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Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice (2001)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Index

A

Abuse and neglect,

see Child abuse

Adjudication, 2, 157-162, 164-181 (passim), 222, 226

see also Attorneys;

Constitutional law;

Diversion;

Probation and parole;

Sentencing

adult courts, general, 13, 18-19, 154, 155, 204-209;

see also Waiver to adult justice system

age factors, general, 1, 167, 170-173, 206-209 (passim), 212, 215-216

black persons, 167, 231, 232, 237, 250, 254-257

child abuse, 162

confidentiality, 205, 212-213

conviction rates, 160

data submitted by courts, 156

detention and, 178, 179, 181

developmental factors, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 157, 166

double jeopardy, 159-160

due process, 158-159, 160, 244-245

gender factors, 167, 203, 204, 214

historical perspectives, 13, 154, 157-162, 167, 214-215, 220-222

international perspectives, 17, 18-19, 20

jury trials, 160, 166

peer group interventions vs, 135

preventive interventions, 125

projection methodology, 62

racial factors, 6, 8, 156, 167, 216, 232, 237, 247, 249, 250-259 (passim)

white persons, 255, 256, 257

Adult criminal justice system, ix, 4, 5, 19, 161, 192

adult courts, general, 13, 18-19, 154, 155, 204-209;

see also Waiver to adult justice system

blended juvenile and adult sentencing, 5, 210-211, 219-220, 223

blurring of lines between juvenile system and, 4, 13

conviction rates, 160

historical perspectives, 157, 159

incarceration, 6, 12, 17, 161, 217-218, 219, 220-222, 225, 231;

see also “blended...” supra

international perspectives, 17, 19, 21

police encounters with adults, 164

African Americans,

see Black persons

After care, 194-200, 350-352

see also Probation and parole;

Surveillance

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Age factors, 3, 11, 54

see also Developmental factors;

Prenatal/perinatal risk factors;

Status offenses

adjudication, general, 1, 167, 170-173, 206-209 (passim), 212, 215-216

adult criminal justice system, age of waiver to, 1, 25, 206-209 (passim), 215-216, 220, 250

after care, 196-199

arrest rates, 10, 14, 27, 28, 32-48, 322

assault, 37, 39, 41, 46

child abuse, 96-97

community age structure, 96-97

criminal justice system, understanding of, 16

criminal responsibility, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 157, 206

definition of juvenile, 23, 236

detention, alternatives to, 180-183

elderly persons, 330, 331, 332, 336

gender related to, 68, 69, 95

gun use, 10, 209, 216

homicide, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 62-63, 207, 209, 322, 325, 326, 333, 336-344

incarceration, 186-187, 220, 221, 222

international perspectives, criminal responsibility, 17, 18, 20

job training, 151

juvenile justice system, 16, 157, 167, 170-173, 175-176, 180-183, 206-211 (passim), 215, 256

longitudinal studies, 68, 72

parental discipline, 78

peer influences, 80-82

prevalence, 10, 27, 28, 32-56, 64, 68, 319, 320-348

preventive interventions, 8, 105, 152

projections of crime rates, 319, 320-348

property crime, 48-53

rape, 37, 38, 40

research methodology, 10, 64

risk factors, general, 10-11, 67-69, 71, 72, 73, 76-77, 85, 87, 96-97, 105

robbery, 37, 39, 41

school suspension/expulsion, 85, 87

sentencing, 210-212, 253-254

suicide, 45

teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 116, 242

victim-offender mediation, 175-176

victims of crime, 29, 30, 35, 42

victim's perception of offender, 29, 35, 64

violent crimes, 10, 33-48 (passim), 54, 68, 207, 322, 323, 324, 326-329;

see also “assault”, “homicide,” and “rape” supra

Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 109

Alcohol and drug abuse, 14, 23, 56-57

see also Smoking

adult justice system, waiver to, 214-215, 216, 220

after care, 194, 196-197, 199

black persons, 56, 63, 97-98, 258

cocaine, 9, 57, 71, 97, 98, 104, 190, 258, 317, 330

community-based interventions, 141, 143, 146-147

community-level factors, 93, 97-98

crack cocaine, 45, 46, 97, 98, 330

defined, 317-318

detention, alternatives to, 182-183

detention for, 177

developmental factors, 73-74

gender factors, 56-57, 59, 102, 203

heroin, 9, 71, 104, 317

historical perspectives, 54, 55, 56-57

homicides, 43-44, 45-46

incarceration, 45, 186, 187, 190-191, 220

marijuana, 55, 141, 147

peer group interventions, 137

policing policies, 98, 245

prenatal exposure, 9, 71, 104-105, 108

prevalence, 43-44, 45-46, 54, 55, 56-57, 59, 74, 330, 332

preventive interventions, 9, 108, 122, 129, 137, 141, 143, 146-147, 152-153

racial factors, 56, 63, 97-98, 258

school-based interventions, 122, 129

status offenses, 54, 55, 59, 74, 160

testing offenders, 194

American Bar Association, 211

American Correctional Association, 226

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

American Indians

adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 220

juvenile justice system, 8, 155, 234, 258

residential segregation, 91

sentence length, 253

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 179

Arkansas, 187

Arrest rates, 32, 34, 62, 90, 322

see also Prevalence;

Recidivism;

Uniform Crime Reports

after care, 197

age factors, 10, 14, 27, 28, 32-48, 322

black persons, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235-237, 244, 246, 254, 255, 256, 257

community-based interventions, 141, 143

curfews and, 145

data sources, 26-29

diversion programs, 171, 173

drug offenses, 54, 55, 56-57, 97-98

employment effects, 151, 197, 199, 203

gender factors, 34, 56, 57-60, 164, 203, 244, 245-246, 322

guns, 44, 47

Internet, 32, 35, 40

job training, 151, 197, 199

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64

police policies, 2, 6, 26, 27, 29, 46-47, 163-164, 244, 245-246

preventive interventions, 111, 141, 143

property crime, 27, 32, 33, 34, 48-53

racial factors, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230-237 (passim), 244-249 (passim), 254, 255, 256, 257, 259

research methodology, 10, 26-29, 37, 42, 61, 62

state-level factors, 26, 63-64

status offenses, 54-56

violent crimes, 37-48, 62-63, 146

weapons, 41, 44, 164

Arson, 17, 32, 33, 51, 53

defined, 316

Asians, 234, 240-241

arrest rates, 230

incarceration, 222

school suspension, 85

Assault

see also Homicide

age factors, 37, 39, 41, 46

community-based interventions, 141

defined, 316

detention for, 177

gender factors, 59, 60, 235

police policies, 46-47, 48

prevalence, 2, 32, 36, 37, 39, 41, 46-48, 235, 322

racial factors, 235, 236, 238, 242, 246

victim-offender mediation, 175

Attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190

Attitudes

fear of victimization, 1, 99, 106, 133, 143, 145, 155, 158, 162, 316, 328

gun culture, 98

mentoring, 149

peer group interventions, 136-137

of police, 244, 245

toward police, 246

racial bias, 220-222, 242, 244-246 (passim), 250, 251-253

school suspension, 85

stigma of delinquency, 31, 157, 174, 212, 216, 242, 328;

see also Confidentiality

students, 122

superpredators, ix, 7, 25, 328-329

about violence, general, 330

Attorneys

effectiveness of, 166-167

prosecutorial filings, waivers to adult system, 5, 155, 207, 208-209, 214, 215, 216, 223

prosecutors, other, 19, 156, 226, 247, 259, 329

right to representation by, 166

Australia, 18-19

Austria, 18-19, 20

Automobile theft,

see Motor vehicle theft

B

Behavioral modification interventions, 11, 112, 118, 124-125, 130-131, 192, 193-194, 225

contingent reinforcement, 123, 131, 147

mentoring, 147

Belgium, 18-19, 20

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Black persons, 68, 228, 230

adjudication, 167, 231, 232, 237, 250, 254-257

adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 220, 221, 231, 232, 233, 250, 257-258

arrest rates, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235-237, 244, 246, 254, 255, 256, 257

community-level factors, 90-92, 237-238, 240-241, 258

detention, 178, 179, 182, 233

drug use, 56, 63, 97-98, 258

gangs, 95

homicides, 98, 339-344

homicide victims, 42

incarceration, 220, 221, 222, 232, 233, 255, 256, 257

juvenile justice system, 3, 6, 8, 167, 216, 220, 221, 230-258 (passim)

marital status, 252

policing policies, 243-244, 246

poverty, 237-238, 240, 245, 258

prevalence, 3, 34, 56;

see also “arrest rates” supra

probation, 233

risk factors, general, 56, 63, 76, 85, 86, 90-92, 95, 97-98, 237-241, 242, 252

school suspension, 85, 86

self-reports of delinquency, 31

sentencing, 252-253

single-parent families, 76, 252

suicide rates, 46

victims of crime, 244

Brain functioning, 16

Breed v. Jones, 159-160

Britain,

see United Kingdom

Bureau of Justice Statistics, 64, 225, 333

Bureau of the Census, 323-324, 336, 340

Burglary, 27, 32, 33, 49, 50, 52, 322

defined, 316

gender factors, 59

racial factors, 238

victim-offender mediation, 175

C

Canada, 17

after-school interventions, 149-150

homicides, 45-46

Capital punishment, 21, 157, 187, 211, 252-253

Car theft,

see Motor vehicle theft

Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 10, 186, 225

Child abuse, 3-4, 78-79, 96-97, 103

court involvement, 162

defined, 317

incarcerated juveniles, 186-187

preventive interventions, 111, 116

sexual, 31, 204

Children in Custody Census, 186

see also Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement

Children's Defense Fund, 211

Cocaine, 9, 57, 71, 97, 98, 104, 190, 258, 317, 330

see also Crack cocaine

Community-level factors, 21

see also Familial factors;

Local government;

Peers and friends;

Rural areas;

School-based interventions;

Schools, other;

Surveillance

after care, 194-200, 350-352;

see also Probation and parole

alcohol and drug abuse, general, 93, 97-98

alcohol and drug abuse interventions, 141, 143, 146-147

arrest rates and interventions, 141, 143

assault, interventions, 141

black persons, 90-92, 237-238, 240-241, 258

community service, 172-173, 179, 227

counseling, 140-141

detention/incarceration, alternatives to, 7, 141, 176, 195, 200, 213, 224

diversion, 170-173

economic development, 90-92, 96, 103, 145-146

socioeconomic status, 139, 141-142, 143, 147, 148

educational attainment, 141, 147

employment effects of criminal embeddedness, 201, 203

familial interventions, 4, 79-80, 95, 105, 139, 140-144

funding, 7, 8, 213, 224

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 144-145, 330

gender factors, 83, 93-94, 95, 96, 101

guns, 97, 98-99

homicide, 146

housing, 139, 140-141, 142-144, 145, 240, 241

mass media interventions, 140-141, 147

mentoring, 140-141, 147-149

multisystemic therapy, 174, 224

nutrition, 141

police policies, 144-145, 246

prenatal/perinatal care, 96

preventive interventions, general, ix, 4-6, 7, 20, 107, 138-151, 152, 170

racial factors, 90-92, 95, 96, 103, 147, 236, 237-238, 240-241, 259;

see also “segregation” infra

research methodology, 7, 138-151 (passim), 193

restorative justice model, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223;

see also Mediation;

Restitution

risk factors, general, ix, 2, 3, 4, 11, 15, 66, 67, 79-80, 83-100, 103, 105, 330

segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241

smoking interventions, 141, 146-147

treatment of offenders in, 5-6

urban areas, 139, 142-144, 146-147

victim interventions, 141, 143, 145

violent crime, general, 97-99, 103, 145-146

Community service, 172-173, 179, 227

Conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190

Confidentiality, 205, 212-213

Constitutional law, 158-160, 208

capital punishment, 211

double jeopardy, 159-160

due process, 158-159, 160, 244-245

Contempt charges, 204

Contingent reinforcement, 123, 131, 147

Co-offending, 10, 28, 64

peer influences, 81, 93

Correctional facilities,

see Detention;

Incarceration

Cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 12, 193, 226

after-school interventions, 150

detention/confinement, alternatives to, 7, 179

drug use, 98

early childhood interventions, 116, 118, 133, 134-135

incarceration, 155

peer group interventions, 135

prenatal interventions, 109, 116

property crimes, 48

Counseling, 88, 192

after care, 194, 196

community-based interventions, 140-141

detention, alternatives to, 180-181, 182-183, 247, 249

diversion and, 170

family, 170, 173, 174, 182-183, 184, 194, 196, 198;

see also “parent” infra

mentors, 140-141, 147-149

parent, 112, 113, 118, 136-137, 182-183, 184

peer, 82, 132, 135, 136-137

probation and, 184

racial factors, 247, 249

student, 113, 131, 132, 133

Courts,

see Adjudication

Crack cocaine, 45, 46, 97-98, 330

Curfews, 54, 55, 57-58, 145, 163, 179

after care, 194

defined, 318

D

Day care, 117-118

Death sentence,

see Capital punishment

Definitional issues, 23

academic tracking, 87

alcohol and drug abuse, 317-318

child abuse and neglect, 78-79

criminal delinquency, 162

diversion, 169

due process, 244(n.4)

juvenile, 23, 236

juvenile justice, 156

probation, 185

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

racial disparity, 229-231

status offenses, 162

Uniform Crime Reports, 315-318

Delaware, 188

Demographic factors

see also Age factors;

Gender factors;

Marital status;

Race/ethnicity;

Rural areas;

Urban areas

detention, 177

projections of crime rates, 61, 319, 320, 336

Denmark, 18-19, 20

Department of Education

Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 1

Department of Justice, 10

see also Federal Bureau of Investigation;

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Bureau of Justice Statistics, 64, 225, 333

Detention, 2, 4, 7, 156, 176-182, 223-224

see also Incarceration

adjudication and, 178, 179, 181

age factors in alternatives to, 180-183

attorneys, right to, 166

black persons, 178, 179, 182, 233

community-based alternatives to detention/incarceration, 7, 141, 176, 195, 200, 213, 224

community service, 172-173, 179, 227

costs of alternatives to, 7, 179

counseling as alternative to, 180-181, 182-183, 247, 249

drug abuse, 177, 182-183

familial factors, 178, 180-181

gender factors, 178, 179, 203-204

historical perspectives, 158, 159, 161, 162, 177

mental illness and, 178, 223

peers and friends, 178

police policies, 164

racial factors, 178, 179, 182, 232, 233, 247, 249

recidivism and, 181, 183

school-based alternatives to, 182-183

schools, impacts on education of detainee, 178

sentencing and, 177

standards, 12, 226

status offenses, 176, 177-178, 180-182

urban areas, 179

Deterrence, 2, 4, 21, 85, 192, 210, 218, 330

see also Recidivism

Developmental factors, 1, 3, 5, 14, 15-16, 22, 66-106

see also Age factors;

Early childhood development;

Familial factors;

Parental factors;

Prenatal/perinatal risk factors

adjudication,

criminal responsibility, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 157

right to an attorney, decision, 166

alcohol and drug abuse, 73-74

attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190

conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190

gender factors, 67, 73

hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191

impulsivity, 9, 67, 70, 71, 72, 77, 100, 102, 104, 121, 131, 328

language development, 3, 72-73, 105

longitudinal studies, 67, 68, 72, 74, 75, 77, 105

racial factors, 67, 72, 228

research methodology, 66-67, 79

socioeconomic status and, 72

workshop agenda, 352-353

Diet,

see Nutrition

Disproportionate Minority Confinement initiative, 228-229

see also Race/ethnicity

Diversion, 155, 167-176, 223

arrest rates, 171, 173

community-level factors, 170-173

counseling, 170, 173, 174

defined, 169

family counseling, 170, 173, 174

foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224

mediation, 132, 170-171, 175-176;

see also “restitution” infra

peers and friends, 172-173

recidivism, 169, 171, 176

restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223

restorative justice model, general, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223

school-based interventions, 172-173

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Divorce, 75

Double jeopardy, 159-160

Dropouts, 88, 104, 121, 147

job training, 151

Drug abuse,

see Alcohol and drug abuse

Due process, 158-159, 160, 244-245

E

Early childhood development, 3, 12, 67, 68, 70-74 (passim), 84-85, 95, 101, 105

see also Prenatal/perinatal risk factors

cost-effectiveness of interventions, 116, 118, 133, 134-135

employment and, 116

peer interventions, 116, 138

preventive interventions, 108-119, 123, 132-135, 138, 151-152

racial factors, 238, 239-240

school-based interventions, 123, 132-133

Economic factors

see also Cost and cost-effectiveness factors;

Employment factors;

Funding;

Socioeconomic status

community-based, 90-92, 96, 103, 145-146

prevalence of crime, 330

Education, 3, 8-9, 14

see also School-based interventions;

Schools, other

after care, 196

detained persons, 223

incarcerated persons, 5, 11, 14, 186, 187, 188, 189-190, 223, 225

Educational attainment

community-based interventions, 141, 147

detained/incarcerated persons, 223

police, 245

Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 189

Elderly persons, 330, 331, 332, 336

Electronic monitoring, 194

Emotional factors, 4, 15-16

attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190

conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190

hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191

impulsivity, 9, 67, 70, 71, 72, 77, 100, 102, 104, 121, 131, 328

preventive interventions, 121, 123, 124, 126, 131

Employment factors

after-school interventions, 149

arrest rates, 151, 197, 199, 203

community-level factors, 201, 203

early childhood interventions, 116

gender factors, 201, 202

incarceration, 5, 202

job training/placement, 150-151, 196, 197-198

juvenile justice system involvement and, 5, 200-203

maternal employment, 14

mentoring, 147

parental employment, 14, 238, 239

peer factors, 201

racial factors, 202, 238, 239, 240

England and Wales, 18-19, 20

Ethnicity,

see Race/ethnicity

Europe, 17

F

Familial factors, 172-174

see also Child abuse;

Marital status;

Parental factors

after care, 194

community-based interventions, 4, 79-80, 95, 105, 139, 140-144

counseling, 170, 173, 174, 182-183, 184, 194, 196, 198

definition of offenses against family, 317

detention, 178, 180-181

diversion and counseling, 170, 173, 174

foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224

historical perspectives, 75

home visitation, 108-116 (passim), 118, 119

housing, 139, 140-141, 142-144, 145, 240, 241

intergenerational effects of criminality, 201, 202

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

longitudinal studies, 77, 111-115 (passim), 118-119

mentoring, 149

multisystemic therapy, 174, 224

number of children, 77

peer influences, 81

preventive interventions, ix, 8, 20, 107, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 152

probation, 183

racial factors, 240

research methodology, 79, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 193

risk factors, general, 3, 15, 22, 69, 74, 75-80, 81, 95, 103, 105, 240, 330

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 10, 32-33, 35, 37-42, 49, 50, 64

see also Uniform Crime Reports

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64

status offenses, 54, 55

Federal government, ix, 7, 13, 225

see also Funding;

Legislation;

specific departments and agencies

incarcerated persons, treatment of, 11, 155

jurisdiction, 155

prenatal exposure to alcohol/drugs, interventions, 9, 105

preventive interventions, 105, 152

projections of crime and, 64-65

school interventions, 105

Females,

see Gender factors;

Prenatal/perinatal risk factors

Fines, 159, 166, 172-173, 195

Firearms,

see Guns

Florida, 216

Food,

see Nutrition

Forecasts,

see Projections

Foreign-born persons,

see Immigrants

Foreign countries,

see International perspectives;

specific countries

Foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224

France, 18-19

Friends,

see Peers and friends

Funding, 7, 9, 11-12

after care, 200

community-based treatments, 7, 8, 213, 224

female juvenile offense research, 10

incarceration, federal funding requirements, 11, 155

incarceration, research on, 225, 226, 228-229

research, general, 64, 152, 153, 226-227, 228-229

state funding for preventive interventions, 153, 225

state juvenile justice systems, federal funding, 155

G

Gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 330

police policies, 144-145

in re Gault, 159

Gender factors, 108

see also Marital status;

Prenatal/perinatal risk factors;

Rape;

Teenage parents

adjudication, 167, 203, 204, 214

adult justice system, waiver to, 214

age factors and, 68, 69, 95

arrest rates, 34, 56, 57-60, 164, 203, 244, 245-246, 322

assault, 59, 60, 235

burglary, 59

child abuse, 101, 102

community-level factors and, 83, 93-94, 95, 96, 101

contempt charges, 204

curfew violations, 57-58

detention, 178, 179, 203-204

developmental factors, 67, 73

drug use, 56-57, 59, 102, 203

employment and justice system involvement, 201, 202

foster care, 175

gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 144-145, 330

guns, 45, 98-99

homicide, 61, 339

incarceration, 102, 158, 186-187, 203-204

intelligence, 102

juvenile justice system, 10, 106, 156, 158, 164, 167, 175-176, 178, 179, 201, 202, 203-204, 214, 227

longitudinal studies, 101, 204

maternal behavior, general, 108

maternal employment, 14

mental illness, 3, 102, 190

mentoring, 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

peers and friends, 100, 137;

see also “gangs” supra

police policies, 243, 245

prevalence, 34, 56, 57-60, 322, 328;

see also “arrest rates” supra

probation, 158, 204

property crimes, 58, 203

prostitution, 58

racial factors and, 67, 95, 96, 235, 241-242, 244

recidivism, 69

risk factors, 11, 57-60, 68, 69, 76-77, 83, 85, 93-94, 95, 96, 98, 100-102, 106

robbery, 60, 235

runaways, 56, 57-58, 59, 101

school-based interventions, 125

school suspension, 85

self-reports of delinquency, 31, 58

sentencing, 203, 253-254

status offenses, 203, 204

suicide, 45, 46, 102

theft, 59, 60

vandalism, 59, 60

victims of crime, 101

victim-offender mediation, 175-176

violent crimes, 58, 59, 69, 203, 241-242, 328-329

weapons use, 60, 235

General Accounting Office, 215, 250

Genetic factors, 66, 230

Geographic factors, 90, 258, 322, 324

see also Community-level factors;

Rural areas;

State-level factors;

Urban areas

arrest data, 26

gender, juvenile justice system, 204

homicide, 42

residential segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241

Germany, 18-19, 20, 21

Government role,

see Federal government;

Local government;

State government

Guggenheim Foundation, 1

Guns, 44-45, 97, 106

adult justice system, waiver to, 209, 215

age factors, 10, 209, 216

arrest rates, 44, 47

blacks, 98

community-level factors, 97, 98-99

gender factors, 45, 98-99

gun/drug culture, 98

homicides, 2, 42-43, 44, 45-46, 47, 63, 98, 99

peer influences, 83

prevalence of, 2, 10, 42-47 (passim), 330

racial factors, 46

status offenses, 54

suicides, 44-45, 46

H

Health care

incarcerated persons, 188

Health insurance, detention and coverage, 178

Heroin, 9, 71, 104, 317

Hispanics

adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 219, 220

arrest rates, 34, 230, 246

classification of, 230

gangs, 95

incarceration, 219, 220, 222

juvenile justice system, 8, 34, 219, 220, 222, 230, 238-241, 246, 252, 258

policing policies, 246

preventive interventions, 117

risk factors, 85, 90-91, 95, 238-241, 252

school suspension, 85

socioeconomic factors, 238-239, 240

urban neighborhoods, 90-91

Historical perspectives, 2, 25, 107, 204-205, 320-329

see also Prevalence

adjudication, 13, 154, 157-162, 167, 214-215, 220-222

adult justice system, general, 157, 159

adult justice system, waiver to, 214-215, 220-222

age of criminal responsibility, 14

detention, 158, 159, 161, 162, 177

drug offenses, 54, 55, 56-57

familial risk factors, 75

gangs, 93-94

incarceration, 157, 158, 160-161, 187, 220-222

juvenile justice system, 5, 154-155, 203

legislation and policy, 4, 13-14

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 28

police policies, 144, 160, 163

preventive interventions, 13, 161

probation, 158, 160, 184

property crimes, 48-53, 324

racial bias, 220-222, 250

sentence length, 218

status offenses, 54-56, 160, 161

suicides, 44-45

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 28

urban neighborhoods, poverty, 90-91

violent crime, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 162, 322, 323, 324, 325, 332-335, 341-342

waiver to adult justice system, 214-215, 220-222

Homeless persons, 30

Home visitation, 108-116 (passim), 118, 119

Homicide, 3 see also

Suicide

adult justice system, waiver to, 207, 209, 214, 216

age factors, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 62-63, 207, 209, 322, 325, 326, 333, 336-344

alcohol and drug abuse and, 43-44, 45-46

black persons, 42, 98, 339-344

community-based interventions, 146

defined, 315

gender factors, 61, 339

gun-related, 2, 42-43, 44, 45-46, 47, 63, 98, 99

international perspectives, 21, 45-46

Internet, 40, 43

prevalence, 1, 2, 21, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 42-46, 47, 62-63

projections, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344

Uniform Crime Reports, 27, 28, 29, 37, 42

racial factors, 42, 98, 242, 253, 333, 339-344

robbery, homicide during, 28, 29

self-reports, 47

socioeconomic status, 90

urban areas, 42, 45, 90

victims of, 30, 42

waiver to adult justice system, 207, 209, 214, 216

weapons, 41, 42-43; see also

“gun-related” supra

Housing, 139, 140-141, 142-144, 145 see also

Incarceration

homeless persons, 30

racial factors, 240, 241; see also

Segregation

Hungary, 18-19

Hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191

I

Idaho, 218

Illinois, 157, 216

Immigrants

incarceration, 221

juvenile justice system, 158

Impulsivity, 9, 67, 70, 71, 72, 77, 100, 102, 104, 121, 131, 328

Incarceration, 4, 5-6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 156, 166, 168-169, 186-191, 193, 213, 223-224, 226, 227, 328-329 see also

Probation and parole;

Sentencing

abuse of incarcerated children, 186-187

adult facilities, children in, 6, 12, 17, 161, 217-218, 219, 220-222, 225, 231

blended juvenile and adult sentences, 5, 210-211, 219-220, 223

after care, 194-200

age factors, 186-187, 220, 221, 222

black persons, 220, 221, 222, 232, 233, 255, 256, 257

Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 10, 186, 225

community-based alternatives to detention/incarceration, 7, 141, 176, 195, 200, 213, 224

community service, 172-173, 179, 227

condition of facilities, 6, 186-188, 224

cost factors, 155

drug offenders, 45, 186, 187, 190-191, 220

educational attainment and, 223

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

education of inmates, 5, 11, 14, 186, 187, 188, 189-190, 223, 225

employment effects, 5, 202

federal funding requirements, 11, 155

funding of research on, 186, 193-194, 225, 226, 228-229

gender factors, 102, 158, 186-187, 203-204

health care, 188

Hispanics, 219, 220, 222

historical perspectives, 157, 158, 160-161, 187, 220-222

immigrants, 221

international perspectives, 19, 20, 21

isolation/lockups, 11, 188, 193-194, 231, 225

job training, 151

Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 10

length of, 17, 19, 20, 21, 155, 156, 159, 161-162, 202, 211, 217-218, 219, 221-222, 224, 253

longitudinal studies, 191

mental health and illness, 5, 10, 150, 161, 186, 189, 190-191, 223, 257

nutrition, 187

physical restraints, 11, 225

property crimes, 220

racial factors, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 231, 232, 233, 249, 255, 256, 257, 259

rape, 187

recreational activities, 189, 193

research methodology, 186, 225, 226;

see also “funding of research on” supra

shock intervention programs, 8, 152-153, 192

standards, 12, 188, 189, 226

state variations, 11, 156, 228

status offenses, 54

suicide, 188, 223

violent crime, 44, 186, 213, 219, 220

Intelligence, 16, 72

preventive interventions, 116, 121

race and, 230

school suspension, 85-86, 87

school tracking and grade retention, 4, 9, 11-12, 83-84, 87-89, 103, 104

International convention on Civil and Political Rights, 211

International perspectives, 17-21

see also Immigrants;

specific countries

adjudication, 17, 18-19, 20

adult criminal justice system, 17, 19, 21

capital punishment, 211

criminal responsibility, age of, 17, 18, 20

homicide, 21, 45-46

incarceration/sentencing, 19, 20, 21

teenage parents, 77

violent crimes, 17, 20, 21, 45-46

Internet

arrest rates, 32, 35, 40

drug offenses, 55

homicides, 40, 43

property crime, 49, 50

status offenses, 54, 55

suicide, 46

Interventions, 12, 14, 21

see also Behavioral modification interventions;

Detention;

Diversion;

Education;

Incarceration;

Preventive interventions;

Recreational activities;

School-based interventions

after care, general, 194-200, 350-352;

see also Probation and parole;

Surveillance

multisystemic therapy, 174, 224

peer influences, 82, 174

Italy, 18-19

J

Jails,

see Detention;

Incarceration

Japan, 18-19

Judicial proceedings,

see Adjudication

Jury trials, 160, 166

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, 2, 13, 21, 54, 155, 161, 228

see also Status offenses

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Juvenile justice system, 5-6, 4, 16, 18, 24, 62, 154-227

see also Adjudication;

Arrest rates;

Detention;

Incarceration;

Police policies;

Prevalence;

Probation and parole;

Waiver to adult justice system

age factors, 16, 157, 167, 170-173, 175-176, 180-183, 206-211 (passim), 215, 256

American Indians, 8, 155, 234, 258

black persons, 3, 6, 8, 167, 216, 220, 221, 230-258 (passim)

blurring of lines between adult system and, 4

confidentiality, 205, 212-213

defined, 156

diversion,

see Diversion

employment effects of involvement in, 5, 200-203

gender factors, 10, 106, 156, 158, 164, 167, 175-176, 178, 179, 201, 202, 203-204, 214, 227

Hispanics, 8, 34, 219, 220, 222, 230, 238-241, 246, 252, 258

historical perspectives, 5, 154-155, 203

immigrants, 158, 221

local government, 155

mentoring, 148-149

public opinion, 25

racial factors, 2, 3, 6, 8, 22, 24, 34, 63, 156, 167, 216, 219, 220, 230-258 (passim)

research methodology, 163, 170-171, 175-176, 191-194, 229-231, 234, 235, 247

socioeconomic status, 158, 201, 237-238, 240, 246, 253

state funding for preventive interventions, 153, 225

state juvenile justice systems, federal funding, 155

violent crime, 155, 163, 186, 212, 213, 219, 220

Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 10

K

Kent v. the United States, 158-159, 207-208

L

Land, Kenneth, 319-348

Language development, 3, 72-73, 105

Larceny,

see Burglary;

Robbery;

Theft

Lawyers,

see Attorneys

Legislation, 2, 4

Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 189

foreign countries, 20

historical perspectives, 4, 13-14

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, 2, 13, 21, 54, 155, 161, 228

state, 1, 5, 13, 25, 155-156, 157, 161-162, 165, 204-222

Litigation,

see Adjudication

Local factors,

see Community-level factors

Local government, 1, 7, 13

see also Police policies

juvenile justice systems, 155

prenatal exposure to alcohol/drugs, 9, 105

projections of crime and, 64-65

status offenses, 54-56

Longitudinal studies, 12

age factors, 68, 72

alcohol and drug abuse, 74

developmental factors, 67, 68, 72, 74, 75, 77, 105

divorce, 75

family interventions, 111-115 (passim), 118-119

gender factors, 101, 204

incarceration, mental health issues, 191

number of children in family, 77

parental punishment, 78

prenatal interventions, 109

preventive interventions, 111-115 (passim), 118-119, 121, 122

school-based interventions, 121, 122

teenage parents, 77

M

MacArthur Foundation, 1

Marijuana, 55

community-based interventions, 141, 147

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Marital status, 69, 75

black persons, 252

divorce, 75

prenatal interventions, 109

single-parent families, 3, 14, 75-76, 92, 109, 242, 252

Maryland, 187, 196-197

Massachusetts, 189

Mass media

community-based interventions, 140-141, 147

gang violence, 94

violence portrayed, 97, 99-100, 330

McCall, Patricia, 319-348

McKeiver v. Pennsylvania, 160

Mediation, 132, 170-171, 175-176

see also Restitution

Men,

see Gender factors

Mental health and illness, general, 4, 73, 118, 148, 173, 174

see also Alcohol and drug abuse;

Emotional factors

attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190

community-level factors, 95-96

conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190

detention, 178, 223

gender factors, 3, 102, 190

hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191

incarceration, 5, 10, 150, 161, 186, 189, 190-191, 223, 257

suicide, 44-45, 46, 102, 188, 223

Mentoring, 140-141, 147-149

Methodology,

see Research methodology

Military service, 69

Minnesota, 196-197

Minority groups,

see Race/ethnicity

Monitoring the Future, 30, 36-37, 48, 49, 56

Motor vehicle theft

defined, 316

prevalence, 27, 32, 33, 51, 53, 325, 326

Multisystemic therapy, 174, 224

Murder,

see Homicide

N

National Center for Health Statistics, 42

National Center for Juvenile Justice, 156(n.1)

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 29-30, 64, 236-237, 246, 248-249, 321, 323

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64

National Institute for Mental Health, 152

National Institute of Justice, 152

National Institute on Child Health and Human Development, 152

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 36-37, 201

National Youth Survey, 190, 235, 246, 248-249

Native Americans,

see American Indians

Neglect,

see Child abuse

Neighborhoods,

see Community-level factors

Netherlands, 18-19, 20, 21

New Jersey, 217

New Mexico, 216

New York State, 217, 218

New Zealand, 18-19, 20

Nutrition

community-based interventions, 141

incarcerated persons, 187

O

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), ix, 1, 10, 64, 152, 156(n.1), 200, 226, 231-232

Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 10, 186, 225

Disproportionate Minority Confinement initiative, 228-229

Outreach, 108-116

P

Parental factors, 3-4, 71, 75, 96-97, 103, 330

see also Child abuse;

Familial factors;

Prenatal/perinatal risk factors

after-school interventions, 149

community-based interventions, 140-144

counseling, 112, 113, 118, 136-137, 182-183, 184

discipline, age factors, 78

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

disobedience/incorrigibility, 23, 24, 73, 101, 160, 162, 203;

see also Runaways

employment, 14, 238, 239

foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224

home visitation, 108-116 (passim), 118, 119

intergenerational effects of criminality, 201, 202

mentoring and, 149

number of children, 77

peer influences, 81, 136-137

preventive interventions, 5, 108-120, 126, 136-137, 151

school suspension, 85

single-parent families, 3, 14, 75-76, 92, 109, 242, 252

teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 116, 242

Parole,

see Probation and parole

Peers and friends, 4, 15, 22, 69, 71, 74, 79, 80-83, 93, 135

after-school interventions, 150

age factors, 80-82

alcohol and drug abuse, 137

community-based interventions, 140-143, 147

co-offending, 81, 93

counseling, 82, 132, 135, 136-137

detention and, 178

diversion, 172-173

early childhood interventions, 116, 138

employment effects of criminal embeddedness, 201

familial factors, 81

foster care and, 175

gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 144-145, 330

gender factors, 100, 137

gun use, 83

mediation, 132

multisystemic therapy, 174, 224

parental factors, 81, 136-137

preventive interventions, 82, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153, 172-173, 174

racial factors, 243

research methodology, 82, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153

school-based interventions, 125, 136-137

school suspension and expulsion, 85

smoking, 135, 138

violence, 83;

see also “gangs” supra

Police policies, 155, 162-164, 226

adults, encounters with, 164

arrest rates and, 2, 6, 26, 27, 29, 46-47, 244, 245-246

assault, 46-47, 48

attitudes of police, general, 244, 245

attitudes toward police, general, 246

black persons, 243-244, 246

community factors, 144-146, 246

court referrals, 162

curfews, 54, 55, 57-58, 145, 163, 179

detention, 164

drug abuse, 98, 245

educational attainment, 245

gangs, 144-145

gender factors, 243, 245

historical perspectives, 144, 160, 163

projections of prevalence, 62, 330

racial disparity, 6, 8, 243-247

research methodology, 144-145, 163, 247

school-based interventions, 126

socioeconomic status, 246

urban areas, 163, 246

victims of crime, 163

violent crimes, 163

Prenatal/perinatal risk factors, 3, 12, 67, 69-71, 104-105

alcohol and drug abuse, 9, 71, 104-105, 108

community-level factors, 96

cost-effectiveness of interventions, 109, 116

preventive interventions, 9, 104-105, 108-115 (passim), 120, 151-152

racial factors, 238-239

smoking, 217-218, 220

teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 116, 242

Prevalence, ix, 1, 2, 13, 17, 23-24, 25-65

see also Arrest rates;

Uniform Crime Reports

adjudication, 167

age factors, 10, 27, 28, 32-56, 64, 68, 319, 320-348

alcohol and drug abuse, 43-44, 45-46, 54, 55, 56-57, 59, 74, 330, 332

arrest rates, 111, 141, 143

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

assault, 2, 32, 36, 37, 39, 41, 46-48, 235, 322

black persons, 3, 34, 56

drug offenses, 54, 55, 56-57

early childhood, 116

gender factors, 34, 56, 57-60, 322, 328

arrest rates, 34, 56, 57-60, 164, 203, 244, 245-246, 322

gun use, 2, 10, 42-47 (passim), 330

homicides, 1, 2, 21, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 42-46, 47, 62-63

projections, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344

Uniform Crime Reports, 27, 28, 29, 37, 42

motor vehicle theft, 27, 32, 33, 51, 53, 325, 326

National Crime Victimization Survey, 29-30, 64, 236-237, 246, 248-249, 321, 323

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64

projections,

crime rates, general, 7, 60-62, 64-65, 319-348

homicides, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344

property crime, 27, 29-30, 32, 33, 34, 48-53, 322, 324, 331-332

racial factors, 3, 31, 34, 46, 56, 229, 235, 322

rape, 2, 27, 32, 37, 38, 40, 235

robbery, 2, 27, 28, 29, 32, 37, 39, 41, 235, 236, 322

status offenses, 54-56, 167

suicide, 44-45, 46

violent crimes, 2, 13, 17, 20, 25, 32, 33, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 235, 322, 323, 324, 326-332 (passim)

Preventive interventions, ix, 1, 4-5, 12, 18, 21, 24, 107-153

see also Behavioral modification interventions;

Counseling;

Recreational activities;

School-based interventions

age factors, 8, 105, 152

alcohol and drug abuse, 9, 108, 122, 129, 137, 141, 143, 146-147, 152-153

arrest rates, 111, 141, 143

child abuse, 111, 116

community-based, ix, 4-6, 7, 20, 107, 138-151, 152, 170

early childhood, 108-119, 123, 132-135, 138, 151-152

emotional factors, 121, 123, 124, 126, 131

familial, ix, 8, 20, 107, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 152

federal government, 105, 152

funding, 153, 225

historical perspectives, 13, 161

intelligence and, 116, 121

juvenile justice system, 4

longitudinal studies, 111-115 (passim), 118-119, 121, 122

mentoring, 140-141, 147-149

parental factors, 5, 108-120, 126, 136-137, 151

peer-group factors, 82, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153, 172-173, 174

prenatal, 9, 104-105, 108-115 (passim), 120, 151-152

projections, 3, 7, 60-62, 64-65, 319-348

racial factors, 117, 119-120

research methodology, 8, 108-153 (passim)

sexual activity, 109

shock intervention programs, 8, 152-153, 192

smoking, 9, 105, 108, 111

socioeconomic status, 109, 117

welfare, 109, 111, 116

teenage parents, 116

urban areas, 119-120

Prisons,

see Incarceration

Probation and parole, 111, 156, 165, 166, 168-169, 179, 182-186, 194, 195, 198, 226

see also After care

adult justice system, waiver to, 217

blended juvenile and adult sentences, 211

counseling, 184

court referrals, 162

defined, 185

gender factors, 158, 204

historical perspectives, 158, 160, 184

job training, 151

peer group interventions, 135

racial factors, 233, 251

recidivism, 184, 185

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

state government, 183, 184

status offenses, 184

violent crimes, 185

Projections

crime rates, general, 7, 60-62, 64-65, 319-348

homicides, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344

Property crimes, 48-53, 331-332

see also Arson;

Burglary;

Motor vehicle theft;

Robbery;

Theft

adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 220

age factors, 48-53

arrest rates, 27, 32, 33, 34, 48-53

defined, 317

detention for, 177

gender factors, 58, 59, 60, 203

historical perspectives, 48-53, 324

incarceration for, 220

Internet, 49, 50

prevalence, 27, 29-30, 32, 33, 34, 48-53, 322, 324, 331-332

vandalism, 59, 60, 150, 175

defined, 317

school property, 48, 49, 60, 123, 129

victim reports, 29-30, 236

Prosecutors, 19, 156, 226, 247, 259, 329

waivers to adult system, 5, 155, 207, 208-209, 214, 215, 216, 223

Prostitution, 58, 317

Poverty,

see Socioeconomic status

Public opinion, 1, 2, 13, 99, 106, 133, 143, 145, 155, 158, 162, 316, 328

R

Race/ethnicity, 4, 228-260

see also American Indians;

Asians;

Black persons;

Hispanics;

Immigrants;

White persons

adjudication, 6, 8, 156, 167, 216, 232, 237, 247, 249, 250-259 (passim)

adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 219, 220, 221, 222, 231, 232, 233, 250, 254-258

alcohol and drug abuse, 56, 63, 97-98, 258

arrest rates, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230-237 (passim), 244-249 (passim), 254, 255, 256, 257, 259

assault, 235, 236, 238, 242, 246

bias, general, 220-222, 242, 244-246 (passim), 250, 251-253

burglary, 238

community-based interventions, 147

community-level factors, 90-92, 95, 96, 103, 147, 236, 237-238, 240-241, 259;

see also “segregation” infra

counseling, 247, 249

definitional issues, disparity, 229-231

detention, 178, 179, 182, 232, 233, 247, 249

developmental factors, 67, 72, 228

early childhood, 238, 239-240

employment, 202, 238, 239, 240

gangs, 95

gender factors and, 67, 95, 96, 235, 241-242, 244

guns, 46

historical perspectives on bias, 220-222, 250

homicides, 42, 98, 242, 253, 333, 339-344

housing, 240, 241;

see also “segregation” infra

incarceration, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 231, 232, 233, 249, 255, 256, 257, 259

intelligence and, 230

juvenile justice system, 2, 3, 6, 8, 22, 24, 34, 63, 156, 167, 216, 219, 220, 230-258 (passim)

mentoring, 148

police policies, 6, 8, 243-247

prenatal/perinatal risk, 238-239

prevalence, 3, 31, 34, 46, 56, 229, 235, 322

preventive interventions, 117, 119-120

probation, 233, 251

punitive policies, general, 13-14

rape, 236, 242

research methodology, 8, 64, 229-231, 234, 235, 247, 248-249, 259-260

risk factors, 56, 63, 67, 72, 76, 85, 86, 90-92, 95, 96, 97-98, 103, 237-242, 252, 253, 254-258

robbery, 235, 236, 242, 246, 253

rural areas, 259

school suspension, 85

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241

self-reports of delinquency, 31, 230, 235-236, 248-249

sentencing, 252-254

single-parent families, 76, 252

socioeconomic status, 237-239, 240, 246, 253

state-level disparities, 233, 234, 237, 239

suicide rates, 46

urban neighborhoods, 90-92, 250

victim-offender mediation, 175-176

victims of crime, other, 235, 238, 246, 253

victims' perception of offender, 64,236

violent crimes, general, 34, 230, 235, 241-242, 246, 333

weapons, 46, 235

workshop agenda, 353-354

Rape

adult justice system, waiver to, 214, 216

age factors, 37, 38, 40

confidentiality of court proceedings, 213

defined, 316

incarceration, 187

prevalence, 2, 27, 32, 37, 38, 40, 235

racial factors, 236, 242

Recidivism, 4, 7, 11, 155, 191, 193

see also Deterrence

adult justice system, waiver to, 215, 218-219, 223

after care, 195, 197, 199-200

detention, alternatives to, 181, 183

diversion and, 169, 171, 176

gender factors, 69

mediation, 176

probation, 184, 185

school suspension, 85

Recreational activities, 93, 130, 136, 175

after-school programs, 149-150

incarcerated persons, 189, 193

mentoring, 148, 149

Research methodology, 2, 10-12, 26-31, 62

see also Definitional issues;

Funding;

Longitudinal studies;

Self-reports of offenders

after care, 195-200

after-school interventions, 149-150

age factors, 10, 64

arrest data, 10, 26-29, 37, 42, 61, 62

committee study at hand, ix, 1-2, 21-22, 107, 349-354

community-based interventions, 7, 138-151, 193

detention and alternatives to, 176-183

developmental factors, 66-67, 79

diversion, 169-174

ethnographic, 94-95

familial factors, 79, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 193

familial interventions, 108-120, 124-125, 135

incarceration, 186, 193-194, 225, 226, 228-229

job training, 150-151

juvenile justice system, 163, 170-171, 175-176, 191-194, 229-231, 234, 235, 247

Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 10

mediation, 170-171, 175-176

mentoring, 147-149

multisystemic therapy, 174, 224

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10

peer influences, 82

peer interventions, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153

police policies, evaluation, 144-145, 163, 247

prenatal interventions, 108-109

preventive interventions, 8, 108-153 (passim)

probation, 183-185, 196-199

projections of crime, 60-62, 64-65, 319-346

racial factors, 8, 64, 229-231, 234, 235, 247, 248-249, 259-260

school-based interventions, 114, 118, 119-120, 121-135, 140-141, 146

Uniform Crime Reports, 10, 26-29, 63-64

victim reports, 29-30

Restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223

Restorative justice model, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223

see also Mediation

fines, 159, 166, 172-173, 195

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

Risk factors, ix, 1, 3, 10-11, 24, 66-106

see also Age factors;

Alcohol and drug abuse;

Community-level factors;

Developmental factors;

Familial factors;

Geographic factors;

Interventions;

Peers and friends;

Preventive interventions;

Race/ethnicity;

Socioeconomic status

compound, 201, 231, 253, 254-258

Robbery

see also Burglary

age factors, 37, 39, 41

defined, 316

gender factors, 60, 235

homicide during, 28, 29

prevalence, 2, 27, 29, 32, 37, 39, 41, 235, 236, 322

Uniform Crime Reports, 27, 28, 29

racial factors, 235, 236, 242, 246, 253

Runaways, 54, 56, 109, 160, 162

defined, 318

gender factors, 56, 57-58, 59, 101

Rural areas

attorney, right to representation by, 166

community-based interventions, 147

racial factors, 259

school risk factors, 85, 87

Russia, 18-19, 21

S

Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 1

School-based interventions, 1, 4-5, 8-9, 11-12, 72-73, 107, 114, 118, 119-120, 121-135, 140-141, 146-147, 151, 152

after-school interventions, 149-150

alcohol and drug abuse, 122, 129

attendance, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 147, 148

counseling, 113, 131, 132, 133

detention, alternatives to, 182-183

diversion, 172-173

early childhood, 123, 132-133

foster care and, 175

gender factors, 125

longitudinal studies, 121, 122

peer group interventions, 125, 136-137

research methodology, 114, 118, 119-120, 121-135, 140-141, 146

Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 1

workshop agendas, 350

Schools, other, 4

see also Education;

Educational attainment

attendance, 30, 62, 87, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 147, 148, 162, 175

confidentiality of court proceedings, 212-213

detention and, 178

dropouts, 88, 104, 121, 147, 151

mass shootings, 342

property crime, damage to, 48, 49, 60, 123, 129

risk factors, age, 69, 72-73, 83-89, 103, 104, 122, 123

self-report data, 30

suspension/expulsion, 84-87, 104

tracking and grade retention, 4, 9, 11-12, 83-84, 87-89, 103, 104

workshop agendas, 349-350

Segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241

Self-reports of offenders, 2, 6, 10, 26, 30-31, 36-37

after care, 197, 199

assault, 48

attendance, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 147, 148

child abuse, 79

co-offending, 64

diversion programs, 171

drug use, 56

gender factors, 31, 58

homicide, 47

peer group interventions, 137

property crimes, 48

race/ethnicity, 31, 230, 235-236, 248-249

status offenses, 55

violent crimes, 48, 58

Sentencing, 5, 13, 44, 155, 166, 168, 104, 205, 210-212, 215, 217-218

see also Adjudication;

Adult criminal justice system;

Incarceration;

Probation and parole

adult justice system, waiver to, 217-218, 220

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

age factors, 210-212, 253-254

attorneys, right to, 166

black persons, 252-253

blended juvenile and adult sentencing, 5, 210-211, 219-220, 223

capital punishment, 21, 157, 187, 211, 252-253

community service, 172-173, 179, 227

detention and, 177

fines, 159, 166, 172-173, 195

gender factors, 203, 253-254

international perspectives, 19, 20, 21

length of, 17, 19, 20, 21, 155, 156, 159, 161-162, 202, 211, 217-218, 219, 221-222, 224, 253

mandatory, 161-162, 211

projections of crime and, 64-65

racial factors, 252-254

restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223

restorative justice model, general, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223

Sex differences,

see Gender factors

Sexual abuse, 31, 101, 187, 204

see also Rape

confidentiality of court proceedings, 212

defined, 317

prostitution, 58

Sexual activity

preventive interventions, 109

prostitution, 58

school-based interventions, 127

Single-parent families, 3, 14, 75-76, 92, 109, 242, 252

Smoking

community-based interventions, 141, 146-147

peer group interventions, 135, 138

prenatal exposure, 71, 105

preventive interventions, 9, 105, 108, 111

Social factors, general, 5

see also Community-level factors;

Familial factors;

Peers and friends;

Race/ethnicity

early childhood interventions, 116

preventive interventions, 108

risk factors, 14, 15, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 74-83, 103, 108

school-based interventions, 126

self-reports of delinquency, stigma, 31

Socioeconomic status, 14, 103, 200-203, 328

see also Educational attainment;

Employment factors

after-school interventions, 150

bias, 2

black persons, 237-238, 240, 245, 258

community-based interventions, 139, 141-142, 143, 147, 148

economic development, 90-92, 96, 103, 145-146

community-level factors, 90-92, 96, 103

developmental risk factors, 72

Hispanics, 238-239, 240

homeless persons, 30

homicide, 90

job training, 150-151

juvenile justice system, 158, 201, 237-238, 240, 246, 253

mentoring, 148

policing policies, 246

prenatal interventions, 109

preventive interventions, 109, 117

racial factors, 237-239, 240, 246, 253

school suspension, 85

single-parent families, 76

urban areas, 90-92, 96

welfare, 109, 111, 116, 201

Standards

adult court, waiver of juveniles to, 208-209

American Correctional Association, 226

community-based interventions, evaluation, 139

detention and incarceration, 12, 226

educational, incarcerated persons, 189

health care, incarcerated persons, 188

racial disparities, state comparisons, 234

State government, ix, 1, 5, 7, 13, 23, 63-64, 225, 226

see also Adult criminal justice system;

Juvenile justice system

antisocial youths, grouping practices, 9

funding for preventive interventions, 153, 225

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

incarcerated persons, treatment of, 11, 156, 228

legislation, 1, 5, 13, 25, 155-156, 157, 161-162, 165, 204-222

prenatal exposure to alcohol/drugs, 9, 105

probation, 183, 184

projections of crime and, 64-65

racial disparities, 233, 234

status offenses, 54-56

State-level factors

arrest data, 26, 63-64

racial disparities, 233, 234, 237, 239

Status offenses, 54-56, 57-58, 162, 167, 223

see also Runaways

alcohol use, 54, 55, 59, 74, 160

curfews, 54, 55, 57-58, 145, 163, 179, 194, 318

detention, alternatives to, 176, 180-182

detention for, 177-178

disobedience/incorrigibility, 23, 24, 73, 101, 160, 162, 203

guns, possession of, 54

historical perspectives, 54-56, 160, 161

Internet, 54, 55

prevalence, 54-56, 167

probation, 184

Stigma of delinquency, 31, 157, 174, 212, 216, 242, 328;

see also Confidentiality

Substance abuse,

see Alcohol and drug abuse

Suburban areas, 259

Suicide, 44-45, 46, 102

detained/incarcerated persons, 188, 223

gun-related, 44-45, 46

Superpredators, ix, 7, 25, 328-329

Supplemental Homicide Reports, 29, 37, 42, 339

Supreme Court,

see Constitutional law

Surveillance, 176, 182, 194, 196, 199, 200, 223, 258

see also Probation and parole electronic monitoring, 194

Survey of Youth in Residential Placement, 225

Sweden, 18-19, 20

Switzerland, 18-19, 20

T

Teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 242

preventive interventions, 116

Texas, 187-188, 219

Theft, 27, 32, 33, 50, 52, 322

see also Burglary;

Motor vehicle theft;

Robbery

defined, 316

developmental factors, 67

gender factors, 59, 60

victim-offender mediation, 175

Tobacco use,

see Smoking

U

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 10, 26-29, 30, 32-34, 63-64, 236-237, 248-249, 254, 321-322, 323, 330, 339

age factors, 10, 27, 28, 321-322, 323, 330

definition of offenses used in, 315-318

Supplemental Homicide Reports, 29, 37, 42, 339

United Kingdom

employment and justice system involvement, 201

number of children in family, 77

socioeconomic segregation, 91

teenage parents, 77

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 211

Urban areas, 90-92, 240-241, 242, 252, 328

adult justice system, waiver to, 214, 215, 216, 250

after care, 198-199

attorney, right to representation by, 166

community-based interventions, 139, 142-144, 146-147

curfews, 163

detention, alternatives to, 179

drug abuse, 45, 73-74

employment effects of criminal embeddedness, 201

gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 144-145, 330

Hispanics, 90-91

homicides, 42, 45, 90

police policies, 163, 246

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

preventive interventions, 119-120

school-based interventions, 128-129

school suspension/expulsion, 85, 87

V

Vandalism

see also Arson

after-school interventions, 150

defined, 317

gender factors, 59, 60

school property, 48, 49, 60, 123, 129

victim-offender mediation, 175

Victims of crime

see also Child abuse

age factors, 29, 30, 35, 42, 64, 175-176

arrest reports, 42

assault, 48

community-based interventions, 141, 143, 145

confidentiality of court proceedings, 212

court referrals of offenders, 162

fear of victimization, 1, 99, 106, 133, 143, 145, 155, 158, 162, 316, 328

gender factors, 101, 175-176

homicides, 30, 42

legislation, general, 205

media portrayals, 99

mediation, victim-offender, 132, 170-171, 175-176;

see also “restitution” infra

National Crime Victimization Survey, 29-30, 64, 236

police policies, 163

property crime, 48, 49

racial factors, 64, 175-176, 235, 236, 238, 246, 253

reports by, 28, 29-30, 35, 42, 48, 64, 248-249

restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223

restorative justice model, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223;

see also “mediation...” and “restitution” supra

rights of, state legislation, 205, 213

Video games, 99-100

Violent crimes

see also Assault;

Child abuse;

Homicide;

Rape;

Robbery;

Suicide

adult justice system, waiver to, 207, 214

after-school interventions, 149

age factors, 10, 33-48 (passim), 54, 68, 207, 322, 323, 324, 326-329

arson, 17, 32, 33, 51, 53, 316

community-level, 97-99, 103, 145-146

confidentiality of court proceedings, 212

developmental factors, 67

gender factors, 58, 59, 69, 203, 241-242, 328-329

historical perspectives, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 162, 322, 323, 324, 325, 332-335, 341-342

incarceration for, 186, 213, 219, 220

international perspectives, 17, 20, 21, 45-46

juvenile justice system, 155, 163, 186, 212, 213, 219, 220

mass media portrayal of, 97, 99-100, 330

peer influences, 83

police policies, 163

prevalence, 2, 13, 17, 20, 25, 32, 33, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 235, 322, 323, 324, 326-332 (passim)

probation, 185

racial factors, 34, 230, 235, 241-242, 246, 333

superpredators, ix, 7, 25, 328-329

Uniform Crime Reports, general, 10, 27, 330

victim reports, 35

Virginia, 215-216

W

Waiver of right to attorney, 166

Waiver to adult justice system, 2, 5, 161-162, 165, 168, 206-209, 214-219, 223, 225, 226

age of waiver to, 1, 25, 206-209 (passim), 215-216, 220, 250

black persons, 216, 220, 221, 231, 232, 233, 250, 257-258

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2001. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9747.
×

drug crimes, 214-215, 216, 220

gender factors, 214

gun used in crime, 209, 215

historical perspectives, 214-215, 220222

homicides, 207, 209, 214, 216

property crimes, 216, 220

prosecutorial filings, 5, 155, 207, 208209, 214, 215, 216, 223

racial factors, 216, 219, 220, 221, 222, 231, 232, 233, 250, 254-258

rape, 214, 216

recidivism, 215, 218-219, 223

sentencing, 217-218, 220

standards, 208-209

urban areas, 214, 215, 216, 250

violent crimes, 207, 209, 214, 216

weapon used in crime, 209, 215, 216

Weapons, 99, 330

see also Guns

adult justice system, waiver to, 209, 215, 216

arrest reports, 41, 44, 164

definition of possession as crime, 317

gender factors, 60, 235

homicides, 41, 42-43

racial factors, 46, 235

Welfare

employment and justice system involvement, 201

preventive interventions, 109, 111, 116

White persons, 228, 232, 235, 251, 254-256

adjudication, 255, 256, 257

adult courts, waiver to, 250

arrest rates, 34, 56, 232, 235-237, 244, 255, 256, 257

community-based interventions, 147

developmental factors, 67

drug use, 56, 63

employment, 202

gangs, 95

gender factors, 67, 95

homicides, 339-344

incarceration, 222, 232, 255, 256, 257

policing policies, 244, 246

sentence length, 253

single-parent families, 76, 252

socioeconomic factors, 238-239, 240, 258

suicide rates, 46

victims of crime, 246

Women,

see Gender factors;

Prenatal/perinatal risk factors

World Wide Web,

see Internet

Y

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance system, 30

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Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice Get This Book
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Even though youth crime rates have fallen since the mid-1990s, public fear and political rhetoric over the issue have heightened. The Columbine shootings and other sensational incidents add to the furor. Often overlooked are the underlying problems of child poverty, social disadvantage, and the pitfalls inherent to adolescent decisionmaking that contribute to youth crime. From a policy standpoint, adolescent offenders are caught in the crossfire between nurturance of youth and punishment of criminals, between rehabilitation and "get tough" pronouncements. In the midst of this emotional debate, the National Research Council's Panel on Juvenile Crime steps forward with an authoritative review of the best available data and analysis. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents recommendations for addressing the many aspects of America's youth crime problem.

This timely release discusses patterns and trends in crimes by children and adolescents--trends revealed by arrest data, victim reports, and other sources; youth crime within general crime; and race and sex disparities. The book explores desistance--the probability that delinquency or criminal activities decrease with age--and evaluates different approaches to predicting future crime rates.

Why do young people turn to delinquency? Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice presents what we know and what we urgently need to find out about contributing factors, ranging from prenatal care, differences in temperament, and family influences to the role of peer relationships, the impact of the school policies toward delinquency, and the broader influences of the neighborhood and community. Equally important, this book examines a range of solutions:

  • Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives.
  • Intervention within the juvenile justice system.
  • Role of the police.
  • Processing and detention of youth offenders.
  • Transferring youths to the adult judicial system.
  • Residential placement of juveniles.

The book includes background on the American juvenile court system, useful comparisons with the juvenile justice systems of other nations, and other important information for assessing this problem.

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