowledge and, 41, 306

narrative, 195

strategic, 43–44

writing, 195, 200

Competition/competitiveness, 162–163, 226

Comprehensive Child Development Program, 143

Computers

access to, 225

“Building Blocks” project, 229

children with disabilities and, 225, 226, 228–229

classroom placement strategies, 226

curriculum and, 228–230

drill-and-practice software, 226–227, 228, 229, 230

games, 226

gender differences in use, 228

learning opportunities, 16, 226–227, 228–229

math software, 229

and metacognition, 229–230

observational opportunities, 227–228

professional development

opportunities, 16

and social interaction, 16, 225–226

Conceptual abilities, 39

Conflict resolution, 52

Conservation of number task, 41

Constructivist theory, 54–55, 57–58, 214, 266, 302

Content of teaching

defined, 34

standards, 17, 278–296, 316–317

Context considerations. See also Culture/race/ethnicity

cognitive development, 42–46, 58

competence, 44–45

for learning, 46, 85

for socialization, 46, 85, 101, 104

temperament and, 101, 104

of word learning, 68–69

Conversation

classroom, 10, 114

cultural differences in rules of, 114–115

wait time, 114

Cooper, William John, 147

Coping, 64, 113, 115

Core Knowledge Foundation, 183–184

Costs to parents, 24, 27

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, 300

Council for Exceptional Children,

Division for Early Childhood, 170, 171

Creativity in work/play, 84, 87, 89

Culture/race/ethnicity

and activity levels of children, 124–125, 126

and articulation difficulties of children, 124–125, 126

and arts and crafts with family, 81

and assessment, 237–239, 252, 257

and attachment security, 50

and attentiveness of children, 112, 124–125, 126

and behavior of children, 92–93, 94–97, 100–101, 104–105, 108–109

in child-caregiver interactions, 115–117

classroom accommodations for, 113–114

and cognitive development, 42, 45, 63

and creativity in work/play, 89

curriculum components, 183

and developmental differences, 6

and eagerness to learn, 85, 89

and language development, 63–64, 116

and math proficiency, 63, 82

mixed-race children, 126

and motor skills of children, 118, 119, 120–121, 124–125, 126

in parent-child interaction styles, 115–117

and parental expectations, 112

and peer relations, 52, 113

and print familiarity, 65, 66–67

and reading proficiency, 68–69

sensitivity of programs to, 3, 17

and social organization, 112–114

and socioemotional development, 104, 110–117

and sociolinguistics, 114

and song singing with family, 80

and story reading and telling, 74–77

and task persistence, 88

and teacher preparation and testing, 299

and teaching strategies, 29, 33, 111, 162–164, 267

Curriculum. See also Mathematics curriculum;

Science curriculum

assessment, 20, 137–143, 242, 314–315, 315

and behavior of children, 213

for children with disabilities, 167

cognitive development, 139, 184

comparisons, 184

computer software, 228–230

content, 7, 9–10, 17, 133, 186–213, 314

Core Knowledge Foundation, 183–184

cultural considerations, 183

design, 182

development, 15–16, 20

emergent literacy, 8, 10, 185, 186–200, 215

goals, 9–10, 183–186

guide for teachers, 15–16

High/Scope, 152, 183

knowledge acquisition, 184

and language development, 9, 17, 137, 184, 211, 212

model programs, 135

Montessori approach, 183

in OECD countries, 24

principles of learning, 308

Project Construct, 251

readiness dimensions, 183–184

research base, 9, 34

research needs, 19–20, 310, 315, 319–321

socioemotional development, 184, 185

standards, 17, 278, 279

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

D

Deci’s theory of self-determination, 110

Decontextualization, 217

Definitional issues, 33–34

Delaware Early Childhood Assistance Program, 282–283, 295

Demand for preschools, 29

Demographic trends, 34

Demonstration schools for professional development, 15, 313–314

Denmark, 26–27

Descartes, Renee, 39

Development

culture/race and, 6

defined, 33

research needs, 19, 318–319

in standardized assessment, 236–237

variation among children, 5–6, 16, 58

Developmental delays, 61–62, 173, 177

Developmental disabilities

and computer use, 226

and language development, 72–73, 226

parents’ reports of, 122–126

pervasive, 254

research needs, 19

Developmental range, 45

Developmental theory, 33

Developmental screening, 252–253

Developmentally Appropriate Practice, 300, 301

Developmentally appropriate practices

adult-child interactions, 274–275

in computer software, 228

criticisms/limitations of, 5, 302

developmental principles, 301–302

for economically disadvantaged children, 143–144

guidance on use of, 302–303

interpretation of, 40

outcomes of, 143–144, 159, 170

and peer relations, 144

and quality of preschool programs, 143–144

science curriculum, 212

as state standards, 297, 302

teacher behavior associated with, 156

teacher preparation and, 264, 266–267, 269, 271, 274–275

teaching strategies, 143–144, 170, 302

theoretical basis, 46, 302

Dewey, John, 133, 164

Diagnostic assessment, 20, 234, 252, 253–254, 259

DIAL-R, 156

Dialogic reading, 196–200

Dinosaur experts, preschool, 41

Direct Instruction System for Teaching and Remediation (DISTAR), 26

Disabilities. See Children with disabilities;

Developmental disabilities

Discipline, 100

Distancing, 217

District of Columbia preschool program, 296n.3

Down syndrome, 121, 166, 176

Drawing, 117

Drill-and-practice software, 226–227, 228, 229, 230

Duration of programs, 20, 131, 134, 140

Dynamic assessment, 246–247

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, 247

E

Eagerness to learn, 84, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93, 208–209

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Early childhood education and care adequate, 2, 32

consensus of parents and professionals on, 23

context of report, 3

goals, 29

importance of, 2–3, 129

naturally occurring variations among programs, 143–144

in OECD countries, 26–27

research base, 3, 23, 24, 25, 28, 32, 35

Early Childhood Education Project, 134–135

Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale (ECERS), 153, 154–156, 157, 263, 264, 273

Early Childhood Institute, 4, 30

Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities, 165–166

Early Literacy Advisor, 215

Early Screening Inventory-Revised, 117

Early Training Project, 134–135

ECLS-K, 117

Economically disadvantaged children. See also Poverty;

Socioeconomic status

assessment of, 256–257, 258

class size, 145

developmentally appropriate practices, 143–144

effectiveness of early intervention, 28–29, 142

English-language learners, 159

language development, 61, 64–65, 67, 137

learning ability, 130, 131

math curriculum, 138, 203–204

model programs, 128–129, 130, 132–133

preschool program quality, 6, 8, 128, 129–137, 142, 153–154, 308–309

program/curriculum research needs, 19

research base, 128

socioemotional development, 130, 132

Educare, 25, 32

Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 165

Education policy, preschool assessment and, 11, 20, 234, 257–259

fundamental premise, 25

in OECD countries, 26–27

and quality of programs, 310–311

recommendations, 12–13, 16–18, 316–317

Effect size, of model programs, 131

Effortful control, 100–101

Eligibility criteria, in OECD countries, 27

Emergent literacy

activities promoting, 10, 190, 191, 192–193

assessment of skills, 197, 200, 247

book and print awareness and, 191

child care programs and, 195

child-caregiver interaction and, 187–188, 190–191, 194–195

components, 186–189

critical skills, 247

curriculum, 8, 10, 185, 186–200, 215

defined, 186

dialogic reading and, 10, 196–200

environment and, 8, 188, 189–190, 194, 195

grapheme-phoneme correspondence, 188

language outcomes, 8, 189, 190–194, 200, 307

letter and early word recognition, 10, 188, 193–194

listening comprehension, 194

Little Books intervention, 192

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

narratives and, 193

nonlanguage outcomes, 194–195

phonological awareness and, 188, 189, 194, 196–197

positive reinforcement, 193, 196

print functions and, 188, 191, 194, 200

and reading skills, 189, 200

skill and knowledge base, 188

sociodramatic play and, 192

Emotional brain centers, 56

Emotional communication, 48

Empirical methods

convergence, 325

falsifiability, 324

generalizability, 324–325

purposes of research, 326–329

replicability, 324

theory building, 323–325

types and uses of, 325–326

validity, 324–325

English as primary language

and activity levels of children, 124, 126

and articulation difficulties of children, 124, 126

and arts and crafts with family, 79

and attentiveness of children, 91, 124, 126

and books and music recordings in the home, 70–73

and creativity in work/play, 87

and eagerness to learn, 87, 91

and math proficiency of children, 82

and motor skills of children, 119, 120, 124, 126

and perceptions of children’s learning attributes, 85

and print familiarity of children, 65, 66–67

and problem/antisocial

behaviors of children, 102–103, 106–107

and prosocial behaviors of children, 94–95, 98–99

rate of learning, 60–61

and reading proficiency of children, 68–69

shape-dependent morphenes, 63

in song singing with family, 78

and story reading and telling by family, 74–75

and task persistence, 85, 86, 90

English-language learners, 116

assessment considerations, 238

bilingual classroom, 158, 159

cognitive development in, 159

English-language classroom, 158, 159–160

first-language classroom, 157–159

quality of preschool programs, 7, 19, 129, 157–160

English orthography, 57

Enrollments in preschool programs, 24, 25, 28

Environment. See also Classroom environment;

Home environment

for assessment, 236

and brain development, 5, 54–55, 56, 58, 306

and cognitive development, 41–42, 46, 58, 130, 155, 306

and language development, 153–155

and learning pace, 1

literacy, 187–188, 189–190

measures of quality, 153–157

research needs, 19, 20

Epigenesis, 42

Ethnicity. See Culture/race/ethnicity

European preschool programs, 160

Even Start, 143

Experience, and brain development, 53, 54, 56, 306

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Experimental intervention programs, 141–142

Exploration of environment, 7, 37

F

Family. See also Maternal;

Parent;

Single-parent families

aspirations and expectations, 4, 33

influences on learning, 4, 33, 48–49

linguistic orientation, 33

literacy programs, 4

and peer relations, 52

social support, 64

stress and poverty, 33

Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), 142–143

Family Development Research Program, 134–135

Family to Family training program, 273–274

Fear of strangers, 113

Fearful inhibition, 100

Federal funding, 17–18

Feuerstein, Reuven, 245

Field trips, 216

Fighting, 103, 105, 107, 109

Fine motor skills, 117–119

Finland, 26–27

Fischer, Kurt, 44–45

Florida Child Care Improvement Study, 263, 276

Florida Pre-K Early Intervention Program, 282–283

Foundation for Child Development, 4, 30

Fragmentation of early childhood system, 20

France, 24, 26–27, 161, 162

French, Lucia, 112

Freud, Sigmund, 133

Freudian theory, 4

Friendships

formation of, 88–89, 95, 97, 99, 101, 172

interests and, 110

Froebel, Friedrich, 133, 164

Functional emotional skills, 253–254

Functional familiarity, 46

Functional magnetic brain imaging (fMRI), 55

Funding sources in OECD countries, 24, 27

G

Gelman, Rochel, 43, 221n.2

Gender differences

in activity levels, 123

in articulation, 123, 126

in arts and crafts with family, 79

in attentiveness, 84–85, 91, 122, 123, 126

books and music recordings in the home, 70–73

in computer use, 228

in developmental difficulties, 123

in eagerness to learn, 84, 91

in language learning, 60

in literacy skills, 65–69

in math proficiency, 82

in motor skills, 117, 118, 120, 123

in print familiarity, 65, 66–67

in problem/antisocial behaviors, 92, 102–103, 106–107

in prosocial behaviors, 89, 94–95, 98–99

in reading proficiency of kindergartners, 68–69

in skills, 6

in song singing by family, 78

in story reading and telling by family, 74–75

in task persistence, 84, 86, 90

Generalized event representations, 209

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
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Genetics, and brain development, 5, 54–55, 306

Georgia Prekindergarten Program, 278, 282–283, 297

Germany, 24, 26–27

Gesell, Arnold Lucius, 133

Glaser, Robert, 242

Glick, Joseph, 152

Grade repetition, 132, 146

Grapheme-phoneme correspondence, 188

Graphemes. See Letter recognition

Gross motor skills, 117, 118, 120–121

Guilt, 111

Guralnick, Michael, 165

H

Harlem Study, 147

Harlem Training Project, 134–135

Hawaiian culture (native), 113, 114

Hawthorne effect, 151

Head Start

children with disabilities in, 168, 169

class sizes, 146

curriculum, 141, 152, 183, 197, 212, 213

effectiveness of, 131, 137, 142, 155, 162, 213

English-language learners in, 157

evaluation studies, 242, 258

experimental intervention programs, 141–142, 196–197, 200

parent involvement, 141, 149

performance standards, 242, 258–259, 276n.1, 295, 298

quality of, 155

research base, 130–131, 141–142

sound foundations program, 196–197, 200

teacher preparation, 264, 272, 276n.1, 297, 299–300

teaching strategies, 217

Health, safety, and nutrition standards, 280, 282, 284, 286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 296–297

Hearing impairments, 54–55, 166

Helping behavior, 52, 139

Hierarchical classification structures, 41

High school graduation rates, 132, 146

High/Scope

Curriculum Demonstration Project, 152, 183

Perry Preschool, 144, 147

trainer of trainers project, 272

High-stakes decisions, 257

High-stakes testing, 257–258

Hispanics

articulation, 126

cultural considerations, 113

motor skills, 118, 126

Holloway, Susan, 161

Home environment, 33, 49

books and music recordings, 67, 70–73, 187–188, 190

and language development, 189–190

literacy-enhancing, 190, 194

measures of quality of, 155

poverty and, 64–65

song singing, 67, 78, 80

Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY), 163

Home Screening Questionnaire, 155

Home visits, 147, 300

Homebound/hospital settings for education, 169

Hunt, J.McV., 183

I

Illinois, 296n.3

Implementation of programs

bias in measurement of, 137–138, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
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In-home settings, 4, 32

In-service education, 272–275

Income. See Parent income;

Socioeconomic status

Independence and autonomy, 111

Individual achievement, 112, 162–163

Individual educational plans, 166–167, 173, 253

Individualized family service plans, 253

Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), 122, 165–167

Infant Health and Development Program, 134–135

Infants

attachment security, 51

attentiveness indicators, 37–38

emotional communication with adults, 48

exploration abilities, 37

interaction with caregivers, 216

language development, 60, 76

learning capacity, 37–38

numerical thinking, 73, 76, 200–201

object recognition, 38

parent interaction with, 48, 64, 216

play, 216

postnatal brain development, 54

response to number change, 73, 76

scientific reasoning, 207–208

self-regulation, 51

temperament, 96

Inhibited children, 97, 100, 104

Instruction. See also Teaching strategies

and cognitive development, 43

large-group, 112

Instructional assessment, 249–252

Intensity of programs, 131, 132, 135, 141

Interaction styles, 63, 115–117

Interest, and development, 109–110

Internalized control, 100

International preschool programs. See also individual countries

quality of, 7, 9, 21, 129, 153, 160–164

International Reading Association, 278, 302–303

Internet communication groups, 16, 315–316

Interpersonal distance, 163

Iowa

Child Development

Coordinating Council, 282–283, 296n.3

Child Welfare Research Station, 129

preschool studies, 129–130

IQ tests/scores

attitudes and beliefs about, 266

for children with disabilities, 239, 253

limitations of, 132, 253

program intensity and coherence and, 147

quality of program and, 131, 132

socioeconomic status and, 64

Italian language, 60–61

Italy, 24, 26–27

Reggio Emilia preschools, 152, 160–161

J

Japan, 63, 64, 104, 111, 160–161, 162, 163–164, 266

K

Kagan, Jerome, 186

Kagitcibasi, Cigdem, 162–163

Kamerman, Sheila, 162

Kant, Immanuel, 39

Kaufman ABC (K-ABC) test, 155

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
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Kentucky, 275, 284–285, 296

Kindergarten children, 16–17.

See also Age at kindergarten entry oral language skills, 195

written language knowledge, 195

Knowledge

and abstract reasoning ability, 5, 40

acquisition, 2, 5, 40–42, 184

and cognitive development, 40–42, 307

and competence, 41, 306

construction of, 38–39

and performance, 40–41

Korean language and culture, 62, 112

L

Labor force participation by mothers, 1–2, 23, 24

Language Acquisition Project, 159–160

Language development. See also Speech;

individual languages

book and print awareness, 191

and brain circuitry, 57

child-caregiver interaction and, 44, 62, 149–150, 157

child-parent relationship and, 64, 67, 220

in children with disabilities, 121–122, 170–171, 173–174, 176, 228–229

class size and, 145

computer use and, 228–229

content standards, 281, 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295

culture/ethnicity and, 63–64, 116

curriculum and, 9, 17, 137, 184, 211, 212

delays, 61–62, 72–73, 166, 171, 173–174, 189, 223

in economically disadvantaged children, 61, 64–65, 67, 137

emergent literacy and, 8, 189, 190–194, 200, 307

in English-language learners, 159

first word, 61

holistic learning approach, 62

hours of out-of-home care and, 157

impairments and, 72–73

implications of, 65–81

letter and early word

recognition, 193–194

listening comprehension, 194

Little Books intervention, 192

milieu approach, 171

narratives and, 193

naturalistic approach, 171

outcomes, 157, 190–194

parent involvement and, 173–174

in play, 215, 216, 217–218

positive reinforcement, 193

print functions and, 190, 191

quality of programs, 7, 8, 133, 136, 137, 139, 170–171

rates of, 60–62

recognizable words, 61

referential bias approach, 62

shared reading and, 196–200

“silent period,” 62, 116

sociodramatic play and, 192

socioeconomic status and, 61, 64–65, 67

and socialization, 63

sources of differences, 63–65

talkativeness and, 62

teacher-child ratios and, 7, 145

teacher qualifications and, 150

teaching strategy and, 139, 171, 223–224

vocabulary, 60, 61, 62, 67, 149–150, 153–154, 174, 190, 195, 212

Learning

attachment security and, 2, 85

behaviorist view of, 4, 39, 47, 266

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

behaviors of teachers associated with, 268

beliefs of teachers about, 266–267

and brain circuit organization, 54–55

child-caregiver interaction and, 7, 32–33, 67, 69

child-child relationships and, 85, 221–222, 307

computers and, 16, 226–227, 228–229

constructivist theory of, 54–55, 57–58, 214, 266, 302

contextual considerations, 46, 85

cooperative, 221

cultural differences in styles, 115

didactic view of, 266

disabilities, 167

by economically disadvantaged children, 130, 131

infants’ capacity for, 37–38

interest and, 110

motivation and, 163–164

new languages, 57, 116

observational, 116

peer-assisted, 113

principles of, 10, 184–185, 188, 262, 308

quality of programs and, 130, 131, 133

research base on, 25, 28, 34–35

romantic view of, 266

sociocultural theory of, 42, 214, 215, 266

socioemotional context, 46, 85

unifying theory of, 266

Learning approaches differences in, 6, 60, 84

language development and, 62

metacognitive, 8, 10, 43–44, 185

self-motivated efforts, 38

verbal/analytic style, 115

visual/holistic style, 115

Leong, Deborah, 218–219

Letter recognition, 10, 65, 68–69, 141, 188, 193–194, 195

Lewis, Catherine, 163

Liberian Kpelle farmers, 111–112

Library visits, 190

Linguistic awareness, 197, 200

Listening comprehension, 194

Literacy skills. See also Emergent literacy

assessment of, 215

books and music recordings in the home and, 70–73

cultural, 183

family programs, 4

functional, 262

gender differences in, 65–69

play and, 215

print familiarity, 65, 66–67

and reading readiness, 65–69

Little Books intervention, 192

Locke, John, 39

Louisiana Preschool Block Grant, 284–285, 296, 297

M

Maine, 286–287, 297

Mand-model, 171

Marx, Karl, 39

Maryland Extended Elementary Education Program, 286–287, 296n.3

Massachusetts, 203, 286–287, 295, 296

Maternal behavior, 44

Maternal depression, 8, 64, 65, 308

Maternal education, 8, 308

and activity level of children, 123, 125, 126

and articulation difficulties of children, 123, 125, 126

and arts and crafts with children, 79, 81

and attentiveness of children, 91, 93, 123, 125, 126

and books and music recordings in the home, 70–73

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

and creativity of children, 87, 89

and eagerness of children to learn, 87, 89, 91, 93

and math proficiency of children, 82–83

and motor skills of children, 117–118, 119, 120, 121, 123, 125

and perceptions of children’s learning attributes, 85, 86–93

as preschool program component, 163

and print familiarity of kindergartners, 65, 66–67

and problem/antisocial behaviors of children, 102–105, 106–109

and prosocial behavior of children, 94–97, 98–101

and reading proficiency of kindergartners, 68–69

and song singing with children, 78, 80

and story reading and telling, 74–77

and task persistence of children, 86, 88, 90, 92

Maternal interaction

with children with disabilities, 173–174

cultural differences in style, 115, 116

instructional behavior, 116

Maternal teaching style, 33

Mathematics curriculum, 9, 10

and attentiveness, 207

Bag It, 207

Big Math for Little Kids™, 204–207

for economically disadvantaged children, 138, 203–204

goals, 185, 202

Number Line Game, 203

Number Worlds, 202–204

Rightstart™, 202–204

standards, 278, 279, 281, 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295

Mathematics skills, 7, 80–83.

See also Numbers

addition/subtraction, 82–83, 201, 204, 206

in children with disabilities, 176

computers and, 229

culture and, 63, 82

delays in acquiring, 81

fine motor skills and, 117

infants, 73, 76, 200–201

informal, 200–201, 204

multiplication/division, 82–83

numerical thinking, 17, 45–46, 200–201

one-to-one correspondence, 201, 202

oral vs. written computations, 45–46, 204

proficiency, by child and family characteristics, 80, 82–83

quantity concept, 10, 17, 76–77, 201, 220–221, 242

rate of learning, 76

socioeconomic status and, 77, 80–81, 202

teaching strategies, 43, 83

word problems, 77, 204

Mead, Margaret, 110

Measurement skills, 206

Measurement validity, 11

Medical and dental care for children, 131

Memorization/rote learning, 8, 267

Memory

functional familiarity and, 46

literacy skills, 197, 200

strategies, 43, 44, 136, 218

Mental number line, 76–77, 202–203

Mental representations, 209

Mental retardation, 165, 254

Mental tools, 43, 45–46

Mentoring of teachers, 15

Meta-analysis

of brain imaging studies, 55–56

of interventions for children with disabilities, 167–168

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Metacognition, 8, 10, 43–44, 185, 205, 229–230, 308

Metalinguistic abilities, 218

Methods, defined, 34

Michigan School Readiness Program, 288–289, 297

Midfrontal cortex, 101

Milieu teaching, 171

Milwaukee Project, 134–135

Minnesota Learning Readiness, 288–289

Model programs

comparison studies, 137–143, 152

curriculum, 135

for economically disadvantaged children, 128–129, 130, 132–133

Modeling of approaches, 45, 156, 173

Montana, 275

Montessori, Maria, 133

Montessori approach, 183

Montreal child care centers, 155

Moral internalization, 100

Motivation, 6, 60, 108–110, 163–164, 194, 216, 217, 227

Motor development. See also Fine motor skills;

Gross motor skills

and academic success, 117

assessment of, 117, 246

by child and family

characteristics, 118–121, 123–125

content standards, 280, 282, 284, 286, 288, 290, 292, 294

culture/race/ethnicity and, 118, 119, 120–121, 124–125, 126

parents’ reports of developmental difficulties, 123–125, 126

play and, 216

variations in, 59, 117

Muscular dystrophy, 121

Music, 9, 70–73, 185

Mutual friendships, 52

N

Narrative competence, 195

National Association for the Education of Young Children, 144, 271, 278, 295, 298, 300, 301

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 298, 299, 300–301

National Center for Education Statistics, 65, 77, 84, 88, 122

National Council for Teachers of English, 278

National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education, 14, 298, 302, 312

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 244, 278

National Day Care Study, 145

National Education Goals Panel, 241

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Study of Early Child Care, 156–157

National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, 271

National Research Council, 3, 184, 262

Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, 267

Committee on the Foundations of Assessment, 242

Nature-nurture debate, 5, 54, 58

Naughty Teddy puppet, 41

Navaho language and culture, 63, 113, 115

Nebraska Early Childhood Projects, 288–289, 295

Negative communication, 48

Neuroimaging, 55–56, 101

Neuronal specificity, 54

New, Rebecca, 161

New Jersey Early Childhood Program Aid, 288–289, 297

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

New York State, 262, 288–289, 296n.3

North Carolina, 146, 155, 275

Number Line Game, 203

Number Worlds, 202–204

Numbers

adjacent values, 202

cardinality, 201, 202, 206

counting, 44, 76, 77, 82–83, 201, 202, 206

reading two-digit numerals, 77

recognition of numerals, 76, 77, 81, 82–83, 141, 206

Numerical thinking, 17, 200–201

Nutrition programs, 131

O

Object naming, 64

Object recognition, by infants, 38

Observational Record of Caregiving Environments (ORCE), 157

Ohio Head Start, Public School Preschool, 290–291, 295

Oklahoma Early Childhood Four-Year-Old Program, 290–291, 296

Oregon, 275, 290–291, 295

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 24, 160, 164

P

Parent beliefs and practices

about learning/subject matter, 18, 33, 37

and type of center attended, 145

Parent education. See also Maternal education

and cognitive performance of children, 64, 65

in therapy for children with disabilities, 174

trend, 148

Parent expectations, culture and, 112

Parent income, and cognitive performance, 64

Parent involvement

attitudes of caregivers toward, 147–149

and child development, 148

with children with disabilities, 167, 174–175

in literacy activities, 194–195, 220

in model programs, 135, 141

and preschool program quality, 18, 132, 135, 141, 147–149, 174– 175

recommended, 18, 318

Parent perceptions of their children

attentiveness, 84–85, 123–125, 126

learning attributes, 84–85, 86–89

problem/antisocial behaviors, 92–93, 106–109

prosocial behaviors, 88–89, 94–97

Pattern recognition and prediction, 206, 229

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 142, 213

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), 153, 155

Pedagogy. See also Curriculum;

Teaching strategies

and assessment, 11, 16, 17, 234, 241–252

components of, 182–183, 214

constructivist theory, 214

defined, 33–34, 182, 249

diversity of beliefs and approaches, 213–214

instructional assessment and, 11, 16, 17, 234, 241–252

sociocultural theory, 214, 215

Peer-assisted learning, 113

Peer-directed gazing, 114

Peers and peer groups. See also Child-child interactions

acceptance of ideas of, 88, 98, 100

social structure, 220

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

sociometric status, 222

networks, 52, 173, 220

perceptions of children with disabilities, 122

Pellegrino, James, 242

Pennsylvania, 153, 296n.3

Perception

and conceptual abilities, 40

in uninhibited children, 97, 100

Performance

assessment, 12, 45, 247–249, 250– 251

knowledge and, 40–41

standards, 242, 258–259, 276n.1, 295, 298

Perry Preschool Project, 134–135

Persistence of program effects, 131

Perspective-taking task, 41

Phonological awareness/skills, 17, 188, 189, 194, 195, 196–197

Phonology disorders, 174

Physical activities, 9

Physical development

and cognitive development, 7

disabilities, 121–126

motor skills, 117–121

socioeconomic status and, 6

variation in, 59

Physical education, 183–184, 185

Piaget, Jean, 130, 133, 215, 243

Piagetian stage theory, 4–5, 39–40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 58

Planned Variation Head Start study, 141

Plasticity, brain, 56–58

Play

class size and, 145

classroom centers, 192

cognitive stimulation in, 217–218

constructive, 216

creativity in, 84, 87, 89

culture and, 89

free-play activities, 216, 223

functional, 216

games, 216, 226

interest and, 110

and language and literacy, 192, 215, 216, 217–218

motivation for, 216, 217

peer relations in, 52, 219–220

pretend, 10, 50, 172, 177, 217, 219–220, 226

self-regulation and, 218–219

social competence and, 219–220

sociodramatic, 192, 216

solitary/director’s, 219

symbolic, 215

as teaching strategy, 10–11, 214, 215–220, 223, 302

Policy. See Education policy

Population of preschool-age children, 24–25

Positive reinforcement, 4, 39, 52, 193, 196

Positron emission tomography (PET), 55

Poverty, 8.

See also Welfare status and home environment, 64–65

Power/coercion strategies, 51

Practice, and brain circuitry, 57, 58

Preconceptions of children, 241, 246, 265

Preschool Grants Program, 122, 166

Preschool Language Assessment Instrument, 153

Preschool programs. See also Early childhood education and care;

Quality of preschool programs

child care distinguished from, 25

U.S. vs. OECD countries, 23–24, 26–27

Preservice education, 270–272

Pretend play, 10, 50, 172, 177, 217– 218, 219–220, 226

Primary language. See also English as primary language;

other languages

and books and music recordings in the home, 70–73

and print familiarity, 65, 66–67

and reading proficiency, 68–69

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

and story reading and telling, 74–75

Priming, 57

Print awareness, 65, 66–67, 188, 190, 191, 194, 195, 200

Print functions of, 191

Printing, 117, 188

Privileged domains, 9

Problem/antisocial behavior, 49, 50, 58, 89, 92, 102–109, 139, 213, 226

Problem solving, 7, 10, 38

child-caregiver interaction and, 42–43, 116–117

computer use and, 229

counting-on strategy, 43

cultural context for, 63

interest and, 110

language development and, 63

mental tools and, 43, 44, 45–46

science curriculum and, 211, 212

trial-and-error strategy, 43

Professional development. See Teacher preparation

Professional standards

Developmentally Appropriate Practice, 301–303

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 300–301

Program evaluation and monitoring, 11

Program standards

concerns about, 297–298

content, 17, 278, 280, 282, 284, 286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 297

program components, 297

recommended, 16–17, 316

by state, 278–298

structural components, 296–297

Project CARE, 134–135

Project Construct Assessment System, 251

Project Follow-Through, 141

Project Head Start, 183.

See also Head Start

Prosocial behavior, 88–89, 94–97, 98– 101, 139, 177–178

Public attitudes, about children with disabilities, 165

Public programs, quality of, 130– 131, 136–137

Public school system, 23

Pueblo Indian culture, 114

Q

Quality of preschool programs. See also Standards of practice;

individual programs

and academic success, 131, 132

attention to individual differences and, 173

behavior of teachers and, 269

characteristics associated with, 7–8, 20–21, 133

child-caregiver relationship and, 20–21, 133, 136, 139

and children’s learning and development, 127–144

for children with disabilities, 129, 164–179

class size and, 7, 133, 134, 144–146

classroom activities and materials and, 136, 153–157

and cognitive development, 7, 58, 128–129, 131, 136, 142

comparison studies, 137–143, 152

curriculum content and, 133, 135, 138

defined, 33, 128

developmentally appropriate practices and, 143–144

duration of program and, 131, 134

for economically disadvantaged children, 6, 8, 128, 129–137, 142, 153–154, 308

effect size, 131

for English-language learners, 7, 19, 129, 157–160

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

inclusive settings, 175–179

intensity and coherence of program and, 131, 132, 133, 135, 147

international programs, 7, 9, 21, 129, 160–164

and IQ, 131, 132

language development programs, 7, 8, 133, 136, 170– 171

local control and, 297–298

longitudinal studies, 134–135, 147, 156–157

model programs, 6, 128–129, 130– 131, 132–135

monitoring, 17

naturally occurring programs, 128–129, 143–144

parent involvement and, 132, 133, 135, 147–149, 174–175

pedagogy/teaching strategy and, 137–143

and persistence of effects, 131

public programs, 130–131, 136– 137

regulation and, 303–304, 310–311

research base, 6–7, 128–130, 134– 135, 136, 143–144

research needs, 20

socioemotional development, 7, 130, 132, 136, 172–173

staff-child ratios and, 7, 131, 133, 134, 144–146

staff qualifications and, 131, 133, 135, 149–150

standards and, 16–17, 20, 310–311

structure and, 143

teacher reflectiveness and, 9, 15, 133, 151–153

supervisor qualifications, 133

variation in programs and, 6–7, 29, 143–144

R

Race. See Culture/race/ethnicity

Readiness

curriculum component, 183–184

interpretation of, 39

testing, 12, 254–257

Reading. See also Emergent literacy;

Story reading and telling

ability in primary grades, 65, 69, 72

accuracy, 189

attentiveness to, 187

and brain circuit organization, 55, 56–57

by children with disabilities, 176

comprehension, 189, 200

culture/race and, 68–69

decoding, 200

delays, 189

dialogic, 10, 196–200

fine motor skills and, 117

and language skills, 196–200

literacy skills prerequisite to, 65– 69, 189

PEER sequence, 197–199

phonological awareness and, 189

proficiency levels of kindergarteners, 65, 68–69

programs, 7, 9, 10, 196–200, 215

readiness, 65–81

shared, 67, 74–75, 187, 190, 191, 194, 196–200, 220

standards, 278, 279

wars, 267

Reasoning, 8

Recommendations

content standards, 316–317

parent involvement, 18, 318

professional development, 12, 13–15

public awareness, 13, 18, 317–318

public policies, 12–13, 16–18, 316– 317

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
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teacher qualifications, 13

teaching materials, 12, 15–16

Regulation of early childhood education and care, 303–305

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, 165

Rehearsal strategies, 136

Relationships. See also Child-caregiver relationship

importance of, 47–53

peer, 52–53

Repetition, 58

Representational systems, 10, 187, 209, 215, 218, 242

Research. See also Scientific evidence

bridges between practice and, 31, 309–310

correlational/comparison studies, 137–143, 162, 328–329

curriculum, 9, 34

ethnographic, 326

experimental and quasi-experimental design, 326–328

generalizability of results, 136– 137, 138, 163, 176, 324–325

methodological problems, 137– 138, 140, 162

on model programs, 6–7, 128–130, 134–135, 136, 137–143

on naturally occurring variations among programs, 143–144

purposes of, 326–329

qualitative, 326

standards of evidence, 34–35

strengths in U.S., 3, 6–7, 9, 23, 24, 25, 28, 32

types of studies considered, 34–35

Research needs, 18

on assessment, 20, 320–321

on early childhood learning and development, 19, 318–319

for professional development, 15, 310

on programs and curricula, 19– 20, 310, 319–321

for universal early childhood programs, 321–322

Residential facilities, 169

Resource rooms, 168–169

Reviewing related information, 43

Rhyming and alliteration, 195

Rightstart™, 202–204

Risk factors for school failure, 8

Risk taking, in language acquisition, 62

Robinson, Nancy, 165

Role playing by children, 217–218

Rule learning, 57, 216

S

Sameroff-Chandler transactional model, 48–49

Scaffolding, 43, 113, 220–224, 315

School readiness, 25, 28

School reform movement, 300

Science curriculum, 7, 9, 10, 207–208

animate and inanimate objects, 208

block-stacking experiment, 38, 208

and eagerness to learn, 208–209

integrated, 209–210, 211

mental representations, 209

quality of, 137

recommended, 17

ScienceStart!™, 209–213

ScienceStart!™, 209–213

Science ZipKit™, 212–213

Scientific evidence

common vs. innovative measures, 330–331

conceptional orientation of investigator and, 332

methods, 323–329

precision of questions and, 328

triadic nature of early childhood education and, 331

variability of young children’s performance and, 330

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

Scientific reasoning, 10, 207–209, 220–221

Scope of report, 31–32

Scripts, 209

Seguin, 133

Selectionist view, 54

Self-determination, 110

Self-monitoring, 56

Self-motivated learning, 38, 224, 315

Self-regulation, 9, 47, 51–52, 56, 173, 212, 218–219, 229, 236

Self-sufficiency, 115

Sensory deprivation, 54–55

Separateness-relatedness continuum, 163

“Sesame Street,” 41

Shame, 111

Shape recognition, 63, 76, 77, 82–83, 206

Single-parent families

activity levels of children, 124, 126

articulation difficulties of children, 124, 126

arts and crafts with children, 79

attentiveness of children, 91, 124, 126

behavior of children, 89, 93, 94– 95

books and music recordings in homes of, 67, 70–73

eagerness to learn of children, 86, 91

math proficiency of children, 82

motor skills of children, 119, 120, 124

perceptions of children’s learning attributes, 85, 86–93

print familiarity of children, 65, 66–67

and problem/antisocial behaviors of children, 102– 103, 106–107

prosocial behavior of children, 98–99

reading proficiency of children, 68–69

song singing with children, 78

story reading and telling in, 74– 75

task persistence of children, 86, 90

Size relationships, recognition by children, 76, 82–83

Slosson-IQ, 153

Social developmental pathways, 110–111

Social group status, 52

Social interaction

by children with disabilities, 177– 178

class size and, 145

computers and, 16, 225–226

interest and, 110

language learning and, 62

teacher-child ratio and, 7

Social organization, culture/ ethnicity and, 112–114

Social skills/competence

and adaptability, 105

attachment security and, 49–50, 306–307

and culture, 110–111

curriculum goal, 185

defined, 222

and learning, 2, 7

peer relations and, 52–53, 222

play and, 219–220

socioeconomic status and, 6

teacher-child relationship and, 7

variation in, 59, 85–93, 94–101, 102–105, 106–109

Social status hierarchies, 173

Social studies, 185

Socialization of children, 37, 51

and academic achievement, 85

and cognitive development, 7, 34, 85, 237–237

contextual considerations, 46, 85, 101, 104

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

language and, 63–64

Sociocultural theory, 42–46, 214, 215, 266

Sociodramatic play, 192, 216

Socioeconomic status

and child-parent relationship, 64, 67

and cognitive development, 6, 7, 58, 64, 128–129, 130, 131

dialogic reading intervention, 196

as group risk factor, 69

as individual risk factor, 69

and language development, 61– 62, 67, 196

and mathematics skills, 77, 80

and physical development, 6

and reading ability, 69, 72

and risk of school failure, 8, 308– 309

and social development, 6

and staff attitudes toward parents, 148

Socioemotional development. See also Social skills/competence ;

Temperament

child care and, 25

in children with disabilities, 172– 173, 176, 177–178

classroom environment and, 50, 58, 172

culture/ethnicity and, 104, 110– 117

curriculum, 184, 185

in economically disadvantaged children, 130, 132

interaction styles and, 115–117

and learning, 46, 85, 307

peer relations and, 52–53

physical development and, 307

program standards, 281, 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295, 297

quality of preschool programs and, 7, 130, 132, 136, 172–173

research needs, 19

social organization and, 112–114

sociolinguistics and, 114

Sociolinguistics, 114

Song singing, 67, 78, 80

Sound foundations program, 196– 197

South Carolina Early Childhood Program, 290–291

Spanish first-language classroom, 157–159

Spatial relations, 206, 229

Special education placements, 132, 140, 166, 170–171, 240, 253

Speech

disorders, 123–125, 126, 167, 171, 173, 174

role playing and, 217–218

word-processing programs with, 228

Spencer Foundation, 4, 30

Staff-child ratios, 7, 17, 20, 131, 133, 134, 137, 140, 144–146, 147, 161, 162, 296, 303, 309

Standardized tests. See also IQ tests/ scores

accommodations, 239

accountability uses, 11, 12, 17, 20, 233, 240, 257–258

alternatives to, 12;

see also Assessment

of children with disabilities, 11, 239–240

of cognitive ability, 137, 239

developmental considerations, 236–237

developmental screening, 44, 252–253

interpretation of results, 11, 235

issues in use of, 11, 12, 235–240

limitations, 240, 243

misuse/misinterpretation of, 12, 240, 257, 259, 260

norms, 238, 239, 240

readiness (selection) testing, 252, 254–257

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

of social development, 137

statistical power and generalizability, 258

summative natures of, 249

theoretical basis, 12

training of teachers/ administrators, 12

validity of results, 12, 137

Standards. See also Program standards;

Standards of practice

of evidence, 34–35

Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 253

Standards of achievement, 278

Standards of learning, 278

Standards of practice

advantages and disadvantages, 277

challenges in setting, 29

curriculum, 17, 278, 279

domains addressed by, 294–295

instructional/performance, 242, 258–259, 276n.1, 278, 295, 298

mandatory, 298

professional, 300–303

recommended, 16–17, 20

teacher qualifications, 296–297, 298–300

voluntary, 298

States

accreditation of teachers, 302

child care licensing standards, 274, 303–304

program standards development, 16–17, 278–298, 302, 316

recommended role, 316–317

Story reading and telling, 10, 67, 74– 77, 186, 190, 191, 193

Strategic competence, 43–44

Stress in students, 144

Stroop task, 101

Student teaching/internships, 14, 15, 271

Subsidy strategies in OECD countries, 27

Sucking, nonnutritive, 37–38

Supervisors of early childhood education, 14–15, 16–17, 133, 152, 153, 309, 312–313

Sweden, 26–27

Symbolic abilities, 5, 40, 46, 205, 218

Synapse overproduction and pruning, 54

T

Talkativeness, 62

Task persistence, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, 92, 208

Taxonomic classifications, 112

Teacher Beliefs Scale, 264

Teacher preparation. See also Child care programs;

Standards of practice

and academic achievement of students, 262

as assessors, 260

and behavior of children, 149– 150

and behavior of teachers, 265, 268, 273–274

and beliefs and practices, 263– 267 , 269, 273, 275

child development associate credential, 17, 263, 297, 299– 300

for children with disabilities, 176–177, 298–299

computers and, 16

content and structure of programs, 271

demonstration schools for, 15, 313–314

and developmental outcomes, 9, 309

and developmentally appropriate practices, 264, 266–267, 269, 271, 274–275

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

evaluation of, 15, 17, 263, 267– 269, 272–274

in-service education, 15, 152, 263, 264, 265, 272–275, 276, 310

and interactions with children, 271, 273

international standards, 24, 161– 162

in model programs, 131, 133, 135, 141, 149–150, 264, 272

outside consultants for teacher support, 151–152, 176

preservice education, 14, 15, 270– 272, 276, 298, 310, 312–313

professional development, 9, 13– 15, 16–17, 263–267, 270, 275– 276, 309, 311–314, 316

and quality of preschool programs, 8, 9, 149–150, 162– 163, 164, 224, 263, 272, 273, 309

racial/cultural imbalances in, 299

recommended, 13–15, 16–17, 311– 314, 316

research base, 262, 276

research needs, 15, 313–314

standards, 296–297, 303, 313

status in U.S., 261

student teaching/internships, 14, 15, 271, 312–313

work time spent on, 264

workshops, 274

Teachers, early childhood. See also Staff-child ratios

as assessors, 16, 244, 249–251, 252, 260, 267, 314–315

as attachment figures, 49, 85

behavior with students, 7, 9, 145, 149–150, 153, 156, 268

beliefs about subject matter, 264– 267

career ladders, 17–18, 317

certification of, 298–300

compensation, 150, 162, 300, 317

critical characteristics, 268–269

curriculum guidelines for, 15–16, 215

efficacy of, 269

perceptions of children’s learning attributes, 84–85, 91, 93

reflection on practice, 9, 15, 151– 153

responsiveness to children’s differences, 8

views of readiness testing, 255, 256

Teachers’ perceptions of children

of learning attributes, 90–93

problem behaviors, 92–93, 102– 105

prosocial behavior, 88–89, 98–101

Teaching assistants, 17

Teaching strategies, 7

appropriateness of, 16–17

assessment of, 11, 16, 17, 20, 234, 241–252, 257, 259–260, 267–269

and behavior of children, 139– 140

beliefs about subject matter and, 264–267

child-initiated instruction, 138– 139, 222, 223–224, 302, 315

for children with disabilities, 170, 171–173

cognitive and language activity, 139, 217–218

and cognitive development, 43, 139

comparison studies, 137–143, 152

components, 33–34

computers and, 225–228

cultural context, 29, 33, 111, 162– 164, 267

defined, 182–183

developmentally appropriate practices, 143–144, 170, 302

direct teacher-initiated instruction, 11, 138–140, 144, 214, 222, 224, 302, 315

discourse pattern, 136

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

drill-and-practice, 226–227, 228, 229, 230

effective approaches, 10, 84–85, 267–269

indirect instruction, 224, 315

initiation-reply-evaluation sequence, 136

instructional assessment and, 249–252

interactive, 139

for language development, 139, 171, 220, 223–224

mand-model, 171

milieu teaching, 171

model programs, 136, 137–143

narrative, 84

naturalistic, 171

observation of children, 227–228

outside consultants for teacher support, 151–152

play as, 10–11, 214, 215–220, 223, 302

reflective, 9, 15, 133, 149–150, 151–153, 267, 309, 313

research base, 28, 35

scaffolding, 84, 220–224, 315

for self-regulation, 218–219

for social competence, 138–139, 219–220

structured activities, 10–11

teacher preparation and, 267–269

theoretical trends, 39

Tools of the Mind, 215

traditional approaches, 138, 140

types of, 138–139

for understanding, 267

Technological intelligence, 237–238

Temperament

and acquisition of knowledge, skills, or beliefs, 108

assessment of, 96–97, 101

context of socialization and, 101, 104

defined, 93, 96

dimensions of, 97, 100–101

and environmental demands, 104–105

variation in, 6, 60

Tennessee, 146

Tests of Early Language Development, 153

Texas, 262, 292–293, 296n.3

Theories of mind, 44

Thomas, Alexander, 97

Transactional models, 48–49

Treatment-by-aptitude interactions, 139

Tuning neurons, 57

Turkish language, 60–61

Turkish preschools, 163

Turn taking, 226

Two-generation programs, 4

U

Uninhibited children, 97, 104–105

United Kingdom, 26–27

University of California at Los Angeles, Child Care Service Centers, 221n.2

U.S. Commissioner of Education, 147

U.S. Department of Education

data on children with disabilities, 170–171

Kindergarten Teacher Survey on Student Readiness, 255

Office of Education Research and Improvement, 4, 30

Office of Special Education Programs, 4, 30

recommended roles, 15, 16, 314, 315

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

recommended roles, 15, 16, 315

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
×

V

Verbal interaction, 67, 190–191

Vermont Early Education Initiative, 292–293, 296

Virginia Preschool, 292–293, 296n.3

Visual word form, 57

Vygotsky, Lev, 39, 42, 43, 45, 205, 215, 219, 245–247

W

Washington (state) Early Childhood and Assistance Program, 294– 295

Welfare status

and activity levels of children, 124, 126

and articulation difficulties of children, 124, 126

and arts and crafts with family, 79

and attentiveness of children, 91, 124, 126

and books and music recordings in the home, 70–73

and creativity of children’s work/play, 87

and eagerness to learn, 87, 91

and prosocial behaviors of children, 89, 94–95, 98–99

and reading proficiency of children, 68–69

and song singing with family, 78

and story reading and telling by family, 74–77

and task persistence, 86, 90

West Virginia, 296n.3

Whites

interaction styles, 115

motor skills, 118

Whiting, John and Beatrice, 110

Whole-child approach, 9–10, 32–33, 130

Wisconsin, 146, 296n.3

Wolery, Mark, 164n.2

Words

association, 56

beginning and ending sounds, 65, 68–69, 141

in context, 68–69

recognition, 10, 68–69, 193–194

Work Sampling System, 250, 251

Writing

competence, 195, 200

intervention, 215

standards, 278, 279

Z

Zone of proximal development, 10, 43, 45, 214, 215, 219, 220, 245– 246

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9745.
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Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers Get This Book
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Clearly babies come into the world remarkably receptive to its wonders. Their alertness to sights, sounds, and even abstract concepts makes them inquisitive explorers--and learners--every waking minute. Well before formal schooling begins, children's early experiences lay the foundations for their later social behavior, emotional regulation, and literacy. Yet, for a variety of reasons, far too little attention is given to the quality of these crucial years. Outmoded theories, outdated facts, and undersized budgets all play a part in the uneven quality of early childhood programs throughout our country.

What will it take to provide better early education and care for our children between the ages of two and five? Eager to Learn explores this crucial question, synthesizing the newest research findings on how young children learn and the impact of early learning. Key discoveries in how young children learn are reviewed in language accessible to parents as well as educators: findings about the interplay of biology and environment, variations in learning among individuals and children from different social and economic groups, and the importance of health, safety, nutrition and interpersonal warmth to early learning. Perhaps most significant, the book documents how very early in life learning really begins. Valuable conclusions and recommendations are presented in the areas of the teacher-child relationship, the organization and content of curriculum, meeting the needs of those children most at risk of school failure, teacher preparation, assessment of teaching and learning, and more. The book discusses:

  • Evidence for competing theories, models, and approaches in the field and a hard look at some day-to-day practices and activities generally used in preschool.
  • The role of the teacher, the importance of peer interactions, and other relationships in the child's life.
  • Learning needs of minority children, children with disabilities, and other special groups.
  • Approaches to assessing young children's learning for the purposes of policy decisions, diagnosis of educational difficulties, and instructional planning.
  • Preparation and continuing development of teachers.

Eager to Learn presents a comprehensive, coherent picture of early childhood learning, along with a clear path toward improving this important stage of life for all children.

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