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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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Suggested Citation:"D Biographical Sketches." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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554 APPENDIX D interests are the development of minority children and adolescents, mother-child interaction and its role in later school achievement, and the delivery of prenatal and postnatal health services to low-income and minor- ity women and infants. She has received a number of research grants from the federal government and foundations, including the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, the Public Health Service, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Foundation for Child Development. She also serves on a number of national committees and acts as a consultant to various programs and projects focused on promoting the health and wel- fare of black children and families. She is a recipient of the American Psychological Association’s minority achievement award for her work on clinical services to minority populations. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University. Greg Duncan is professor of education and social policy and faculty associ- ate in the Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern University. He received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan in 1974 and has spent much of his career there working on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics data collection project. He is a member of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Family and Child Well-Being Research Network and the MacArthur Foundation Networks on Successful Pathways Through Middle Childhood and Family and the Economy. He directs the Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research. Felton J. Earls is professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School and director of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods at the Harvard University School of Public Health. He has published studies on behavioral problems in preschool children, risk factors for vio- lence and HIV infection in adolescents and young adults, and international aspects of child and adolescent mental health. He was elected to the Insti- tute of Medicine in 1995 and has served on several National Academies panels, including Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior and the 1998 Frontiers of Research on Children, Youth, and Families Symposium. He has an M.D. from Howard University. Robert N. Emde is professor of psychiatry at the University of Colorado, adjunct professor of psychology at the University of Denver, and visiting professor at University College London. His research has focused on early socioemotional development and, most recently, on evaluating early child- hood intervention programs. He has served as president of the Society for Research in Child Development and of the World Association for Infant Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines (now the World Association of Infant Mental Health). He has also served as editor of the Monographs of the

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 555 Society for Research in Child Development and associate editor of Psychia- try and the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. He has an M.D. from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Yolanda Garcia is director of children’s services in the Office of Education of Santa Clara County, California. Her office coordinates several government-funded programs, including Head Start, Parkway Child Devel- opment Center, and State Preschool, and she manages programs for ap- proximately 3,300 children 2 to 5 years old. She has been recognized on both the state and national levels for developing innovative approaches to the challenging needs of children and families. She has M.A. degrees in social services administration with an emphasis in child welfare and public policy from the University of Chicago and in education administration from San Jose State University. Susan Gelman is Frederick G. L. Huetwell professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Her principal areas of research are cognitive development, language acquisition, and relationships between lan- guage and thought, and she is currently researching theory-based constructs underlying children’s explanations in specific knowledge domains. In 1991 she received the distinguished scientific award from the American Psycho- logical Association for early career contribution to psychology. She has also received a J.S. Guggenheim fellowship, the Boyd McCandless young scientist award from the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychological Foundation Robert L. Fantz award. She was elected a fellow of the American Psychological Society and is on the edito- rial board of several journals. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from Stanford University. Susan J. Goldin-Meadow is professor in the Department of Psychology and has just served as chair of human development at the University of Chicago. Her research concerns language development in deaf children, and she has also done extensive work exploring the role that gesture plays in communi- cation and thinking in hearing children. Her research has been continu- ously supported by the National Science Foundation, the National Insti- tutes of Health, the Spencer Foundation, and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. She has been an associate editor of Developmental Psychology and on the editorial board of Applied Psycholinguistics. She is a member-at-large for the section on linguistics and language science of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of the board of advisors of the Piaget Society and has served on review panels for the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Society and was recently the recipient of a John Simon Guggenheim fellowship and a James McKeen

556 APPENDIX D Cattell fellowship, which she will use to write a book on gesture and the insights it yields about the mind. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania. William T. Greenough directs the Center for Advanced Study and is Swanlund professor of psychology, psychiatry, and cell and structural biol- ogy at the University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign. He is also a member of the neuronal pattern analysis group in the university’s Beckman Institute. His fields of professional interest include neural mechanisms of learning and memory, life-span developmental psychobiology, and molecular and cellular substrates of fragile X mental retardation syndrome. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1992. He has received the distin- guished scientific contribution award from the American Psychological As- sociation and the William James Fellow award from the American Psycho- logical Society. He previously served on the National Academies committee that produced the report How People Learn. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Ruth T. Gross is professor emerita of pediatrics at Stanford University. At Stanford, where she was director of general pediatrics, she established a training program in adolescent medicine and directed the general pediatrics academic development training program. She was active in several research activities and was the national study director of the multisite clinical trial, the Infant Health and Development Program. In 1979 she was elected to the Institute of Medicine and is a member of numerous academic societies. She has served as a member of the IOM council as well as a member of the Mental Health and Behavior Board, the Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. She has an M.D. from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Megan Gunnar is distinguished McKnight University professor in the Insti- tute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota. She is on the editorial board of Child Development and Developmental Psychobiology and is also a board member of ZERO TO THREE: The National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families. She is the recipient of a National Institute of Mental Health research scientist development award. She has a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Stanford University. Michael Guralnick is director of the Center on Human Development and Disability at the University of Washington, Seattle, where he is also profes- sor in the Departments of Psychology and Pediatrics. His areas of interest are developmental disabilities, early childhood mainstreaming, peer rela- tions, and social and language development. He is a fellow of the American Association on Mental Retardation, a member of the Society for Research

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 557 in Child Development, and a fellow of the American Psychological Associa- tion. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from Lehigh University. Alicia F. Lieberman is professor of psychology in the Department of Psy- chiatry at the University of California, San Francisco. In addition, she is director of the Child Trauma Research Project and senior psychologist at the Infant-Parent Program, San Francisco General Hospital, and clinical consultant with the San Francisco Department of Human Services. Her major interests include toddler development, disorders of attachment, child- parent interventions with high-risk families, and the effects of early trauma in the first years of life. Her current research involves a treatment outcome study of child-parent psychotherapy with preschoolers who have witnessed domestic violence. As a bilingual, bicultural Latina, she has a special interest in cultural issues involving child development, childrearing, and child mental health. She is a member of the board of directors of ZERO TO THREE: The National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families and on the board of Parents magazine. She is the author of The Emotional Life of the Toddler, which has been translated to five languages. She was born in Paraguay and has a B.A. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and a Ph.D. in psychology from Johns Hopkins University. Betsy Lozoff is professor of pediatrics in the Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases at the Medical School and director of the Center for Human Growth and Development, both at the University of Michigan. Her research, conducted primarily in Third World countries, focuses on iron deficiency anemia and infant behavior, using epidemiological, ethno- graphic, neurophysiological, and intervention methods. She is also inter- ested in health and development of children who grow up in poverty in the United States. Her recent research seeks to relate behavioral changes to the effects of iron deficiency on the developing brain. Her research support has come primarily from National Institutes of Health and several foundations. She has served on several National Institute for Child Health and Human Development and National Institutes of Health review panels, as well as on the executive council of the Society for Behavioral Pediatrics. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. She has an M.D. from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Nancy Geyelin Margie (Research Assistant) is research assistant at the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Prior to joining the staff of the board, she was a researcher and fundraiser for the Heartland Alliance for Human Needs and Human Rights in Chicago, and performed research for a book on the history of the Fels family of Philadelphia titled The Philadel- phia Fels, 1880-1920: A Social Portrait. She has a B.A. in history from Haverford College.

558 APPENDIX D Ruth Massinga is chief executive officer of the Casey Family Program, a private foundation dedicated to the support of children in foster care and adoption settings and the creation of strategic alliances to sustain families in community-based service settings. She is also on the board of trustees for the Seattle Children’s Home. She was formerly a caseworker at Harlem Hospital in New York, acting director of the Blundon Group Home for Children in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, director of Berkeley Children’s Ser- vices, and executive director of the Social Services Administration in Balti- more. She is the immediate past chair and current member of the board of directors of the Family Resource Coalition and on the board of advisors of the National Center for Children in Poverty. She was also on the National Academies Panel on Child Care Policy. She has an M.S. in social services from Boston University. Deborah A. Phillips (Study Director) is currently associate professor and chair of the Department of Psychology at Georgetown University. Prior to this she served as study director to the Committee on Integrating the Sci- ence of Early Childhood Development and as the first director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. She is a developmental psychologist who works in the field of early development, child care, and public policy. She is a coprincipal investigator on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. She served on the Task Force on Meeting the Needs of Young Children of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, which produced the Starting Points report. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. She has a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Yale University. Stephen Raudenbush is professor of research design and statistics in the Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology and Special Education at Michigan State University. He is scientific director of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods and is a member of the human development and aging study section of the National Institutes of Health. He is associate editor for several journals, including the Journal of Education and Behavioral Statistics, the Journal of Educational Measure- ment, and Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. He has an Ed.D. in policy analysis and evaluation research from Harvard University. Ross Thompson is Carl A. Happold distinguished professor of psychology at the University of Nebraska. His research concerns sociopersonality development, early emotional growth, and developmental science and pub- lic policy. He is currently associate editor of Child Development (the flagship journal of the Society for Research in Child Development), edits a series of specialized volumes in developmental psychology for McGraw-Hill,

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 559 and has served on several National Institutes of Health review committees. His books include Preventing Child Maltreatment Through Social Support: A Critical Analysis, Early Brain Development and Public Policy, and The Postdivorce Family: Research and Policy Perspectives (coedited with Paul Amato). He has a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. Charles A. Nelson (Liaison) is distinguished McKnight University professor of child psychology, pediatrics, and neuroscience at the University of Min- nesota. His research interests lie in developmental cognitive neuroscience, with particular interests in brain and memory development and in neural plasticity. He chairs the MacArthur Foundation/McDonnell Foundation Research Network on Early Experience and Brain Development, and with Floyd Bloom has coauthored the book Brain, Mind, and Behavior. He has a Ph.D. in child development from the University of Kansas.

561 Index A Abecedarian Project, 76, 350, 351, 361, 363, 364, 407 Abuse, see Child abuse and neglect Access barriers, 66, 254, 367-368, 400, 535 see also “cultural competence” under Interventions ADHD, see “disorders” under Attention Adolescents, 125, 134, 135, 161-162, 249, 253, 259 brain development, 6 185, 187, 201, 205, 397 citizenship, 352 friends and peers, 163, 176, 180 nonparental child care, 312-313 self-regulation, 94, 104, 115, 116, 118 socioeconomic status, 277-278, 279, 290-291, 328, 329-330, 332, 335, 336 teen pregnancy, 8, 226-227, 274, 355, 542 urban low-income areas, 328, 329- 330, 332, 335, 336 Adoption and foster care, 225, 233, 250-251, 257, 258-260, 364 abused children, 250, 255, 257-259 cognitive development, 42, 146 genetics research, 41-44, 45-48, 250, 286 IQ and, 45-46 language learning, 134, 146 see also Orphans and orphanages African-Americans, 61, 65, 179, 269, 272, 281, 286 nonparental child care, 306 single-parent families, 283, 290-291 sleeping practices, 61 urban low-income areas, 329, 331, 344 AIDS, 541 Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 35 Alcohol abuse, 291 maternal depression, 251 prenatal exposure, 197, 198, 200- 203 Aggressiveness, see Violence and aggressiveness

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How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media.

How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues.

The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more.

Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

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