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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2000. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9824.
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562 INDEX American Academy of Pediatrics, 317- 318 American Public Health Association, 317-318 America’s Children: Health Insurance and Access to Care, 535 Amygdala, 213 Animal studies, 73 brain development, 183, 189, 191, 193, 195, 196-198, 202, 203, 205-206, 212, 213-214, 217, 549, 550 gene-environment interactions, 51- 52 language learning, 129 parental attachment and reaction to stress, 237 Annie E. Casey Foundation, 206 Antisocial behavior, 14, 34, 42, 51, 52, 176-180, 345, 404 cultural factors, 59-60 see also Child abuse and neglect; Crime; Violence and Aggressiveness Armed Forces Qualifying Tests, 286 Asians, 59, 61-62, 65, 108, 131, 136 Assessment of programs, see Evaluation of programs Attention, 92, 94, 115-121, 125, 161, 213, 349 brain development, 114 disorders, 29, 42, 51, 119-120, 177, 258, 333, 349 emotions and, 114 interventions, 349 parental factors, 119 Attitudes disabled persons, attitudes toward, 174 nonparental care providers, 318 parents of children rejected by peers, 170-171 peers rejection, 5, 164, 165, 167- 168, 170-171, 174, 176-177, 180-181 racial prejudice, 25, 58, 63, 64, 65, 249, 341, 356, 358 self-worth, 163, 230, 236, 253, 264, 265, 289, 291, 375 working poor, 272 see also Depression; Motivational factors; Temperament Auditory perception, 53, 54, 125, 128, 130, 137, 143-144, 146, 150, 157, 299 brain development, 184, 187, 190, 195-196, 199, 205-206, 216 crying, 100 deafness and other impairments, 29, 111, 129, 130-132, 134, 136, 151-152, 190, 205-206, 216, 364, 392, 412-413 music, 27, 54, 110, 155, 156 Autism, 42, 51, 129, 130, 133, 151- 152, 161, 234, 274, 338, 343, 363 Axons, 24, 185, 186-187, 189 B The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families, 542 Birth process, AIDS transmission, 541 Birthweight, 74, 79, 95, 97, 174, 274 , 405 brain development, 206, 209, 211, 212 interventions, 211, 340, 349, 351, 361, 364, 540-541 see also Premature infants Black persons, see African-Americans Blindness and visual impairments, 132, 184, 189-190, 216, 392 Brain development, 3, 4, 6, 7, 21, 24- 25, 37, 53-55, 182-217, 388, 391, 397, 412-413 abused children, 184, 212-215, 217, 256-257, 413 adolescents, 185, 187, 201, 205, 397

INDEX 563 amygdala, 213 animal models, 183, 189, 191, 193, 195, 196-198, 202, 203, 205- 206, 212, 213-214, 217, 549, 550 attention, 114 auditory impairments, 190, 195- 196, 199, 205-206, 216 auditory perception, 184, 187, 190, 195-196, 199, 205-206, 216 axons, 24, 185, 186-187, 189 behavioral inhibition, 103 birthweight, 206, 209, 211, 212 cognitive development, 71-72, 114, 183, 198, 202, 204-205, 208, 211, 216, 550 cultural influences, 58 damage, 184-185, 195-197, 198- 210, 333 dendrites, 24, 186, 187, 189, 191, 192, 196 depression and, 252 disabled children, 184: see also “auditory impairments” supra education, formal and, 20, 72 emotions, 37, 106, 114 , 183, 198, 211, 212-215, 216 endocrine system, 176-177, 186, 193, 195, 199, 213, 214, 215 gender factors, 195 genetic factors, 53-54, 182-183 hippocampus, 188, 191, 202, 206, 549 infants, 20, 71-72, 184-185, 187, 188, 189, 198, 214-215 infectious diseases, 199-200, 216, 356, 391-392 interventions, 183, 196-198, 211, 217, 219 IQ scores, 201, 211 language, 70-71, 132-133, 135-136, 152, 183, 185, 187, 196, 198 learning, general, 186, 196-197, 207, 216, 538 media coverage, 20, 92 memory, 184, 187, 191, 192, 196, 197, 201, 205, 206, 209, 213, 549-550, 551 mothers and infant stress, 214-215 myelination, 185, 186, 187 neurochemical processes, 14, 25, 102, 182, 186, 191-193, 194, 212, 214, 404 nutrition and, 7, 34, 185, 198, 203- 206, 208, 216, 217, 391, 392 premature births, 34, 196, 206-212 prenatal period, 71-72, 185, 186, 188, 195, 199, 216, 412 process of, 185-193 psychological factors, 184, 212-215, 217; see also “emotions” supra relationships with others, general, 71-72 self-regulation, 26, 71-72, 99, 183, 198, 211, 213, 404 social factors, general, 37, 71-72, 183, 198, 211, 212-215, 216 socioeconomic status, 208, 210, 400 synaptic development, 24, 183, 185- 186, 187-191, 192, 194, 196, 197, 202, 550-551 techniques for studying, 184-185, 205, 206, 252, 549-552; see also “animal models” supra timing of development, 195, 216 visual perception, 183, 184, 187, 189-190, 194, 195, 199, 216 see also Toxins Breast-feeding, 95, 99, 193, 204, 246, 539 C Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 200-201 Central nervous system, 7, 26, 198, 202, 391, 404, 412 see also Brain development Cerebral palsy, 209, 211, 323, 338, 357, 370

564 INDEX Child abuse and neglect, 7, 12-13, 55, 223, 231, 235, 250, 254-257, 264, 395, 543 adoption, 250, 255, 257-259 brain development, 184, 212-215, 217, 256-257, 413 cultural factors, 231, 369-370 education of children, formal, 255 emotional factors, 231, 255, 256, 259 extent of, 254-255 intelligence impacts, 255 interventions, 12-13, 34-35, 233, 262-263, 397 interventions, evaluation of, 344, 345, 355, 357 language deprivation, 135, 155 maternal depression, 253 orphanage care, 257-259 racial and ethnic factors, 357 self-regulation, 109 sexual abuse, 256-257 social factors, general, 255 socioeconomic status, 274, 291-292 substance abuse and, 291 violence, abused children prone to, 255 Child care, see Family factors; Institutional care; Nonparental child care; Parents; Professional education Child Care and Development Fund, 299-300 Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance, 535 Children’s Bureau, 34 The Children’s Vaccine Initiative: Achieving the Vision, 543 Chomsky, Noam, 58 Cocaine, 199, 291 Cognitive development, 5, 28, 82, 92, 124-126, 145-162, 394, 411 adoption and twin studies, 42, 146 brain development, 71-72, 114, 183, 198, 202, 204-205, 208, 211, 216, 550 cognitive mastery, 27, 152-154, 283 cultural factors, 68, 146, 246 developmental disabilities, general, 10, 28-29, 110, 121-122, 124, 162, 174, 234, 274, 338, 342, 343, 354, 356-357, 366- 367, 370, 396, 405, 406 educational attainment and, 125 education of children, general, 145, 153, 157-159 executive function, 14, 95, 115-121, 149 family factors, 156-157, 247 friends and peers, 157, 158, 168, 174, 175, 179-180, 349 genetic factors, 148 infants, 146, 147-149, 151, 153, 245 institutional care, 146, 157 interventions, 27, 124, 125, 150, 151, 155-159, 161, 341, 399 interventions, evaluation of, 342, 343, 344, 348; see also “standardized tests” infra language impairments and, 133, 134, 151, 338 maternal, 286 motivational factors, 27, 148, 152- 154, 157-160 motor skills and, 27, 153 nonparental child care, 301, 310- 312, 313-314 numeracy, 5, 82, 149, 151, 162, 246-247, 351, 387 nutrition, 204-205 orphanage care, impact on, 258, 259 parental factors, 74, 157, 244-247, 273, 286, 294, 295 self-regulation and, 26, 94 single-parent families, 283 socioeconomic status, 125, 159- 160, 247, 354 standardized tests, 84(n.3), 144, 153, 160, 318, 342, 343, 348, 349, 351, 379, 408; see also IQ scores

INDEX 565 time factors, 150-152, 155 see also Educational attainment; Intelligence; Learning, general; Memory; Problem solving Colic, 101-102 Communication skills, see Language factors Community factors, 2, 220, 222, 267, 328-336, 390 adolescents, 328, 329-330, 332, 335, 336 African-Americans, 329, 331, 344 crime, 330, 333, 335, 336, 340 diseases and disorders, 333, 335 educational attainment, 331-332 employment, 329, 330, 332 family factors, 330, 332, 336 friends and peers, 269, 330, 331 gene-environment interactions, 52 Hispanics, 329, 331 housing, 331, 334, 340, 356 interventions, 36, 262, 278, 328, 332, 334-335, 336, 339, 340, 355-358, 363, 366-367, 410- 411 interventions, evaluation of, 278, 328, 334-335, 336 military personnel, 8, 318, 319, 321 minorities, 9, 329, 332, 333 mobility, 331, 334 nonparental care settings, 300, 313, 316, 317-320 parental factors, 262, 330, 331, 336 race/ethnicity, 329, 332, 333 social factors, general, 330, 331, 332-333, 358 socioeconomic status, 329-336, 357, 395 substance abuse, 334-335 toxins in the environment, 330, 333, 336 violence, 7, 36, 266, 329, 330, 331, 333, 334-335, 336, 356, 390 see also Friends and peers; Local government; Urban areas Comprehensive School Health Programs, 542 Computer applications, 20 Conscience, 118, 236-237, 241-244 see also Moral development Consortium for Longitudinal Studies, 350 Consumer Product Safety Commission, 320 Costs and cost-effectiveness brain, technologies for study, 551 disabled children, nonparental child care, 324-325 grade retention, schools, 350 interventions, 10-11, 77, 343, 367, 372, 373-378, 380, 398, 409 language interventions, 145 nonparental child care, 305, 319, 321-322, 323, 324-325 urban low-income areas, interventions, 336 Crime, 11, 20, 165, 177-178, 180-181, 250, 274 high school dropouts, 124-125 interventions, 312-312, 340, 393 interventions, evaluation of, 343, 344, 345, 378-379 urban low-income areas, 330, 333, 335, 336, 340 see also Child abuse and neglect; Substance abuse; Violence amd aggressiveness Crying, 26, 96, 100-103, 107, 292, 355, 389 cultural factors, 100-101, 248 Cultural factors, 3, 24, 25-26, 37, 57- 69 antisocial behavior, 59-60 brain development, 58 breast-feeding, 248 child abuse, 231, 369-370 cognitive development, 68, 146, 246 crying, 100-101, 248 defined, 60 disabilities, 25, 338, 370

566 INDEX diversity, 2, 11-12, 15, 26, 29, 36, 57, 62-65, 332, 346-347, 384, 400, 408 education, attitudes toward, 248-249 emotional expression, 59-60, 68, 100-101, 105, 106, 108, 248 family factors, 25, 29, 67, 354 friends and peers, 25, 64-65, 69, 171, 179 interventions, cultural competence, 11-12, 20, 66-67, 346-347, 353, 367, 369-370, 380, 398, 400, 408-409 health care, 11-12, 67 historical perspectives on research, 57-58, 337 language learning, 127, 128, 138 middle childhood years, 536 moral development, 60 mothers, 61, 96, 232, 248, 249 nonparental child care, 69, 303, 306, 401 parenting, 25, 59, 60-61, 96, 108, 232, 239, 246, 247-250, 263- 264, 354, 401 race/ethnicity, general, 25, 36, 58, 249; see also “diversity” supra relationships, general, 59-60 self-regulation, 25, 26-27, 60, 95- 96, 99, 100, 105, 123 sleep, 60-61, 95-96, 242, 251, 253 temperament, 59-60 see also Community factors; Foreign countries; Language factors; Race/ethnicity; Social factors; Socioeconomic status Curiosity, 5, 23, 27, 89-90, 148, 385, 387 parental attachment and, 230-231, 233 D Deafness and other auditory impairments, 29, 111, 129, 130-132, 134, 136, 151-152, 364, 392, 412-413 brain development, 190, 195-196, 199, 205-206, 216 Delinquency, see Crime Demographic factors, 65, 346, 354 cultural diversity, 2, 11-12, 15, 26, 29, 36, 57, 62-69, 332, 346- 347, 384, 400, 408 immigrants, 14, 63, 64, 65, 68, 229, 248, 281-282, 369, 401, 535, 537 rural areas, 34, 328 see also Language factors; Mobility; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status; Urban areas; specific minority groups Dendrites, 24, 186, 187, 189, 191, 192, 196 Department of Defense, 8, 318, 319, 321, 393 Department of Health and Human Services, see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; National Institutes of Health Department of Labor, see Children’s Bureau Depression, 29, 104, 109, 122, 274 brain activity, 252 maternal, 250, 251-254, 309, 310, 332, 355, 370, 390 socioeconomic status, 251, 253, 254, 289, 332 urban low-income areas, 332 Development During Middle Childhood: The Years from Six to Twelve, 536

INDEX 567 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 119-120 Diet, see Nutrition Disabled children, 3, 5-6, 10, 11, 14, 29, 42-44, 536 attitudes toward, 174 blindness and other visual impairments, 132, 184, 189- 190, 199, 216, 392 brain development, 184, 190, 195- 196, 199, 205-206, 216 cognitive development, 71-72, 114, 183, 198, 202, 204-205, 208, 211, 216, 550; see also “developmental” infra cost of nonparental care, 324-325 cultural factors, 25, 338, 370 deafness and other auditory impairments, 29, 111, 129, 130-132, 134, 136, 151-152, 364, 392, 412-413 brain development, 190, 195- 196, 199, 205-206, 216 developmental, 10, 28-29, 110, 121-122, 124, 162, 174, 234, 274, 338, 343, 354, 356-357, 366-367, 370, 396, 405, 406 Down syndrome, 110, 129, 132- 133, 161, 234, 338, 342, 357, 363, 370 executive function deficits, 116-117, 120-121 family factors, 346, 352, 353, 363- 364 friends and peers, interaction with, 174-175, 177-178 health care, 325 historical perspectives, 323 interventions, 29, 35, 142-145, 162, 175, 300, 325, 338, 343, 346, 365-367, 370, 396, 401 interventions, evaluation of, 325, 343, 365-367 language impairments, 129, 130- 133, 134, 140-145, 151, 162, 174, 196, 338, 343, 346, 348, 354, 356-357 legislation, 12, 35, 346, 358, 372- 373, 402 molecular genetics, 50-51, 405 nonparental child care, 323-325 normal variations vs impairments, 4, 28-29 number of, 323 parental employment, 323-324 parents, other, 234, 325 premature infants, 209 social impairments, 5, 387; see also Antisocial behavior socioeconomic status, 354 special education, 157, 343, 349- 351, 358, 372, 375-378 (passim), 536, 540 see also Diseases and disorders Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention, 536 Disciplining of child, 25, 52, 62, 171, 243, 244, 292, 293, 354, 370, 395 Diseases and disorders, other, 10, 29, 274 AIDS, 541 asthma, 335 attention disorders, 29, 42, 51, 119- 120, 177, 258, 333, 349 autism, 42, 51, 129, 130, 133, 151, 152, 161, 234, 274, 338, 343, 363 brain damage, 184-185, 195-197, 198-210, 333 cerebral palsy, 209, 211, 323, 338, 357, 370 colic, 101-102 community factors, 333, 335 cultural factors, 25 emotional, 5, 6, 14, 28-29, 42, 104- 105, 109, 110, 115, 122-123, 174-175, 176-180, 239, 333, 335, 338, 387, 390 fetal alcohol syndrome, 200-203 infectious diseases, 199-200, 216, 356, 391-392

568 INDEX iron-deficiency anemia, 199, 204- 206, 406 memory and verbal functioning, 196 rubella, 199-200 seizures, 196 self-regulatory impairments, 5, 29, 42, 51, 94, 119-120, 175, 387 sudden infant death syndrome, 99 urban low-income areas, 333, 335 see also Depression; Disabled children; Health care Divorce and marital conflict, 78-79, 108-109, 234, 253, 254, 283- 284 Down syndrome, 110, 129, 132-133, 161, 234, 338, 342, 357, 363 Drug abuse, see Alcohol abuse; Substance abuse Drug treatment, 122-123, 191-192, 216 E Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers, 146, 536 Early Child Care Research Network, 300-305, 311-312, 320, 321 Early Head Start program, 35 Early Intervention Collaborative Study, 363 Ecological models, 24, 58, 175, 220, 266, 329, 340 The Ecology of Human Development, 58 Economic factors, 3, 8, 15, 36-37, 536 market forces, 36 see also Costs and cost-effectiveness; Employment; Funding; Socioeconomic status Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards- Based Reform, 536 Educational attainment, 9, 124-125, 142, 159, 290, 351 employability and, 36 high school dropouts, 124-125, 274, 334 interventions, evaluation of, 342, 343, 349-350 maternal, 2, 97, 281, 282, 289, 290, 294, 311, 354, 361 parental, general, 74, 221, 267-268, 281-282, 286, 296-297, 353 poverty and, 9, 290 race/ethnicity and, 281-282 single-parent families, 283, 289 urban low-income communities, 331-332 see also Literacy; Numeracy Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 35, 346, 358 Education of children, formal, 5, 8, 35, 247, 339, 538, 542 abused children, 255 brain development and, 20, 72 cognitive development, 145, 153, 157-159 cultural attitudes toward, 248-249 grade retention, 343, 350-351, 372, 378, 354 language development, 138, 145, 149 peer relations of children, 163, 164- 165, 169, 177 school readiness, 6, 36, 145, 149, 219, 263, 314, 349, 386, 388 second-language students, 538 socioeconomic status, 11, 277-278, 288, 344 special education, 157, 343, 349- 351, 358, 372, 375-378 (passim), 536, 540 standards-based reform, 35, 36, 390, 536 see also Preschool programs; Standardized tests Education, other, see Parent education; Professional education; Public education Emergency Medical Services for Children, 537

INDEX 569 Emotional factors, 2, 5, 14, 28, 42, 90, 383, 386, 387-388, 405, 408, 411 abused children, 231, 255, 256, 259 adoption and twin studies, 42 attention, 114 brain development, 37, 106, 114 , 183, 198, 211, 212-215, 216 caregivers, 341 crying, 26, 96, 100-103, 107, 248, 292, 355, 389 cultural factors, 59-60, 68, 100- 101, 105, 106, 108, 248 disorders, 5, 6, 14, 28-29, 42, 104- 105, 109, 110, 115, 122-123, 174-175, 176-180, 239, 333, 335, 338, 387, 390 effortful control, 114-115, 118, 173 family factors, 112, 238, 355 friends and peers, 163, 164-165, 169, 177 infants, 106, 107, 109-110 intervention programs, 11, 211, 341, 398-399 intervention programs, evaluation, 348, 398 language development, 136, 161 neurochemistry, 193 nonparental caregivers, 234-236, 310, 312-314, 315, 320 orphanage care, impact on, 259 parenting, general, 97, 107-109, 110, 113-114, 225, 226, 229- 238, 236, 251-254 parents with emotional problems, 234, 250, 251-254, 274, 289- 292, 389-390 peers and friends, 164, 165 self-regulation and, 26, 92, 93-94, 104-115, 118, 121, 183, 198 single-parent families, 283 social factors in emotional regulation, 107, 109-110, 112, 113, 183, 198, 211, 405 socioeconomic status and emotional regulation, 106, 251, 292-293 unemployed fathers, 273 urban low-income areas, 330 vocabulary development and, 113- 114 see also Depression; Relationships, general; Temperament Employment, 10, 36, 407, 414 community factors, 329, 330, 332 high school dropouts, 124-125 nonparental child care providers, 316-317, 319, 393, 398 parental occupation status, 74, 267, 286, 287, 290, 294 parents, 2, 8, 11, 36, 220, 221, 228, 266, 267, 269-275, 276, 279- 280, 285, 294, 296, 299, 305, 383, 393-394, 399, 544 of disabled children, 323-324 mothers, 2, 8, 11, 68-69, 228, 269, 270, 271, 272-273, 280, 289, 296, 297, 300, 303, 305, 306, 322-323, 324, 344, 399 nonparental child care, 8, 220, 221, 297, 302-303, 390-391 nonstandard hours of work, 9, 11, 296, 393, 399 parental leave, 8, 302-303, 324, 358, 392 single parents, 305, 394, 544 poor persons, working, 11, 271- 273, 280, 289, 396 interventions, 264, 340, 344 unemployment, 273, 279-280, 332 dropouts, 125 fathers, 269, 272, 273 urban low-income areas, 329, 330, 332 welfare recipients, 11, 271-272, 278-280 Endocrine system, 14, 40, 51, 98, 99, 106, 237, 252, 404 brain development, 176-177, 186, 193, 195, 199, 213, 214, 215 Ethical issues, 37 conscience, 118, 236-237, 241-244 research ethics, 73, 77, 78, 129 see also Moral development Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity

570 INDEX Evaluation of programs, 10-12, 13-15, 36, 70-71, 73, 75-87, 161, 342-358, 359-369, 373-382, 402, 403-411 causal effects, defining and estimating, 11, 37, 70-88, 159, 170, 258, 261, 342, 354, 359-361, 397-398, 403, 406- 410, 545-548 child abuse, 344, 345, 355, 357 cognitive development, 342, 343, 344, 348; see also “standardized tests” infra community interventions, 278, 328, 334-335, 336 cost of interventions, 10-11, 77, 343, 367, 372, 373-378, 380, 398, 409 crime prevention, 343, 344, 345, 378-379 cultural competence, 11-12, 20, 66- 67, 346-347, 353, 367, 369- 370, 380, 398, 400, 408-409 disabled children, 325, 343, 365- 367 educational attainment, 342, 343, 349-350 emotional factors, 348, 398 families, 345, 346, 352-355, 356, 363, 366-368, 379, 543 funding of, 70-71, 75-76, 77 Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), 247, 279, 293, 355 intelligence factors, 343, 344, 347- 348, 350, 351, 361, 385, 372, 375, 376, 378, 379, 408 IQ scores, 343, 344, 347-348, 350, 351, 361, 372, 375, 376, 378, 379-380, 385, 408 literacy, 345-346 nonparental child care, 278, 300- 305, 311-312, 314-323, 325 orphanage-reared children, 257-260 parenting interventions, 257-260, 262-264, 407-408 political factors, 12, 77, 358-359 postintervention followup, 84, 105- 106, 143, 153, 171, 197, 205, 210, 220, 233, 285, 314, 343, 350, 351, 352, 355, 363, 367, 371-372, 375-376, 378-380 preschool, 339, 351, 362, 388, 539 social factors, 343, 348, 349 socioeconomic status, 11, 14, 74, 342-345, 354, 362, 365, 396, 398 special education, 157, 343, 349- 351, 358, 372, 375-378 (passim), 536, 540 standardized evaluation designs, 15, 70, 362, 399, 409 standardized tests, 84(n.3), 144, 153, 160, 318, 342, 343, 348, 349, 351, 379, 408 urban low-income areas, 278, 328, 334-335, 336 see also Longitudinal studies Even Start Family Literacy Program, 263 Executive function, 14, 95, 115-121, 149 F Family and Medical Leave Act, 8, 302- 303, 358, 392 Family factors, 24, 52, 177-178, 219, 220, 221, 267-296, 384, 394 cognitive development, 156-157, 247, 283 community-related, 269, 330, 332, 336 cultural, 25, 29, 67, 354 disabled children, 346, 352, 353, 363-364 emotional, 112, 238, 355 friends and peers, support by, 269 interventions, 11, 339, 341, 393 interventions, evaluation of, 345, 346, 352-355, 356, 363, 366- 368, 379, 543

INDEX 571 literacy, 345 middle childhood years, 536 self-regulation, 96 seriously troubled families, 2, 8, 10, 355, 384 violence, 7, 8, 55, 353, 355, 365, 370, 390, 393, 543 see also Child abuse and neglect shared and nonshared environments, 47-50 urban low-income areas, 330, 332, 336 see also Child abuse and neglect; Demographic factors; Home services; Marital relationship; Parents; Relatives, not in nuclear family; Siblings; Single parents; Socioeconomic status Fathers, 52, 228-229, 233, 234, 264, 269, 272, 273, 284, 285, 287, 301, 303, 305 see also Parents Federal government, 10, 414 devolution to state and local governments, 36 federal-state-local task force on public investment, 10, 299- 300, 396 taxation, 10, 340, 359, 396, 414, 538 see also Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies Fetal alcohol syndrome, 200-203, 537 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment, 537 Food and nutrition, see Nutrition Foreign countries, 59, 61-62, 363 adoption, 250 crying, 100-101 deaf children, 131 immigrants, 14, 63, 64, 65, 68, 229, 248, 281-282, 369, 401, 535, 537 nonparental child care, 303 orphanages in Romania, 257, 259, 260 self-regulation, cultural practices, 95-96, 100, 123 separation from parents, 232 socioeconomic status, 276, 277, 278 Foreign languages, 158 cultural competence, 11-12, 20, 66- 67, 346-347, 353, 367, 369- 370, 380, 398, 400, 408-409 learning of, 127, 128-129, 130, 134-136 second-language students, 538 Foster care, see Adoption and foster care; Institutional care; Orphans and orphanages Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, 285 Friends and peers, 5, 14, 92, 163-181, 388, 406 adolescents, 163, 176, 180 animal studies, 51-52 behavioral inhibition, 103, 171-172 caregiver attachment and relations with, 235, 236 cognitive development, 157, 158, 168, 174, 175, 179-180, 349 community factors, 269, 330, 331 conflicts with, 5, 51, 239 cultural factors, 25, 64-65, 69, 171, 179 disabled children, interactions with, 174-175, 177-178 education, formal, 163, 164-165, 169, 177 preschool, 164, 170, 174, 175, 177 emotional factors, 164, 165 family support by, 269 gender factors, 158, 172-173 genetics, 178, 181 Hispanics, 179 infants, 166, 167, 169, 170, 349 interaction ratings, 70 interventions, 165, 175, 179-180, 181 IQ scores and, 174 language factors, 168 measurements of development, 163- 165, 349

572 INDEX memory, 160, 161, 175 middle childhood years, 536 mothers and, 169, 170, 172 nonparental child care, 303, 313 parental factors, 169-171, 177-178, 179, 236, 239-243, 247 play with, 165-169, 237, 239 race/ethnicity, 64-65, 179 rejection by, 5, 164, 165, 167-168, 170-171, 174, 176-177, 180- 181 temperament and, 165, 171-173, 175 time spent with, 164, 220 urban low-income areas, 330, 331 violent interactions with, 168, 170, 171, 173, 176-178, 179, 180 see also Siblings From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families, 537 Funding, 8, 10, 11, 337, 361-362, 380, 393, 409, 414-415 Child Care and Development Fund, 299 federal-state-local task force on public investment, 10, 299- 300, 396 Head Start, 299 historical perspectives, 34-35 program evaluation and, 70-71, 75- 76, 77 see also Costs and cost-effectiveness G Gender factors brain development, 195 friends, relationships with, 158, 172-173 nonparental care, 301 see also Fathers; Mothers Genetic factors, 13-14, 41-56, 386, 405-406 adoption research, 41-44, 45-48, 250, 286 animal studies, 51-52 behavioral, 41-50, 55, 56, 219, 222, 227, 250, 284, 286-289, 388 brain development, 53-54, 182-183 cognitive development, 148 disabilities, 50-51, 405 heritability estimates, 41, 42, 44-47, 50 interventions, 44, 46-47, 56, 142, 219, 341, 389 IQ scores, 45-46, language learning, 129, 138, 141-142 molecular, 13, 20, 39-40, 50-52, 55, 56, 405 nature and nurture issues, 1, 3, 4, 6- 7, 19-20, 22-25, 37, 39-56, 388-389, 404-405 peer relations, 178, 181 plasticity, 31 psychological factors, 41-51, 52, 55, 56, 405 race/ethnicity, 44 shared and nonshared environments, 47-50 socioeconomic status, 44, 45-46, 55, 222, 286 twin studies, 41-42, 44, 47-48, 132, 138 Government role, see Federal government; Local government; Political factors; State government Grandparents, 234, 249, 264, 300, 305-306 Growing Up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths, 537- 538 H Handbook of Child Psychology, 57 Handicapped Children’s Early Education Program, 35 Head Start program, 35, 179, 299-300, 362, 378, 401

INDEX 573 Health care, 45, 216, 400 cultural competence, 11-12, 67 disabled children, 325 emergency medical services, 537 historical perspectives, 34, 35 immunization, 34, 543 Health insurance, 278, 280, 302, 400, 414, 535 Medicaid, 400 State Children’s Health Insurance Program, 35, 400 Hearing, see Auditory perception Hippocampus, 188, 191, 202, 206, 549 Hispanics, 65, 129, 232 friends and peers, 179 nonparental child care, 303, 306 socioeconomic status, 269, 272, 281-282, 283 urban low-income areas, 329, 331 Historical perspectives, 34-37 cultural factors, research, 57-58, 337 disabled children, 323 genetics, nature vs nurture, 23, 40, 45 health care, 34, 35 nonparental child care, 298 parenting, 226-227, 228, 264, 269- 270 socioeconomic status, 267, 269- 270, 275, 276, 290, 295 study at hand, methodology, 33-34 see also Legislation HIV, see AIDS Home environment, see Family factors Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), 247, 279, 293, 355 Home services, 11, 34, 81, 97, 211, 222, 262-263, 301, 316, 353- 354, 355, 361, 363, 364, 379, 399 maternal depression, 254 Housing mobility, 331, 334 interventions, 334, 340, 356 How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, 538 Hyperactivity, see “disorders” under Attention I Immigrants, 14, 63, 64, 65, 68, 229, 248, 281-282, 369, 401, 535, 537 Immunization, 34, 543 Improving Schooling for Language- Minority Children: A Research Agenda, 538 Improving Student Learning: A Strategic Plan for Education Research and Its Utilization, 538 Income, see Socioeconomic status Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 12, 35, 346, 358, 372- 373, 402 Infant Health and Development Program, 210, 211, 332, 351, 361, 365, 367 Infants, 5, 6, 7, 8, 23, 30, 89, 90, 384, 405 adoption, 364 brain damage, 184-185, 198 brain development, 20, 71-72, 184, 187, 188, 189, 214-215 breast-feeding, 95, 99, 193, 204, 246, 539 cognitive development, 146, 147- 149, 151, 153, 245 communications skills, 124, 127, 185 disabilities due to prematurity, 209 Early Head Start program, 35 emotions, general, 106, 107, 109- 110 executive function, 116-117 fetal alcohol syndrome, 200-203 friends and peers, 166, 167, 169, 170, 349 institutional child care, 2, 34, 101, 257, 259, 260

574 INDEX intelligence, 160, 208, 211 interventions, 97, 210, 211, 332, 351, 361 language learning, 127, 185, 211 lead poisoning, 529 learning capacity, 23, 27, 412 maternal depression, 252-253 mothers, relationship to, 97, 233, 234-235, 237, 300, 301, 307- 310, 365 mothers, working, 270 nonparental child care, 298, 300, 303, 304, 306, 311, 316, 384 nutrition, 203, 204-206, 257, 259, 260, 406, 540, 543-544; see also “breast-feeding” supra orphanage care, 259, 260 parent-infant attachment, 97, 225, 226, 229-238, 349, 392 parents’ reaction to crying, 100-101 relationships, 27-28, 166, 173 self-regulation, 94, 95-103, 106, 107, 109-110, 116-117, 122, 241-242 sleep, 60-61, 95-96, 97-99 sudden infant death syndrome, 99 vocabulary development, 211 see also Birthweight; Premature infants; Prenatal period Infectious diseases, 199-200, 216, 356, 391-392 Institutional care, 2, 44 cognitive development, 146, 157 crying, 101 infants, 2, 34, 101, 257, 259, 260 language learning, 134, 146 orphanages, 225, 231, 250, 257- 260; see also Adoption see also Education of children, formal; Nonparental child care Intelligence, 30, 155, 160-161, 162, 174, 286 abused children, 255 fetal alcohol syndrome, 201 infants, 160, 208, 211 interventions, evaluation of, 343, 344, 347-348, 350, 351, 361, 372, 375, 376, 378, 379, 385, 408 language development and, 137-138 nonparental child care, 310 orphanage care and, 258 parental input, 247 premature infants, 208, 211 preschool programs, 343, 344 socioeconomic status, 45-46, 286- 287, 288, 344 twin and adoption studies, 44 see also IQ scores International perspectives, see Foreign countries Interventions, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 32, 70- 71, 219, 266, 299, 300, 337- 380, 383, 397-398 access barriers, 66, 254, 367-368, 400, 535; see also “cultural competence” infra alcohol abuse, 203 attention disorders, 349 birthweight, 211, 340, 349, 351, 361, 364, 540-541 brain development, 183, 196-198, 211, 217, 219 child abuse, 12-13, 34-35, 233, 262-263, 397 cognitive development, 27, 124, 125, 150, 151, 155-159, 161, 341, 399 community factors, 36, 262, 278, 328, 332, 334-335, 336, 339, 340, 355-358, 363, 366-367, 410-411 cost of, 10-11, 77, 145, 336, 343, 367, 372, 373-378, 380, 398, 409 crime prevention, 312-312, 340, 393 cultural competence or providers, 11-12, 20, 66-67, 346-347, 353, 367, 369-370, 380, 398, 400, 408-409

INDEX 575 definition of parenting, 226 disabled children, 29, 35, 142-145, 162, 175, 300, 325, 338, 343, 346, 365-367, 370, 396, 401 emotional factors, 11, 211, 341, 398-399 employment training, 264, 340, 344 family factors, 11, 339, 341, 393 fragmentation of infrastructure, 9, 11, 372-373, 394-395 friends and peers, 165, 175, 179- 180, 181 genetic research and, 44, 46-47, 56, 142, 219, 341, 389 housing, 334, 340, 356 individualized, 32, 44, 67, 119, 120, 211, 261-262, 346, 360- 361, 364 infants, 97, 210, 211, 332, 351, 361 infectious diseases, 200 language skills, 11-12, 124, 125, 130, 139-140, 142-145, 151, 263, 341, 349, 399 maternal depression, 254 moral development, 341, 349 motivational factors, 32 orphans, 258-259, 260 parent education, 261, 263, 344, 345, 361, 378, 407 parenting, other, 211, 226, 233, 260-264, 265-266, 280, 295- 296, 340, 349, 351, 353-354, 359-360, 363-364, 392-393, 407-408 peers and friends, relations with, 165, 175, 179-180, 181 postintervention followup, 84, 105- 106, 143, 153, 171, 197, 205, 210, 220, 233, 285, 314, 343, 350, 351, 352, 355, 363, 367, 371-372, 375-376, 378-380 premature infants, 211-212 prenatal, 34, 339, 353, 355, 364, 393, 399-400 reading, 345-346, 351, 541, 542 relationships, general, 28, 32, 346, 348-349, 388, 392-393 self-regulation, 348-349, 386, 387- 389 social factors, general, 11, 341, 398-399 socioeconomic status, 34, 35, 261, 262, 344, 410-411 state and local government roles, 12-13, 35, 36, 299, 402, 414 theoretical issues, 36, 338-342; see also Ecological models timing of, 344, 360, 362-364 toxins, environmental, 356, 393 urban low-income areas, 36, 262, 278, 328, 332, 334-335, 336, 339, 340, 355-358, 363, 366- 367, 410-411 see also Drug treatment; Education of children, formal; Evaluation of programs; Health care; Home services; Institutional care; Preschool programs; Professional education IQ scores, 30, 84(n.3), 137, 138, 155, 156, 160-161, 247, 255, 258 adoption and, 45-46 brain development, 201, 211 friends and peers, 174 genetics, 45-46, intervention evaluations, 343, 344, 347-348, 350, 351, 361, 372, 375, 376, 378, 379-380, 385, 408 socioeconomic status, 45-46, 286- 287, 288, 344 Iron-deficiency anemia, 199, 204-206, 406 K KidsCount, 206

576 INDEX L Language factors, 5, 8, 28, 68, 90, 92, 117, 124-145, 161-162, 394, 408, 538 abused children, 135, 255 adoption, 134, 146 animal studies, 129 blind persons, 132 brain development, 70-71, 132-133, 135-136, 152, 183, 185, 187, 196, 198 cognitive development and impairments, 133, 134, 151, 338 cultural competence, 12, 20, 66-67, 346, 401 cultural, language learning, 127, 128, 138 deaf persons, 130-132, 134 education, formal, 138, 145, 149 emotional factors, 136, 161 friends and peers, 168 genetic, 129, 138, 141-142 impairments, 129, 130-133, 134, 140-145, 151, 162, 174, 196, 338, 343, 346, 348, 354, 356- 357 infants, 127, 185, 211 institutional care, 134, 146 intelligence and learning, 137-138 interventions, 11-12, 124, 125, 130, 139-140, 142-145, 151, 263, 341, 349, 399 learning, 12, 127, 128-129, 130, 134-136, 138, 141-142, 144, 145, 146, 150, 185 longitudinal studies, 138-139, 184- 185 nonparental child care, 310-312, 313-314 orphanage care, impact on, 258, 259 mothers, 137, 138 parents, general, 132, 137, 138, 140, 144, 244, 246-247, 294 socioeconomic status, 125, 130, 137, 138, 139, 142, 310, 311 timing of learning, 134-136, 144, 145, 150 see also Foreign countries; Literacy; Reading; Vocabulary development Lead poisoning, 199, 333-334, 406, 539 Learning from Experience: Evaluating Early Childhood Demonstration Programs, 539 Learning, general, 4, 5, 124-162, 349, 354, 386 brain development, 186, 196-197, 207, 216, 538 foreign languages, 127, 128-129, 130, 134-136 infants, capacity, 23, 27, 127, 185, 412 language, 12, 127, 128-129, 130, 134-136, 138, 141-142, 144, 145, 146, 150, 185 parental role, 244-247 persistence, 5, 124-125, 152, 153, 388 socioeconomic status and home learning, 293-295 see also Cognitive development; Curiosity; Educational attainment; Education of children, formal; Intelligence Legislation, 358-359 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 35, 346, 358 Family and Medical Leave Act, 8, 302, 358, 392 Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 12, 35, 346, 358, 372-373, 402 Military Child Care Act, 319 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 35, 285, 298-299, 358 Sheppard-Towner Act, 34 Social Security Act, 34-35, 400 Literacy, 5, 83, 126, 145, 151, 246- 247, 263, 299, 387, 400 family factors, 345

INDEX 577 interventions, evaluation of, 345-346 parental educational attainment and, 282 second-language students, 538 see also Reading; Vocabulary development Local areas, see Community factors Local government, 12-13, 36, 402, 414 federal devolution trends, 36 federal-state-local task force on public investment, 10, 299- 300, 396 maternal interventions, 262 welfare reform studies, 278-279 Longitudinal studies, 77-78, 82, 84, 127, 138-139, 406 brain damaged children, 184-185 cognitive development, 153 language development, 138-139, 184-185 postintervention followup, 84, 105- 106, 143, 153, 171, 197, 205, 210, 220, 233, 285, 314, 343, 350, 351, 352, 355, 363, 367, 371-372, 375-376, 378-380 parenting, 220, 236, 250-251, 294 socioeconomic status, 268, 271, 279, 286-288, 343 M MacArthur Foundation Research Network, 340 Magnetic resonance imaging, 184, 551- 552 Manual of Child Psychology, 57 Marijuana, 291 Marital relationship, 227, 262 divorce and marital conflict, 78-79, 108-109, 234, 253, 254, 283- 284 unmarried mothers, 283, 284, 285 urban low-income areas, 329 see also Single parents Mass media, 36 brain development coverage, 20, 92 television, 221 time spent exposed to, 221 Mathematics, see Numeracy Mead, Margaret, 57 Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations, 539 Medicaid, 400 Medical care, see Health care Memory, 29, 54, 82, 83, 146, 150, 236, 408, 412 brain development, 184, 187, 191, 192, 196, 197, 201, 205, 206, 209, 213, 549-550, 551 disorders, 196 friends and peers, 160, 161, 175 parental attachment and, 236 self-regulation, 116, 117, 120 Mental health, see Alcohol abuse; Child abuse and neglect; Emotional factors; Psychological factors; Substance abuse Meta-analysis, 81-82 Military Child Care Act, 319 Military personnel, children of, 8, 318, 319, 321, 393 Mind in Society, 58 Minorities, see Race/ethnicity Mobility, urban low-income families, 331, 334 Moral development, 5, 28, 37, 90 citizenship responsibilities, 352 cultural factors, 60 interventions, 341, 349 see also Conscience; Ethical issues Mothers, 237, 261-263, 264, 278 alcohol abuse, 197, 198, 200-203, 251 behavioral inhibition and, 103, 172 brain development of infant, stress, 214-215 breast-feeding, 95, 99, 193, 204, 246, 539 cognitive factors, 286 cultural factors, 61, 96, 232, 248, 249

578 INDEX depression, 250, 251-254, 309, 310, 332, 355, 370, 390 discipline by, 52, 292-293 educational attainment, 2, 97, 281, 282, 289, 290, 294, 311, 354, 361 employment, 2, 8, 11, 68-69, 228, 269, 270, 271, 272-273, 280, 289, 296, 297, 300, 303, 305, 306, 322-323, 324, 344, 399 fathers taking on role of, 228, 229 friends and peers of children, 169, 170, 172 grandmothers, 234 home learning environment, 294 infants of working mothers, 270 infants relationship to, 97, 233, 234-235, 237, 300, 301, 307- 310, 365 language development, 137, 138 local government interventions, 262 nonparental care and, 300, 301, 307-310 poor, 233, 268, 294 premature infants, relationship to, 97 self-regulation, 52, 96, 97, 251, 252-253, 292-293 single parents, 228, 283, 284, 285, 289, 394 teenage, 8, 226-227, 274, 355, 542 unmarried, 283, 284, 285 urban low-income areas, 332, 333 see also Parents; Prenatal period Motivational factors, 149, 356, 386, 538 cognitive development, 27, 148, 152-154, 157-160 interventions, 32 parental attachment, 230 self-regulation and, 93-94 see also Curiosity; Depression; Temperament Motor skills, 26, 82, 152, 189, 197, 203, 204, 205, 216, 217, 338, 348, 363, 404 cognitive assimilation/mastery motivation, 27, 153 Music, 27, 54, 110, 155, 156 Myelination, 185, 186, 187 N National Association for the Education of Young Children, 319 National Household Education Survey, 297-298 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 300- 305, 311-312, 320, 321 National Institutes of Health, 15, 179, 410 Neglect, see Child abuse and neglect Neighborhoods, see Community factors Neurochemical processes, 14, 25, 102, 182, 186, 191-193, 194, 212, 214, 404 drug treatment, 122-123, 191-192, 216 see also Endocrine system; Toxins Neurological development, 7, 13-14, 120-121, 152, 185, 340, 388, 391-392, 404-405, 406 central nervous system, 7, 26, 198, 202, 391, 404, 412; see also Brain development self-regulation, 26, 99 sleep, 99 see also Motor skills; Plasticity; Toxins Nonparental child care, 8, 73, 220, 221-222, 234-236, 297-327, 328, 390-391 adolescents, 312-313 African-Americans, 306 attitudes toward, 318 cognitive development, 301, 310- 312, 313-314 community settings, 300, 313, 316, 317-320 cost of, 305, 319, 321-322, 323, 324-325 cultural factors, 69, 303, 306, 401

INDEX 579 Department of Defense, 8, 318, 319 disabled children, 323-325 emotional factors, 234-236, 310, 312-314, 315, 320 employment of parents and, 8, 220, 221, 297, 302-303, 390-391 employment situation of, 316-317, 319, 393, 398 extent of, 297-298, 300-302 foreign countries, 303 friends and peers, 303, 313 gender factors, 301; see “mothers” infra interventions, evaluation of, 278, 300-305, 311-312, 314-323, 325 Hispanics, 303, 306 historical perspectives, 298 infants, 298, 300, 303, 304, 306, 311, 316, 384 language factors, 310-312, 313-314 mothers and, 300, 301, 307-310 parental decisions on, 300-307, 314, 319, 321, 323, 325-326 political factors, 299-300, 314, 317- 320 racial and ethnic variations, 303, 306 relatives, not in nuclear family, 301, 303, 315, 325 grandparents, 234, 249, 264, 300, 305-306 siblings as caregivers, 303 single-parent families, 299, 305, 307 social factors, general, 310, 312-314 socioeconomic status, 301, 303, 309, 310, 311, 322-323, 326 nonparental child care providers, situation of, 316-317, 319, 393-398 standards of care, 35, 317-318, 319, 320, 321, 322-323, 367, 372, 378, 394, 395, 414 structural features, 315-317 temperament of child, 301 time factors, 301-302, 326-327, 384, 394 welfare recipients, 303 see also Education of children, formal; Home services; Interventions; Orphans and orphanages; Professional education Nonrandom statistical studies, see Quasi-experimental studies Numeracy, 5, 82, 149, 151, 162, 246- 247, 351, 387 Nutrition, 26, 45, 62, 73, 74, 185, 198, 203-206, 207, 353, 378, 406, 541 brain development, 7, 34, 185, 198, 203-206, 208, 216, 217, 391, 392 breast-feeding, 95, 99, 193, 204, 246, 539 cognitive development, 204-205 infants, other than breast-feeding, 203, 204-206, 257, 259, 260, 406, 540, 543-544 iron-deficiency anemia, 199, 204- 206, 406 maternal depression, 252 orphanage care, impact on, 259 pesticides in food, 540 prenatal, 73, 203-204, 208, 209, 210, 406, 539, 540 self-regulation, 95 Women, Infants, and Children program, 406, 543-544 Nutrition During Lactation, 539 Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain; Part II: Nutrient Supplements, 539 Nutrition Services in Perinatal Care, 540 O Orphans and orphanages, 225, 231, 250, 257-260 see also Adoption and foster care

580 INDEX P Parent-Child Development Centers, 351, 367 Parent education, 75, 261, 263, 344, 345, 361, 371, 378, 407, 411 see also “maternal” and “parental, general” under Educational attainment Parents, 7, 8, 11, 24, 30, 52, 74-75, 207, 219-220, 225-266, 389, 412 affective disorders, parents with, 109 alcohol abuse, 197, 198, 200-203, 251, 291 attachment security, 73, 229-238, 239, 264-265, 308 attention regulation development, 119 attitudes toward children rejected by peers, 170-171 child’s influence on parenting, 227 cognitive development and, 74, 157, 244-247, 273, 286, 294 community factors, 262, 330, 331, 336 conflict management by, 239-241 crying by infants, reaction to, 100- 101 cultural factors, 25, 59, 60-61, 96, 108, 232, 239, 246, 247-250, 263-264, 354, 401 curiosity of child, 230-231, 233 deaf, 132 definition of parenting, 226 of disabled children, 234, 323-324, 325 disciplining of child, 25, 52, 62, 171, 243, 244, 292, 293, 354, 370 divorce and marital conflict, 78-79, 108-109, 234, 253, 254, 283- 284 educational attainment, 74, 221, 267-268, 281-282, 286, 296- 297, 353 maternal, 2, 97, 281, 282, 289, 290, 294, 311, 354, 361 emotional problems of parents, 234, 250, 251-254, 274, 289-292, 389-390 emotions, general, 97, 107-109, 110, 113-114, 225, 226, 229- 238, 236, 251-254 employment; see “parental occupational status” and “parents” under Employment friends and peers of children, 169- 171, 177-178, 179, 236, 239- 243, 247 grandparents, 234, 249, 264, 300, 305-306 historical perspectives, 226-227, 228, 264, 269-270 interventions, evaluation of, 257- 260, 262-264, 407-408 interventions, other, 211, 226, 233, 260-264, 265-266, 280, 295- 296, 340, 349, 351, 353-354, 359-360, 363-364, 392-393, 407-408 interventions, parent education, 261, 263, 344, 345, 361, 378, 407 language development, 132, 137, 138, 140, 144, 244, 246-247, 294 learning, general parental role, 244- 247 literacy, 282 longitudinal studies, 220, 236, 250- 251, 294 memory and parental attachment, 236 mentally ill, general, 260, 338, 355, 357, 390, 393, 395, 413 motivation and parental attachment, 230 nonparental care decisions, 300- 307, 314, 325-326 nonparental care decisions, costs, 305, 319, 321-322, 323

INDEX 581 peer relations of children, 163, 239- 244 premature infants, relationship to, 97, 234 problem-solving behavior, 238-239 racial and ethnic factors, 229, 232, 263-264, 283 self-regulation in children, 96, 97, 98-99, 100-101, 107-109, 110, 113-114, 119, 227, 230, 233, 239-244, 262, 273 shared and nonshared environments, 47-50 sleeping practices, 61, 96, 97, 98-99 social aspects of attachment, 227, 236, 237, 238, 243 substance abuse, 93, 124-125, 199, 253, 274, 291, 296, 356, 390, 392, 393, 398 temperament of, 233 time spent with children, 8, 220, 269, 271, 284, 296 urban low-income areas, 330, 331, 336 vocabulary development, 246 see also Adoption and foster care; Child abuse and neglect; Family factors; Fathers; Marital relationship; Mothers; Nonparental child care; Single parents; Socioeconomic status Peers, see Friends and peers Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 35, 285, 298-299, 358 Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 540 Pharmaceuticals, see Drug treatment Piaget, Jean, 58 Placing Children in Special Education: A Strategy for Equity, 540 Plasticity, 24, 31-32, 191, 192, 194, 195, 198, 397 lifelong, 54, 90, 151, 182 Play, 90, 165-169, 230-231, 237, 242 Political factors, 3, 15, 22, 34-37, 247, 337, 339, 385, 396, 401 citizenship responsibilities, 352 evaluation of interventions, 12, 77, 358-359 nonparental care providers, 299- 300, 314, 317-320 see also Legislation Positron emission tomography, 184, 185, 550-551, 552 Poverty, see Socioeconomic status; Welfare reform Pregnancy, see Prenatal period; Teen pregnancy Premature infants, 34, 91, 97, 196, 206-212, 234, 353, 405 brain development, 34, 196, 206- 212 intelligence of child, 208, 211 interventions, 34, 339, 353, 355, 364, 393, 399-400 parents, relationship to infant, 97, 234 self-regulation, 91, 97, 349 socioeconomic status, 208, 210 vocabulary development by, 211 Prenatal Care: Reaching Mothers, Reaching Infants, 540 Prenatal/Early Infancy Project, 363 Prenatal period, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 41-42, 71-72, 74, 91, 226, 405, 406, 540 adoption research, 41-42 AIDS, 541 alcohol abuse, 197, 198, 200-203 brain development, 71-72, 185, 186, 188, 195, 199, 216, 412 infectious disease, 199 interventions, 34, 203, 339, 355, 364, 393, 399-400 Medicaid eligibility, 400 nutrition, 73, 203-204, 208, 209, 210, 406, 539, 540 substance abuse, 73 teen pregnancy, 542 toxin exposure, 146 see also Premature infants

582 INDEX Preschool programs, 146, 157, 158, 159, 300, 303, 304, 306, 339, 351, 536 evaluation of, 339, 351, 362, 388, 539 friends and peers, 164, 170, 174, 175, 177 Head Start program, 35, 179, 299- 300, 362, 378, 401 intelligence gains, 343, 344 school readiness, 6, 36, 145, 149, 219, 263, 314, 349, 386, 388 socioeconomic status and, 69, 278, 294, 297 President’s Council of Economic Advisers, 10, 396 Preventing Low Birthweight, 540-541 Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 541 Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies: Tools for Policymakers and Public Health Workers, 541 Problem solving, 92, 94, 115-116, 134, 147, 150, 349 orphanage care, impact on, 258 parental, 238-239 Professional education, 5, 6, 12, 13, 21, 33, 38, 315-316, 317, 318, 319, 325, 339, 341, 365- 366, 387, 396, 398, 402-403, 409, 536, 540 cultural competence, 11-12, 20, 66- 67, 346-347, 353, 367, 369- 370, 380, 398, 400, 408-409 Project CARE, 355 Psychological factors, 6, 29-30, 36, 44, 292, 338, 340, 353, 387, 388, 405, 406 animal studies on stress, 237 antisocial behavior, 14, 34, 42, 51, 52, 59-60, 176-180, 345, 404 anxiety disorders, 29, 102, 109, 122, 165, 205, 214, 251, 255, 353, 355, 387, 405-406 brain development, 184, 212-215, 217 early precursors of psychopathology, 15 genetic, 41-51, 52, 55, 56, 405 maternal mental illness, 250, 251- 254, 291, 310, 332, 355. 370, 390 parental mental illness, general, 260, 338, 355, 357, 390, 393, 395, 413 self-regulatory impairments, 5, 29, 42, 51, 94, 119-120, 175, 387 urban low-income areas, 332 see also Alcohol abuse; Attitudes; Child abuse and neglect; Cultural factors; Depression; Emotional factors; Motivational factors; Substance abuse; Temperament Public education, 411-414 see also Education of children, formal; Mass media Q Quasi-experimental studies, 74, 75, 77- 78, 81, 84, 334-335, 363, 368, 409, 547 R Race/ethnicity, 9, 11-12, 14, 23, 58, 179, 384 child abuse, 357 community factors, 329, 332, 333 cultural diversity, 2, 11-12, 15, 26, 29, 36, 57, 62-65, 332, 346- 347, 384, 400, 408 cultural factors, general, 25, 36, 58, 249 educational attainment, 281-282 ethnicity defined, 63-64 fathers, 229 friends and peers, 64-65, 179 genetic research, 44

INDEX 583 immigrants, 14, 63, 64, 65, 68, 229, 248, 281-282, 369, 401, 535, 537 maternal employment, 269, 272 nonparental child care, 303, 306 parenting practices, 229, 232, 263- 264, 283 poverty and, 25, 276, 329, 332, 333, 354, 357 racism and discrimination, 25, 58, 63, 64, 65, 249, 341, 356, 358 single-parent families, 283 socioeconomic status, 25, 276, 329, 332, 333, 354, 357 special education placement, 540 urban low-income areas, 329, 331, 332, 333 see also African-Americans; Asians; Foreign countries; Hispanics; Language factors Reading, 49, 83, 90, 116, 126, 137- 138, 151, 162, 244, 246-247, 262, 292-293, 294, 313 interventions, 345-346, 351, 541, 542 see also Literacy; Vocabulary development Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States, 541 Regulatory factors, children, see Self- regulation Relationships, general, 1-2, 3, 4, 7, 27- 28, 385, 388-392 antisocial behavior, 14, 34, 42, 51, 52, 59-60, 176-180, 345, 404 brain development, 71-72 cooperation, 239-243 cultural factors, 59-60 interaction ratings, 70 interventions, 28, 32, 346, 348-349, 388, 392-393 self-regulation, 93-94, 122 see also Family factors; Friends and peers; Parents Relatives, not in nuclear family, 234, 268-269, 301, 303, 305-306, 315, 325 grandparents, 234, 249, 264, 300, 305-306 Rubella, 199-200 Rural areas, 34, 328 S Scaffolding, 245-246 School readiness, 6, 36, 145, 149, 219, 263, 314, 349, 386, 388 Schools and Health: Our Nation’s Investment, 542 Seizures, 196 Self-regulation, 3, 5, 14, 15, 26-27, 37, 42, 92, 93-123, 161, 175, 292, 408 adolescents, 94, 104, 115, 116, 118 adoption and twin studies, 42 brain development, 26, 71-72, 99, 183, 198, 211, 213, 404 child abuse, 109 cognitive development, 26, 94 conscience, 118, 236-237, 241-244 crying, 26, 96, 100-103, 107, 248, 292, 355, 389 cultural factors, 25, 26-27, 60, 95- 96, 99, 100, 105, 123 disciplining of child, 25, 52, 62, 171, 243, 244, 292, 293, 354, 370, 395 emotional factors, 26, 92, 93-94, 104-115, 118, 121, 183, 198 executive function, 14, 95, 115-121, 149 family factors, 96 impairments, 5, 29, 42, 51, 94, 119- 120, 175, 387 infants, 94, 95-103, 106, 107, 109- 110, 116-117, 122, 241-242 interventions, 348-349, 386, 387- 389 learning, 5

584 INDEX maternal role, 52, 96, 97, 251, 252- 253, 292-293 memory, 116, 117, 120 motivation, 93-94 nutrition, 95 orphanage care, impact on, 258 parental employment, 273 parenting and, 96, 97, 98-99, 100- 101, 107-109, 110, 113-114, 119, 227, 230, 233, 239-244, 262, 273 prematurity, 91, 97, 349 relationships, general, 93-94, 122 sleep, 95-96, 97-99 temperament, 103, 106, 109, 114, 115, 122, 233 violence and, 104 see also Attention Self-worth, 163, 230, 236, 253, 264, 265, 289, 291, 375 Sensory-motor skills, see Motor skills Sensory perception, see Auditory perception; Visual perception Sexual abuse, 256-257 Sheppard-Towner Act, 34 Siblings, 166, 238, 239-240, 288, 349 conscience, 244 nonparental child care, 303 shared environments, 47-50 temperament, 24, 42 twin studies, 41-42, 44, 47-48, 132, 138 Single parents, 283-284, 285, 288, 290-291, 394, 544 African-Americans, 283, 290-291 cognitive factors, 283 educational attainment, 283, 289 emotional factors, 283 employment, 305, 394, 544 female, 228, 283, 284, 285, 289, 394 male, 228, 285 nonparental child care, 299, 305, 307 social factors, general, 283, 284 socioeconomic status, 283, 284, 288, 290-291 unmarried mothers, 283, 284, 285 Sleep, 355 cultural factors, 60-61, 95-96, 242, 251, 253 infants, 60-61, 95-96, 97-99 maternal depression, 251, 252 parents, 61, 96, 97, 98-99 self-regulation, 95-96, 97-99 socioeconomic status, 61 sudden infant death syndrome, 99 time factors, 95-96, 97-99 urban areas, 61 Smoking, 8, 73, 262, 393, 537-538 Social factors, 3, 4, 5, 8, 14, 15, 24, 28, 36-37, 383, 385, 386, 387-388, 390 abused children, 255 antisocial behavior, 14, 34, 42, 51, 52, 59-60, 176-180 brain development and, 37, 71-72, 183, 198, 211, 212-215, 216 community factors, 330, 331, 332- 333, 358 emotional regulation, 107, 109-110, 112, 113, 183, 198, 211, 405 impairments, 5, 387; see also “antisocial behavior” supra intervention programs, 11, 341, 398-399 interventions, evaluation of, 343, 348, 349 maternal depression, 252-253, 332 nonparental child care, 310, 312- 314 orphanage care, impact on, 258, 259 parental attachment, 227, 236, 237, 238, 243 play, 90, 165-169 single-parent families, 283, 284 urban low-income areas, 330, 331, 332-333 see also Community factors; Cultural factors; Demographic factors; Family factors; Friends and peers; Political factors; Relationships, general

INDEX 585 Social Security Act, 34-35, 400 Socioeconomic status, 2, 5, 9, 10, 14, 23, 25, 36, 37, 220-222 (passim), 234, 267-268, 269- 296, 383-384, 390, 393-396, 407 adolescents, 277-278, 279, 290- 291, 328, 329-330, 332, 335, 336 adoption, 260 brain development and, 208, 210, 400 child abuse and, 274, 291-292 cognitive development, 125, 159- 160, 247, 354 community factors, 329-336, 357, 395 depression, 251, 253, 254, 289, 332 developmental disabilities, 354 disabilities and, 354 educational attainment, 9, 290 education of children, formal, 11, 277-278, 288, 344 emotional regulation, 106, 251, 292-293 father’s, 228 foreign countries, 276, 277, 278 genetics and, 44, 45-46, 55, 222, 286 high school dropouts, 124-125, 334 Hispanics, 269, 272, 281-282, 283 historical perspectives, 267, 269- 270, 275, 276, 290, 295 home learning, 293-295 intelligence, other than IQ, 45-46, 286-287, 288, 344 interventions, 34, 35, 261, 262, 344, 410-411 interventions, evaluation, 11, 14, 74, 342-345, 354, 362, 365, 396, 398 IQ and, 45-46, 286-287, 344 language development, 125, 130, 137, 138, 139, 142, 310, 311 longitudinal studies, 268, 271, 279, 286-288, 343 maternal depression, 251, 253, 254, 332 maternal, other, 233, 268, 294 nonparental child care, 301, 303, 309, 310, 311, 322-323, 326 nonparental child care providers, situation of, 316-317, 319, 393-398 parental beliefs, 292-293 parenting interventions, 261, 262 premature births, 208, 210 preschool program participants, 69, 278, 294, 297 racial and ethnic factors, 25, 276, 329, 332, 333, 354, 357 single-parent families, 283, 284, 288, 290-291 sleeping practices, 61 urban low-income communities, 329-336, 357, 395 see also Educational attainment; Employment; Welfare; Welfare reform Special education, 157, 343, 349-351, 358, 372, 375-378 (passim), 536, 540 Special needs children, see Disabled children Standardized tests, 84(n.3), 144, 153, 160, 318, 342, 343, 348, 349, 351, 379, 408 see also IQ scores Standards education reform, 35, 36, 390, 536 evaluation designs, 15, 70, 362, 399, 409 nonparental child care providers, 35, 317-318, 319, 320, 321, 322-323, 367, 372, 378, 394, 395, 414 Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children’s Reading Success, 542 State Children’s Health Insurance Program, 35, 400

586 INDEX State government, 12-13, 35, 36, 299, 402, 414 federal devolution trends, 36 federal-state-local task force on public investment, 10, 299- 300, 396 Substance abuse, 93, 124-125, 199, 253, 274, 291, 296, 356, 390, 392, 393, 398 child abuse and, 291 cocaine, 199, 291 high school dropouts, 124-125 marijuana, 291 prenatal, 73 urban low-income areas, 334-335 Sudden infant death syndrome, 99 Surgeon General, 6, 122, 388 Synapses, 24, 183, 185-186, 187-191, 192, 194, 196, 197, 202, 550- 551 T Taxation, 10, 340, 359, 396, 414, 538 Technological innovations brain, study of, 184-185, 205, 206, 252, 549-552 computer applications, 20 Teen pregnancy, 8, 226-227, 274, 355, 542 Television, time spent watching, 221 Temperament, 24, 244, 349, 353, 389, 406 adoption and twin studies, 42 behavioral inhibition, 102-103, 171-172 colic, 101-102 cultural factors, 59-60 friends and peers, relations with, 165, 171-173, 175 maternal discipline and, 52 neurochemistry, 193 nonparental care, 301 parental attachment and, 233 self-regulation, 103, 106, 109, 114, 115, 122, 233 siblings, 24, 42 see also Antisocial behavior; Curiosity Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, 285, 358, 396 Time factors brain development, 195, 216 cognitive development, 150-152, 155 early experiences, timing of, 4, 31- 32, 195, 216 employment, nonstandard hours of work, 9, 11, 296, 393, 399 friends and peers, 164, 220 home, time spent at, 220 interventions, 344, 360, 362-364 language learning, timing of, 134- 136, 144, 145, 150 mass media, time exposed to, 221 nonparental child care, 301-302, 326-327, 384, 394 parental, spent with children, 8, 220, 269, 271, 284, 296 poverty, timing of, 279 sleep, 95-96, 97-99 see also Premature infants Time-series studies, 84-86 Tobacco, see Smoking Toxins, 7, 8, 14, 146, 184, 196, 198, 199, 216, 217, 392, 413 interventions, 356, 393 lead poisoning, 199, 333-334, 356, 406, 539 pesticides, 540 smoking, 8, 73, 262, 393, 537-538 urban low-income areas, 330, 333, 336 see also Alcohol abuse; Substance abuse Training, see Parent education; Professional education Transactional-ecological model, 24, 340 Twin studies, 41-42, 44, 47-48, 132, 138

INDEX 587 U Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect, 543 Unemployment, 273, 279-280, 332 dropouts, 125 fathers, 269, 272, 273 Urban areas, 23, 262, 278 adolescents, 328, 329-330, 332, 335, 336 African-Americans, 329, 331, 344 crime, 330, 333, 335, 336, 340 depression, psychological, 332 diseases and disorders, 333, 335 educational attainment, 331-332 emotional factors, 330 employment, 329, 330, 332 family factors, 330, 332, 336 friends and peers, 330, 331 Hispanics, 329, 331 interventions, 36, 262, 278, 328, 332, 334-335, 336, 339, 340, 355-358, 363, 366-367, 410- 411 interventions, evaluation of, 278, 328, 334-335, 336 marital relations, 329 mobility, 331, 334 mothers, 332, 333 parents, general, 330, 331, 336 poor neighborhoods, 329-336 racial and ethnic factors, 329, 331, 332, 333 sleeping practices, 61 social factors, 330, 331, 332-333 socioeconomic status, 329-336, 357, 395 substance abuse, 334-335 toxins, environmental, 330, 333, 336 violence, 329, 330, 331, 333, 334- 335, 336, 356, 390 unmarried parents, 285 U.S. Surgeon General, see Surgeon General V Vaccines, see Immunization Violence and aggressiveness, 7, 36, 265, 274, 390 abused children, prone to, 255 community factors, 7, 36, 266, 329, 330, 331, 333, 334-335, 336, 356, 390 family, general, 7, 8, 55, 353, 355, 365, 370, 390, 393, 543 friend and peer interactions, 168, 170, 171, 173, 176-178, 179, 180 maternal depression and, 251 self-regulation, 104 unemployed fathers, 273 urban low-income areas, 329, 330, 331, 333, 334-335, 336, 356, 390 see also Antisocial behavior; Child abuse and neglect; Crime Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, 543 Visual perception, 53, 54, 83, 95, 118, 130, 147, 299 blind and visually impaired persons, 132, 184, 189-190, 199, 216, 392 brain development, 183, 184, 187, 189-190, 194, 195, 199, 216 Vocabulary development, 82, 83, 85, 125, 137-139, 140, 145, 161- 162, 262, 351 emotional, 113-114 parental role, 246 premature infants, 211 W Welfare, 8, 9, 10, 12-13, 267, 268, 278-280, 285, 289, 344, 395- 396 Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 35

588 INDEX cost-benefit analyses, 343 high school dropouts, 124-125 historical perspectives, 34-35 Medicaid eligibility, 400 nonparental child care, 303 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, 285, 358, 396 Women, Infants, and Children program, 406, 543-544 working recipients, 11, 271-272, 278-280 Welfare reform, 8, 12-13, 266-268, 272, 273, 278-279, 280, 292, 295, 323-324, 390, 392, 394, 395, 402, 406-407, 411 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 35, 285, 298-299, 358 Who Cares for America’s Children?, 543 WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria: A Scientific Assessment, 543- 544 Women, Infants, and Children program, 406, 543-544 Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement, 351 Work and Family: Policies for a Changing Work Force, 544

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How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media.

How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues.

The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more.

Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

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