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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

Index

A

Adaptive processes, 2, 3, 10-11, 23-25, 26, 30-32, 34, 56

cultural, 220

glia, 16

mathematical models, 47-48

neural network models, 16

technological aids, general, 5, 11, 29-30, 35, 63, 166-188,

see Technological factors for specific subcategories

theory, 47

Adenosine monophosphate, see AMP

Affect, see Attitudes;

Emotion

African Americans, 26, 27, 33, 192, 194

Alcohol use, 190-191, 198

Alzheimer's disease, 2, 14, 15

anti-inflammatory drugs, 124

CREB levels, 118

genetic factors, 15, 133

hippocampus, 84-85, 89, 91, 92

homeostatic processes, 115, 116-117, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129-130

neural circuits, 83, 84-85, 87, 89, 91-93 101, 105-106

neuron death, 15, 89, 91, 92, 120, 122, 123

oxidative stress, 122, 125, 126, 129-131

transplantation strategies, 101

AMP, 118, 121

AMPA, 95, 96, 99

Amygdala, 45

Animal colonies, 5, 56-57, 63, 134-135

Animal research, 5, 8, 20, 134-135

behavioral interventions, 7, 20, 122

behaviorally impaired animals, 97-100

estrogen replacement therapy, 97, 100

GluR receptor binding, 95

homeostatic processes, 121, 122, 125, 134-135

imaging, 5, 51, 57, 62, 63

primates, nonhuman, 5, 51, 62, 238-250

neural circuits, 88, 90, 95, 97-100, 101-102, 104

neurogenesis, 104, 121

oxidative stress, 130

structural studies, 45, 46

synaptic processes, 88, 90, 97

transgenic models, 18, 20, 94, 99, 118, 134-135, 240, 244, 249

see also Primates, nonhuman

Anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124

Antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

Apoptosis, 14, 15-17, 18, 19, 114, 119, 120, 122-131, 132

genetic factors, 123

glia, 16, 124-125

intervention strategies, 121;

see also Antioxidants

neural circuits and, 16, 114

plasticity and, 16, 114, 120, 123

see also Oxidative stress

Artificial intelligence, 55, 56

Asians, see Cultural factors

Assays, behavioral, 19

ATMs, see Automated teller machines

Attention, 9, 33, 35, 190

cultural factors, 224, 225-226

driving motor vehicles, 175-176

nonneurological diseases and, 195, 196, 197, 201-202, 205

research recommendations, 56, 160

technological aids, 175-176, 179, 180

Attitudes, 230

decision making, (146.n1)

depression, 43-44, 198

motivation, 25, 31, 34, 44, 152

toward technology, 29-30

see also Cultural factors;

Emotion;

Psychological factors

Auditory perception, see Hearing

Automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180

Automobiles, see Driving motor vehicles

B

Bayesian inference, 48

BDNF, see Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Behavioral factors, ix-x, 2, 4, 5, 13, 39-40

animals, behavioral interventions, 7, 20, 122

animals, behaviorally impaired, 97-100

assays, 19

conceptual framework, 9, 10

dynamic factor analysis, 49

homeostatic processes and, 121-122, 134, 135

interventions, 6-8, 13, 17, 20, 121-122, 134

environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122, 134

physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194

life experiences, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, 18, 19, 22-23, 25-29, 34

models and, 49-50

multivariate analysis, 52-53

lifestyle, 59, 189, 190-191

alcohol use, 190-191, 198

physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194

smoking, 190, 198

stress, 49, 191, 194, 198

see also Diet

memory, 86, 104

models, 47-50, 175-178

regional changes in the brain, 45-46

research recommendations, 3, 4, 5, 17-18, 19-20, 35, 51, 52, 55, 56, 61

structure of the mind, 5, 37, 45-47, 49-50, 51, 52-53

theory development, 46-47

see also Cultural factors;

Psychological factors;

Social factors

Behavioral science, ix-x, 1, 8-11, 19

conceptual framework, 9-11

neuroscience and, 19, 22, 46

Biochemical processes, general, 7, 19

behavioral factors, 19, 85

free radicals, 15-16, 17, 114, 123, 125

homeostatic processes, 116, 130

hypertension, 199

interventions, 17-18;

see also Drugs

memory loss, 15, 83-85, 87, 88-89, 92-94, 97-100

neural circuits, 15, 84, 85, 87-89, 92-99, 101-102, 105

neuroanatomy and, 83-85, 95, 97-100

neurotoxicity, 117, 122, 123, 126, 190, 192

see also Apoptosis;

Inflammation;

Molecular processes;

Oxidative stress;

Receptor-mediated processes

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

Black persons, see African Americans

Blood flow, 51, 193-194, 199, 238, 242, 243

Blood pressure, see Hypertension;

Low blood pressure

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 118, 119, 121

C

Cardiovascular system, 42-43, 192, 193-203, 205

cognitive functioning, 194-195, 197-199, 200, 201-203

hormones, 43

hypertension, 42-43, 192, 193, 194-201, 203

intervention strategies, 44, 192, 198, 200, 202-203

low blood pressure, 200-201

myocardial infarction, 192, 202, 205

stroke, 6, 49, 62-63, 193, 194, 202

see also Hypertension;

Low blood pressure;

Stroke

Caudate nucleus, 45

Cellular processes, 12-13, 19-20

cytokines, 119, 125, 131-134

loss, 2, 14-17;

see Apoptosis

stem cells, 102-103

T cells, 131-133

see also Genetic factors;

Homeostasis;

Neurons

Cerebellum, 45

Chemical processes, see Biochemical processes

Chip technology, 19

global positioning systems, 169

Cognition in context, 2, 3, 9-10, 13, 18, 21-36

see also Behavioral factors;

Cultural factors;

Social factors;

Technological factors

Cognitive functioning and performance, 1, 7, 23-24, 37

cardiovascular diseases, 194-195, 197-199, 200, 201-203

conceptual framework, 9

decision processes and judgment, 9, 29, 31-32, 144-165

education and training, 26-27

executive functions, 52, 190, 195, 196, 201-202, 206

health status, nonneurological, 27-28, 42-44, 189-207 (passim)

hypertension, 194-195, 197-199, 200, 201-202, 203

life histories, variations, 38-39

low blood pressure, 200-201

problem-solving processes, 24, 25, 31, 146-151

research recommendations, 2, 3, 4, 5, 17-19, 30-36, 50-53

theory development, 46-47, 146

wisdom, 24, 39, 153-154

see also Cultural factors;

Health status;

Social factors;

specific functions (e.g., Attention; Language abilities; Memory)

Cognitive science, general, ix-x, 1, 9, 11, 12, 21, 55, 59

conceptual framework, 9-11

models and theories, 1, 8, 46-50

neuroscience and, 1, 55-56

social factors, 34-35

technological aids, 180-181

Collaboration across institutes, 5-6, 60, 62-63

Computer technology

aids, 29, 48

automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180

databases, 57-61, 89, 94

Connectionist models, 48-49, 124

Control theory, 179

Cortical processes, 15, 45, 88, 116-117, 246-247

GABA, 84

life experiences and, 22

neural circuits, 84, 86, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 104

neurogenesis, 104

Cortisol, 191, 193

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

CREB, 118-119, 120, 121

Cross-sectional studies, 2, 38, 49, 57, 58, 59, 189

dynamic factor analysis, 49

hypertension, 194-195, 199, 200-201

Cultural factors, 2, 13, 21-22, 23, 27, 28, 33, 39-40, 218-237

adaptive processes, 220

Asians, 27, 221-225, 226-227, 228-229 230-231, 232

attention, 224, 225-226

concepts about aging across cultures, 21-22, 221-224

conceptual framework, 9, 10

cultural learning, 218

culturally bound theories, 225, 228-22

cultural psychology, 219-221, 225, 233

decision making, (146.n1)

defined, 219

European background, 27, 223-224, 228-229, 230, 232-233

inference, means of, 224, 225-226, 229-230, 231, 232

interventions, 8, 13

language, contextual effects, 225-229, 232

research recommendations, 3, 32-35, 56, 231-233

see also Race/ethnicity;

Social factors

Cyclic AMP response element binding protein, see CREB

Cytokines, 119, 125, 131-134

D

Databases, 57-61

neural circuits, 89, 94

Decision processes, 31-32, 144-165

competence criteria, 156-160

conceptual framework, 9

cultural factors, (146.n1)

financial, 144, 145, 147, 153, 155, 158

heuristic processing, 146-151

medical and surgical treatments, decisions regarding, 145, 147, 148 , 149-150, 156-157, 158-159

wisdom, 32, 39, 153-154

see also Judgment;

Problem-solving processes

Dementia, 11, 14, 92, 117, 120, 193

see also Alzheimer's disease

Dendrites, 7, 15, 88, 95-96

Depression, 43-44, 198

Diabetes mellitus, 42, 192, 197, 198, 201, 202

Diet, 4, 39-40, 50, 191

antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191

caloric restriction studies, 133

hypertension, 194

nutritional supplements, 18, 129

vitamins, 117, 129-130, 191

Disabled persons, 5, 63

Diseases, see Alzheimer's disease;

Cardiovascular system;

Dementia;

Diabetes mellitus;

Health status;

Hypertension;

Parkinson's disease

Displays, 170-173, 178

decision making, (146.n1)

head-mounted, 170, 171-172

head-up, 171, 178

three-dimensional sound, 172-173

variable message signs, 172

DNA, 127, 130-131, 133

free radical damage, 125

TUNEL, 121, 130

Driving motor vehicles, 41, 145, 168-179 (passim)

Drugs

antihypertensive agents, 192, 198, 203

anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124

estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244

nonprescription, 18

nutritional supplements, 18, 129

Dynamical systems theory, 47-48

Dynamic factor analysis, 49

E

Education and training, 18, 26-27

educational attainment, 26, 28, 32-33, 56, 192, 196-197, 198, 200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

structure of the mind and, 4, 26-27, 42

technological aids, professional education, 27, 167, 181

Electroencephalography, 45

Electron microscopy, 19, 88, 90

Electrophysical techniques, 17-18, 19, 44-45, 52, 61-62, 243, 248

neural circuits and memory, 84, 85, 89

Embryonic tissue transplantation, 100-103

Emotion, 30-31, 34, 151-156

decision processes and, 150, 151-156

depression, 43-44, 198

motivation, 25, 31, 34, 44, 152

see also Attitudes

Endocrine system, 32, 59, 191

cardiovascular disease and, 43

corticosteroids, 104

estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244

Environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122

Epidemiologic research, 18, 116, 195, 201, 205

see also Cross-sectional studies;

Longitudinal studies

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244

Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity

European cultural background, 27, 223-224, 228-229, 230, 232-233

Executive functions, 52, 190, 195, 196, 201-202, 205-206

Exercise, see Physical exercise

Eyes, see Visual perception

Eye trackers, 170

F

FasL, 124, 125, 131-132

Financial decision processes, 144, 145, 147, 153, 155, 158

automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180

fMRI, see Magnetic resonance imaging

Free radicals, 15-16, 17, 114, 123, 125

Functional magnetic resonance imaging, see Magnetic resonance imaging

Funding, 1, 4, 5, 11, 54

animal colonies, 56-57, 134-135

caloric restriction studies, 133

clinical trials, 18-19

interdisciplinary research, 4, 36, 55-56, 62-63

G

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), 84

GDNF, 102

Gender differences, 32

hypertension, 194

Genetic factors, 9, 15, 33, 41, 123, 191-192

Alzheimer's disease, 15, 133

apoptosis, 123

DNA, 121, 125, 127, 130-131, 133

gene expression, 19, 84, 87, 92-93, 94, 95, 101-102, 130-131, 133, 244, 249

hypertension, 194, 195, 200, 201

intervention strategies, genetic engineering, 100-103, 249

learning, 99-100, 191

magnetic resonance imaging and, 244

memory, 191

mRNA, 94, 96-97, 118

neural circuits, 84, 87, 92-93, 94, 95, 99-100

RNA, 118, 127;

see also ''mRNA" supra

sensory-motor functions, 191

stem cells, 102-103

transcription, 118, 119, 120, 124

transduction, 41, 117-120

transgenic animal models, 18, 20, 94, 99, 118, 134-135, 240, 244, 249

Glia

apoptosis, 16, 124-125

oxidative stress, 124-125

Global changes in the brain, 19, 240, 248

depression, 44

Global positioning systems, 169

Glutamate receptors (GluRs), 95-96, 98

Group membership, 25-29, 32-33

see also Cultural factors;

Race/ethnicity;

Socioeconomic status

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

H

Head-mounted displays, 170, 171-172

Head-up displays, 171, 178

Health status, general, 27-28, 42-44, 189-217

alcohol use, 190-191, 198

attention effects of nonneurological diseases, 195, 196, 197, 201-202, 205

cardiovascular system, 42-43, 192, 193-203, 205

hypertension, 42-43, 192, 193, 194-201

low blood pressure, 200-201

myocardial infarction, 192, 202, 205

stroke, 6, 49, 62-63, 193, 194, 202

cognitive effects, 27-28, 42-44

diabetes, 42, 192, 197, 198, 201, 202

disabled persons, 5, 63

lifestyle and, 59, 189, 190-191;

see also Diet;

Physical exercise;

Stress, pschological

longitudinal studies, 189, 195-199 (passim), 201

medical and surgical treatments, 203, 205

decision processes regarding, 145, 147, 148, 149-150, 156-157, 158 -159

effect on cognitive abilities, 192-193

memory aids, 171-172, 173

multivariate analysis, 52

research recommendations, 52, 59-60

smoking, 190, 198

Hearing, 40-41, 42, 166

aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173

Heart attack, see Myocardial infarction

Heuristic processing, 146-151

High blood pressure, see Hypertension

Hippocampus, 41, 45

Alzheimer's disease, 84-85, 89, 91, 92

intervention strategies, 103-105

memory decrement, other, 84, 85, 86, 94-100 (passim)

neurogenesis, 103-105

synaptic processes, 88, 90

Homeostasis, 15-17, 18, 114-143

Alzheimer's disease, 115, 116-117, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129-130

animal research, 121, 122, 125, 134-135

behavioral factors, 121-122, 134, 135

biochemical processes, general, 116, 130

intervention strategies, 114, 116, 121-122, 134;

see also Antioxidants

molecular processes, general, 19, 114, 116, 135

neural circuits, 114, 134

neuroanatomy, 125, 130

plasticity, 16, 114, 118-119, 120, 123, 124, 134-135

receptor-mediated processes, 119-120, 123, 124, 125, 131-133

see also Apoptosis;

Inflammation;

Oxidative stress

Hormones, see Endrocrine system

Hypertension, 42-43, 192, 193, 194-201

antihypertensive agents, 192, 198, 203

biochemical processes, general, 199

cognitive functioning and performance, 42-43, 194-195, 197-199, 200 , 201-202, 203

cross-sectional studies, 194-195, 199, 200-201

diet and, 194

gender differences, 194

genetic factors, 194, 195, 200, 201

intelligence and, 195

intervention strategies, 192, 198, 200, 203

language abilities and, 195

learning abilities and, 195

longitudinal studies, 195-199 (passim), 201

memory and, 195, 201-202

sensory-motor functions and, 195, 196, 202

visual impairment, 195, 196, 202

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

I

Imaging data, 5, 13, 17, 44-45, 56, 61-62, 204

animal research, 5, 51, 57, 62, 63

primates, nonhuman, 5, 51, 62, 238-250

magnetic resonance imaging, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250

memory, 46, 238-239, 248

Inference, 48, 224, 225-226, 229-230, 231, 232

Inflammation, 15-16, 17, 18, 19, 114, 116, 119, 122, 124-125

anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124

Infrastructure, research, 5, 56-62

Intelligence, 23-24, 38, 206-207, 218, 233

artificial intelligence, 55, 56

hypertension and, 195

sensory-motor decline and, 40-41

Interactive interfaces, 175-177, 179

automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180

Interdisciplinary research, 4, 11, 13, 34-35, 54-56, 62-63

funding, 4, 36, 55-56, 62-63

neural circuits, 89, 97-100

nonneurological health status, 204, 205

sensory-motor functions, 42

technological aids, 35-36, 179-180, 181

Interfaces, 174-177, 179

Intervention strategies, 18, 19, 44, 85, 134-135, 192-193

anti-inflammatory agents, 117, 124

antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191

behavioral, 6-8, 13, 17, 20, 121-122, 134

environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122, 134

physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194

biochemical, general, 17-18;

see also Drugs

cardiovascular disease, 44, 192, 198, 200, 202-203

cultural, 8, 13

environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122

estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), 32, 96-97, 100, 104, 244

genetic engineering, 100-103, 249

hippocampus, 103-105

homeostatic processes, 114, 116, 121-122, 134;

see also Antioxidants

hypertension, 192, 198, 200, 203

initiation of brain aging and, 121-122, 134

magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of, 244, 248-249

medical and surgical treatments, 203, 205

neural circuits, 17, 83, 85, 91, 100-105, 106

physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194

stem cells, 102-103

transplantation strategies, 100-103

see also Drugs;

Technological factors

J

Judgment, 9, 29, 144-165

heuristic processing, 146-151

L

Language abilities, 1, 8, 38, 45, 56

cultural factors, contextual effects, 225-229, 232

defined, 206

hearing, 40-41, 42, 166

aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173

hypertension, 195

magnetic resonance imaging, 238-239

regional impacts on brain, 26

speech, 46, 173, 206, 227-228

see also Hearing

Learning processes, 31

conceptual framework of study at hand, 9

cultural learning, 218

decision processes, 159

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

defined, 206

depression and, 43-44

genetic factors, 99-100, 191

hypertension and, 195

multiple-cue probability learning, 159

spatial, 98

see also Education and training;

Memory

Life experience

cognitive effects, 25-29, 38-40

life histories of cognitive functions, 38-39

neural health, 18

neurobiology of, 22-23, 34-35

see also Cultural factors;

Health status;

Race/ethnicity;

Sensory-motor

functions;

Social factors

Longitudinal studies, 2, 5, 53, 57, 58-61, 63

neural circuits, 98

nonneurological diseases, 189, 195-199 (passim), 201

Low blood pressure, 200-201

M

Magnetic resonance imaging, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250

genetic factors, 244

intervention strategies, evaluation of, 244, 248-249

language abilities, 238-239

memory, 46, 238-239, 248

neurons, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250

neuropsychology, 242-243

neuroscience, general, 241-242, 248

sensory-motor functions, 238-239

visual perception, 238-239, 246-247, 248

Magnetoencephalography, 44-45

Markov models, 48

Mathematical models, 4, 47-50, 52, 54, 175

Measurement, 44-46, 51-52, 61

see also Imaging data;

Performance indicators

Medications, see Drugs

Memory, 1, 8, 38, 52, 56

behavioral factors, 86, 104

biochemical factors, general, 15, 83-85, 87, 88-89, 92-94, 97-100

connectionist models, 48

cultural factors, contextual information, 225-226

decision processes, 150, 151-152, 157

defined, 206

depression and loss of, 43-44

electrophysical measurement of neural circuits, 84, 85, 89

genetic factors, 191

hippocampus, 84, 85, 86, 94-100 (passim)

hypertension, 195, 201-202

magnetic resonance imaging, 46, 238-239, 248

medical treatment, memory aids, 171-172, 173

neural circuits, 15, 83-113

phases of brain aging, 115-117

receptor-mediated actions, 84, 85, 88, 94-97, 99

regional changes in the brain, 84-86, 89, 91-92

social factors, 24

synaptic processes, 84, 85, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99

technological aids, 27, 84, 85, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99, 169, 171 -172, 173, 179

theory of working, 46, 48

Microchip technology, see Chip technology

Mind, use of the term, 9-10

Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity

Mitochondria, 123, 128

Models and modeling, 1, 8, 18, 47-50, 59

adaptive processes, 16, 47-48

behavioral, 49-50, 175-178

cognitive science, general, 1, 8, 46-47

connectionist, 48-49, 124

interactive interfaces, 175-177, 179

Markov, 48, 176-177

mathematical, 4, 47-48, 52, 54, 175

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

neural circuits/networks, 48, 89

oxidative stress, 126, 127

person-environment fit, 24-25

sensory-motor functions, 41-42

sociocultural, 34

task structure, 2, 9, 10, 24, 31, 37, 181, 231-232

see also Animal research;

Theoretical issues

Molecular processes, general, 12-13, 17, 19-20

homeostatic processes, 19, 114, 116, 135

neural circuits, 84, 88-89, 92

regional changes in the brain, 45-46

synaptic, 88-89, 90

see also Genetic factors;

Receptor-mediated processes

Monkeys, see Nonhuman primates

Motor functions, see Sensory-motor functions

Motor vehicles, see Driving motor vehicles

mRNA, 94, 96-97, 118

Multidisciplinary research, see Interdisciplinary research

Multiple-cue probability learning, 159

Multivariate analysis, 4, 52-53

Myocardial infarction, 192, 202, 205

N

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 19

National Eye Institute, 6, 62-63

National Institute of Mental Health, 6, 62-63

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 6, 62-63

National Institute on Aging, ix, 1

cognition in context, 3, 30-36

neural health, 2-3, 17-19, 135

research recommendations for, 2-6, 17-19, 30-36, 50-53, 54-63, 135

structure of the aging mind, 3-4, 50-53

technological aids, 26

National Science Foundation, 36, 181

N-dimethyl-D-aspartate, see NMDA

Nerve growth factor (NGF), 7, 101

Neural circuits

Alzheimer's disease, 83, 84-85, 87, 89, 91-93, 101, 105-106

animal research, 88, 90, 95, 97-100, 101-102, 104

apoptosis, 16, 114

biochemical processes, general, 15, 84, 53, 87-89, 92-99, 101-102 , 105

cortex, 84, 86, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 104

databases, 89, 94

electrophysical measurements, 84, 85, 89

genetic factors, 84, 87, 92-93, 94, 95, 99-100

homeostatic processes, 114, 134

interdisciplinary research, 89, 97-100

intervention strategies, 17, 83, 85, 91, 100-105, 106

longitudinal studies, 98

memory, 15, 83-113

models, 48, 89

molecular processes, general, 84, 88-89, 92

neuroanatomy and, 83-89, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97-100, 105

primates, nonhuman, 62, 88, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 104

technological factors, 84, 85, 89

see also Neural networks;

Synaptic processes

Neural health and neural functioning, 2-3, 12-13, 14-20

conceptual framework, 9

indicators, 17-18, 19, 23-24, 30-31, 41, 46-47

interventions, 18-19

research recommendations, 2-3, 12-13, 59, 135

Neural networks, 15, 17, 124, 134

apoptosis, 16

interventions, 2-3, 18-19

models, 48, 116

see also Neural circuits

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

Neuroanatomy, 14, 17-18, 19

biochemical processes and, 83-85, 95, 97-100

homeostatic processes, 125, 130

magnetic resonance imaging, 240, 241, 243, 248-249

neural circuits, 83-89, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97-100, 105

see also Imaging;

Neurons;

Regional changes in the brain;

specific regions

Neurochemical processes, see Biochemical processes

Neurodegeneration, 15-16

see also Apoptosis;

inflammation;

Neural circuits;

Neural health and functioning;

Oxidative stress

Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT), 91-92, 93, 115, 116

Neurons, 2-3, 10, 12-13, 19-20, 41, 51-52, 84, 86-87, 97-98, 116-117

cytokines, 119, 125, 131-134

dendrites, 7, 15, 88, 95-96

embryonic, transplantation of, 100-103

environmental enrichment, 121-122

estrogen, impacts on plasticity, 32, 97

intracellular processes, 84, 87-88, 89, 91-92, 123, 128

loss of, 2, 14, 15, 17, 51, 86, 87-88, 89, 91-92, 105-106, 117-118 , 121-131;

see also Apoptosis

Alzheimer's disease, 15, 89, 91, 92, 120, 122, 123

magnetic resonance imaging, 5, 19, 44-45, 51, 59, 61-62, 238-250

neurogenesis, 7, 15, 17, 103-105, 121

regional changes in the brain, 45-46

stem cells therapy, 102-103

see also Synaptic processes

Neuropsychology, 56, 99, 135, 205, 239, 242-243

magnetic resonance imaging, 242-243

testing methods, 45, 92, 190, 205-207

Neuroscience, general, ix-x, 8-11, 14-20

behavioral science and, 1, 19, 22, 46, 55-56

cognitive science and, 1, 55-56

conceptual framework, 9-11

education in, 56

high-resolution measures, 4, 19

magnetic resonance imagery of nonhuman primates, 241-242, 248

research recommendations, 2-6, 11-12, 17-19, 34-35, 54-63 (passim)

social science and, 22, 34-35

structure of the mind, 3-4

technological aids, 180-181

Neurotoxicity, 117, 122, 123, 126, 190, 192

NFT, see Neurofibrillary tangles

NMDA (N-dimethyl-D-aspartate), 90, 94-95, 96, 97, 99, 125

Nonhuman primates, 62, 88, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 104

Nonprescription drugs, 18

Nutrition, see Diet

Nutritional supplements, 18, 129

vitamins, 117, 129-130, 191

O

Oxidative stress, 18, 122, 123, 124-128

Alzheimer's disease, 122, 125, 126, 129-131

animal research, 130

antioxidants, 7-8, 18, 40, 117, 128-129, 130, 134, 191

models of, 126, 127

see also Antioxidants

P

Parkinson's disease, 87, 101

Performance, life activities, 9, 30-32

Performance indicators, 2, 17-18, 19, 23-24, 30-31, 41

theory development, 46-47

Personality, 2, 24, 59, 225

Personalized interfaces, 174-175

Pharmaceuticals, see Drugs

Physical exercise, 4, 7, 8, 37, 50, 104, 121, 134, 191, 194

Pituitary hormones, 191

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

Plasticity, 2, 7, 10

apoptosis, 16, 114, 120, 123

CREB levels, 118-119, 120

estrogen, 32, 97

homeostatic processes, 16, 114, 118-119, 120, 123, 124, 134-135

life experiences and, 22

synaptic processes, 88

Positron emission tomography, 44-45

Presenilin, 123

Primates, nonhuman, 5, 23, 51, 57, 241

imaging techniques, 5, 51, 62, 238-250

neural circuits, 62, 88, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 104

Problem-solving processes, 31

adaptivity and, 24, 25

heuristic processing, 146-151

Programmed cell death, see Apoptosis

Psychological factors

cultural psychology, 219-221, 225, 233

depression, 43-44, 198

emotion, general, 30-31, 34, 151-156

motivation, 25, 31, 34, 44, 152

neuropsychological testing, 45, 92, 190, 205-207

neuropsychology, general, 56, 99, 135, 205, 239, 242-243

personality, 2, 24, 59, 225

stress, 49, 191, 194, 198

see also Attitudes;

Cultural factors;

Social factors

Psychomotor functions, see Sensory-motor functions

R

Race/ethnicity, 26, 27, 28, 33, 34, 58, 192, 198

African American, 26, 27, 33, 192, 194

Asian, 27, 221-225, 226-227, 228-229, 230-231, 232

European, 27, 223-224, 228-229, 230, 232-233

Receptor-mediated processes

glutamate receptors (GluRs), 95-96, 98

homeostasis, 119-120, 123, 124, 125, 131-133

memory, 84, 85, 88, 94-97, 99

MRI data, 240, 243-244, 248-249

TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor), 132-133

Regional changes in the brain, 19, 23, 45-46

behavioral factors, 45-46

language factors, 26

memory loss, 84-86, 89, 91-92

see also specific regions

RNA, 118, 127

see also mRNA

S

Senile plaques, 117, 122, 124

Sensory-motor functions, 1, 5, 8, 23, 25, 37, 38, 39, 40-42, 44, 52, 87, 116

conceptual framework, 10

defined, 206

driving motor vehicles, 41, 145, 168-179 (passim)

genetic factors, 191

hearing, 40-41, 42, 166

aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173

hypertension, 195, 196, 202

intelligence and decline of, 40-41

magnetic resonance imaging, 238-239

models of, 41-42

multivariate analysis, 52

spatial perception, 98, 168-169, 172-173, 195, 202, 206, 246-247

speech, 46, 173, 206, 227-228

technological support for, 29-30, 35, 42, 167, 168-181

walking, 168-169

see also Visual perception

Sex-based differences, see Gender differences

Signal transduction, see Transduction

Smoking, 190, 198

Social factors, 22, 25-26, 27, 31, 34-35, 144-145, 228-229

adaptive processes, 11, 24-25

conceptual framework, 9, 11, 13

decision making, (146.n1)

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

educational attainment, 26, 28, 32-33, 56, 192, 196-197, 198, 200

environmental enrichment, 22-23, 104, 121-122, 134

independence, 144-145, 149-150

memory, 24

nonneurological diseases, 192

neurogenesis, 104

research recommendations, 3, 32-35, 56, 57-58

technology and, 30

toxins, exposure to, 192

see also Cultural factors;

Race/ethnicity

Socioeconomic status, 25-26, 27, 56, 192, 196-197, 198, 204, 207

Spatial perception, 98, 168-169, 172-173, 195, 202, 206, 246-247

Speech, 46, 173, 206, 227-228

Stem cells, 102-103

Stress, psychological, 28, 49, 191, 194, 198

Stroke, 6, 49, 62-63, 193, 194, 202

Structural factors (mind), 3-4, 9, 13, 37-53

animal research, 45, 46

attention and, 40, 41, 42

behavioral factors, 5, 37, 45-47, 49-50, 51, 52-53

connectionist models, 48

education and, 4, 26, 42

high-resolution measures, 4, 19

research recommendations, 3-4, 19, 50-53, 56, 59

Synaptic processes, 16, 116-117, 125

animal research, 88, 90, 97

hippocampus, 88, 90

life experiences and, 22

loss of, 14

memory, 84, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99

molecular processes, general, 88-89, 90

plasticity, 88

synaptophysin, 98-99

see also Receptor-mediated processes

Systems theory, 47-48

T

Task structure, 2, 9, 10, 31, 37, 181, 231-232

ambiguous tasks, 24

T cells, 131-133

Technological factors, 2, 8, 13, 22, 29-30, 35-36, 63, 166-188

adaptive processes, general, 5, 11, 29-30, 35, 63, 166-188

attention, 175-176, 179, 180

automated teller machines, 29, 170, 174, 175, 180

computer aids, general, 29, 48

decision processes, 172

displays, (146.n1), 170-173, 178

driving motor vehicles, 168-179 (passim)

electron microscopy, 19, 88, 90

electrophysical techniques, 17-18, 19, 44-45, 52, 61-62, 243, 248

hearing aids, 29, 42, 170, 172, 173

interfaces, 174-177, 179;

see also "automated teller machines" supra

Markov models, 48

memory aids, 27, 84, 85, 88-89, 94, 95, 97, 98-99, 169, 171-172, 173, 179

miniaturization, 168, 169, 170, 180

neural circuits and memory, 84, 85, 89

positron emission tomography, 44-45

professional training about aids, 27, 167, 181

research recommendations, 3, 12, 30, 35-36, 55, 177-178, 179-181

sensory-motor functions, general, 29-30, 35, 42, 167, 168-181

three-dimensional sound, 172-173

time perception, 154-155

visual perception, 166, 168-169, 170, 172-173, 177

walking, 168-169

see also Imaging data

Theoretical issues, 1, 4, 8, 58

adaptive processes, 47

cognitive functions and performance, 46-47, 146

cognitive science, general, 1, 8, 46-47

conceptual framework, 9-11

control theory, 179

culturally bound theories, 225, 228-229

cultural psychology, 219-221, 225, 233

decision processes, 146-155 (passim)

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
×

dynamical systems theory, 47-48

memory, working, 46, 48

structure of the mind, 3-4, 9-11, 46-49

systems theory, 47-48

time perception, 154-155

see also Models and modeling

Three-dimensional sound, 172-173

Thyroid hormones, 191

Time perception, 154-155

TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor), 132-133

Tobacco use, see Smoking

Training, see Education and training

Transcranial magnetic stimulation, 45

Transcription, 118, 119, 120, 124

Transduction, 84, 117-120

Transgenic animals, 18, 20, 94, 99, 118, 134-135, 240, 244, 249

Transplantation strategies, 100-103

Treatment, see Intervention strategies

V

Variable message signs, 172

Visual perception, 24-25, 40-41, 46, 206

hypertension, 195, 196, 202

magnetic resonance imaging, 238-239, 246-247, 248

spatial perception, 98, 168-169, 172-173, 195, 202, 206, 246-247

technological aids, 166, 168-169, 170, 172-173, 177

Vitamin B, 191

Vitamin C, 191

Vitamin E, 117, 129-130

Voice, see Speech

W

Walking, technological aids, 168-169

Wisdom, 24, 39, 153-154

see also Judgment

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. The Aging Mind: Opportunities in Cognitive Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9783.
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Possible new breakthroughs in understanding the aging mind that can be used to benefit older people are now emerging from research. This volume identifies the key scientific advances and the opportunities they bring. For example, science has learned that among older adults who do not suffer from Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias, cognitive decline may depend less on loss of brain cells than on changes in the health of neurons and neural networks. Research on the processes that maintain neural health shows promise of revealing new ways to promote cognitive functioning in older people. Research is also showing how cognitive functioning depends on the conjunction of biology and culture. The ways older people adapt to changes in their nervous systems, and perhaps the changes themselves, are shaped by past life experiences, present living situations, changing motives, cultural expectations, and emerging technology, as well as by their physical health status and sensory-motor capabilities. Improved understanding of how physical and contextual factors interact can help explain why some cognitive functions are impaired in aging while others are spared and why cognitive capability is impaired in some older adults and spared in others. On the basis of these exciting findings, the report makes specific recommends that the U.S. government support three major new initiatives as the next steps for research.

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