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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Index

A

a2b music, 73

AAS. See Advanced Automation System

Abilene network, 132

Abstraction, 120

Abt Associates, Inc., 193-194

Academic networks, 133

Academic research gaps in,

interdisciplinary, 168-179

Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), 61, 96

Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs), 133

Additions to systems, unintended and unanticipated consequences of, 5

Administrative challenges, 154

associated with large-scale systems, 118

Advanced Automation System (AAS), 105

Advanced computational science, research in, 62

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 46

Aetna, 83-84

Agenda. See Research agenda

Air traffic control (ATC) system, 149

modernizing, 105, 213

Airport Surface Detection Equipment, 105

Akamai Technologies, Inc., 92

Alto computer, 21, 97

Always-up systems, goal for information technology research, 24

Amazon.com, 83-84, 86, 97, 117

America Online Inc., 81

AMRIS, 104

Andersen Consulting, 8, 79-80, 97

Apple Computer, 30, 179

Macintosh, 21

Appliances, information, 107

Applications, 32 .

See also Group applications;

Social applications research

diffusion of, 170

Applications research, 157

Applied research, defining, x, 28-29

“Appropriability” problem, 74-75

Architectural approaches

defining, 138

design of research programs for, 126-127

ARPANET, 96, 131

historical perspective on, 21, 140

Artifacts, 140

ASCI. See Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative

Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), 91-92

ATC. see Air traffic control system

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

AT&T Corporation, 179

expenditures on R&D, 64, 77-78

historical structuring of, 81

patents held by, 84

recent trends in research by, 30-31

redirection of research at, 72-73

work on speech recognition, 21

AUPs. see Acceptable Use Policies

AUTM. see Association of University Technology Managers

Automata theory, 139

Automatic programmer capability, goal for information technology research, 24

Availability issues, 116-118

B

BAAs. see Broad agency announcements

BankBoston, 92

Basic research, defining, x, 26

Bell Atlantic, 102

Bell Communications Research Corporation (Bellcore), 77

Bell Laboratories, 72, 76-77

Benchmarks, 139

Berkeley Wireless Research Center, 182

Billing fraud, detecting, 76

Boeing Company, 66, 80, 83, 97

Brahe, Tycho, 26

Broad agency announcements (BAAs), 62-63

Brooks, Fred, 139

Brooks-Sutherland report, 121

Bugs, 116

testing for, 112

Bureau of Land Management, troubled systems at, 102

Bureau of the Census, 49, 64, 66, 96

need for the National Science Foundation to work with, 13, 205-206

Business process challenges, 154

Business research, related to information technology, 169

Business system context, embedding large-scale systems within larger, 6

Business Week Online,

C

C programming language, 23

CAD. see Computer-aided design

California Department of Motor Vehicles, troubled systems at, 102-103

California Institute of Technology, Computational Facility for Simulating the Dynamic Response of Materials, 96

Carnegie Mellon University, 17, 29, 62, 90, 92, 163

Department of Engineering and Public Policy, 173

Information Networking Institute, 182

Software Engineering Institute, 158-159

CASE. see Computer-aided software engineering tools

Case research, 124, 156

CBO. see Congressional Budget Office

CCIC. see Committee on Computing, Information and Communications

Census Bureau. See Bureau of the Census

Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, 96

Center for Integrated Turbulence Simulation, 96

Center for Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, 96

Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets, 96

Central research laboratories, countertrend in, 76-79

Challenges. See Research challenges

Changes to systems, unintended and unanticipated consequences of, 5

Changing needs of users, 5

Chronicle of Higher Education,

CIAO. see Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office

CIC. see Committee on Information and Communications

Cisco Systems, 81, 86, 92

expenditures on R&D, 70, 78

CISE. see Computing and Information Science and Engineering directorate

Citicorp, 83-84

Civil engineering applications, 158

Clickstream data, analyzing, 180

Clinton, President William, 47

Clinton Administration, xii, 3, 10, 62, 198, 201

Cohen, Wes, 163

Collaboration

applications involving, 106

challenges in, 153

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

encouragement of interdepartmental by universities, 206-207

Columbia University, programs in medical informatics, 171

Commerce, electronic, 7

Commercial equipment and supplies industry sector, 64, 68

Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, 110

Commercialization

challenge of in social applications of information technology, 151-152

of university research, 91-93

Committee on Computing, Information and Communications (CCIC), 120

Committee on Information and Communications (CIC), 121

Committee on Information Technology Research in a Competitive World, xiv, 2

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), 183, 185, 194

Committee to Assess the Scope and Direction of Computer Science and Technology, 39-40

Communications, influx from researchers, 62-63

Communications equipment industry sector, 64-65, 68

Communications services industry sector, 64-65, 68

expenditures on R&D, 67

Communities, electronic, 7

Community challenges, 153

Companies. See Information technology companies;

individual companies

Compaq Computer, 70, 81

Competitiveness, 43

maximizing effectiveness of, 218

Complexity challenges

associated with large-scale systems, 5, 108-110

in social applications research, 7

Component software, 129-130

Component vendors, expenditures on R&D, 65

Components, 32

dealing with large numbers of, 5

deep interactions among, 5

independently designed, 5

untrustworthy, 110

Components industry sector, 64-65, 68

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, complying with, 61

Computation and Social Systems (CSS) program, 174-176

Computational Facility for Simulating the Dynamic Response of Materials, 96

Computer-aided design (CAD), 83

Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, 104

Computer and data processing services industry sector, 64-65, 68

expenditures on R&D, 65, 67

Computer graphics, historical perspective on, 21

Computer science, 4, 6, 13, 17, 26, 30, 49, 52, 55-57, 60-61, 83, 88-89, 93, 118, 126, 133, 144, 147, 150-151, 154, 159, 172, 175, 179, 182, 185-186, 195, 201, 206-207

federal obligations for research in, 55

Computer science and engineering (CS&E), 39-40

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), ix, 2, 19-20, 38, 51, 79, 98, 140, 144, 161

Brooks-Sutherland report, 121

Committee to Assess the Scope and Direction of Computer Science and Technology, 39-40

Computing the Future,

Computer Sciences Corporation, 79

Computer simulations, 96

Computer-supported cooperative work, 169

Computers

assemblers of personal, 67, 76

based on quantum mechanics, 76

development of mouse for, 21

support and repair of, 65

Computers, Organizations, Policy, and Society (CORPS) group, 192

Computing, scientific, 46

Computing and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) directorate, 59, 174, 179, 202

Computing and Social System program, 12, 203

Computing industry sector, 64-65, 68

Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering,

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Conducting research on social applications, 155-160

new research teams, 157-160

a plausible approach, 155-157

Conferencing, remote, 190

CONFIRM hotel reservation system, 102, 104

Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 31, 85

Consequences, of changes or additions to systems, 5

Consortia, 163

Constituencies supporting information technology research, 20

Construction industry, social applications of technology in, 158

Control Data Corporation, 30

Control of social applications of information technology, 152-153

Coordination

of expertise, 153

of social applications of information technology, 152-153

Copyrights, limitations of, 75

Corporate espionage, 115

Corporate investment in research and development, disincentives to, 70-76

Corporation for National Research Initiatives, 132

CORPS. See Computers, Organizations, Policy, and Society group

COSEPUP. See Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

COTS. See Commercial off-the-shelf technology

Cray Research, 30

Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO), 47

Critical infrastructures, 7, 156

defining, 101

Critical success factors, 169

CS&E. See Computer science and engineering

CSS. See Computation and Social Systems program

CSTB. See Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Custom programming, 65

Customer support, gaining for innovation, 76

Customization, 139

“mass,”

Customized consulting, 79

Cyber auctions, 181

D

DARPA. See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Decision making, group dynamics and, 170

Decision support systems, 169

Decomposition, hierarchical, 112

Deconstructing wireless, 217-221

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 31, 56, 58-59, 62-63, 164, 166

historical perspective on, 21

Information Assurance and Survivability program, 122

involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123, 201

recommendations for new programs at, 11, 198-201

Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit Program, 21, 96

Defense contractors, 79-80

Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), 115

Dell Computer Corporation, 67, 76

Deloitte & Touche, 117

Denver International Airport, troubled systems at, 102

Department of Commerce, involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123

Department of Defense (DOD), 36, 51, 54, 56-59, 61-62, 161, 166

attacks on computers of, 115

Department of Energy (DOE), 51, 56-58, 61-62, 161, 200

involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123, 201

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 11, 57-59, 201

involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123

Design of large-scale systems, 118-133

large numbers of individuals involved in, 5-6

Design of research programs, 126-133

architectural approaches, 126-127

ecological and economic systems as models for, 128

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

extensions of existing approaches, 129-130

inspiration from natural and social systems, 127

software development processes, 127, 129

support for research infrastructure, 131-133

theoretical approaches, 126

Development

disincentives to corporate investment in, 70-76

methodologies for, 154

DHHS. See Department of Health and Human Services

Diffusion of applications, 170

Digital Equipment Corporation, 30

expenditures on R&D, 68, 70

Digital Government program, 12, 57-58, 141, 192, 202, 204

Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI), 12, 59-60, 203, 213

DISA. See Defense Information Systems Agency

Disciplinary research .

See also Interdisciplinary research;

Other disciplines

analogies to, 41

Discovery. See Knowledge discovery

Discussion forums, 150

Disincentives, to corporate investment in research and development, 70-76

Display System Replacement program, 105

Distance education, technology supporting,

Distributed operation and administration challenges, associated with large-scale systems, 118

Distributed systems, electronic commerce applications as, 119

Diversity, in the research base, 49-51

DLI. See Digital Libraries Initiative

DOD. See Department of Defense

DOE. See Department of Energy

E

E-checks, 181

E-commerce applications, 119, 191

redefining the business process, 152

E-coupons, 181

E-Lab, 193

E-mail, 150

Early-stage financing, 87

eBay, 86, 117

Ecological systems, as models for the design of research programs, 128

Economic growth, information technology companies' contribution to, 18

Economic implications of computing and communications, research in, 62

Economic structures, novel activities and shifts in, 7

Economic systems, as models for the design of research programs, 128

Economics of investment, in information technology research, 75

Economics research, contributing to information technology development, 170

EDI (electronic data interchange), Internet, 181

Edison, Thomas Alva, 26

EDS. See Electronic Data Services

Education, technology supporting distance, 106

Electrical engineering, 13, 17, 30, 49, 52-55, 57, 88, 93, 150

Electronic commerce applications, 7, 149

as distributed systems, 119

Electronic communities, 7

Electronic components industry sector, 64-65, 68

Electronic data interchange. See EDI

Electronic Data Services (EDS), 8, 79-80

Embedding information technology research in other disciplines, 185-187

Embedding large-scale systems, within larger social and business system context, 6

Emergent behaviors of systems, 5, 109

Employment, information technology companies' contribution to, 18

Encryption, 115

processing requirements for, 106

End-user organizations

expenditures on R&D, 65

participation of, 160-166

research by, 15, 82-85, 209-211

End-users

constantly changing needs of, 5

large numbers of, 6

need for companies to involve in their research, 15-16, 211

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

need for federal agencies to increase support for programs including, 12-13, 201-205

understanding behaviors of, 193

Endeavor expedition, 62

Engineering research centers (ERCs), 98, 183-184

ERCs. See Engineering research centers

Ernst & Young, 79

E*Trade Securities, 83, 117

Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure,

Expanded systems, difficulties with, 113

Expanding the scale and scope of information technology research, 195-213

recommendations for government, 197-206

recommendations for industry, 209-211

recommendations for universities, 206-209

Expanding the systems research agenda, 124-126

Expansion financing, 87

Expeditions into the 21st Century, 63, 96

Extensions of existing approaches, in the design of research programs, 129-130

F

FAA. See Federal Aviation Administration

Faculty

encouraging participation of in interdisciplinary research, 13-14, 206-208

needing to pioneer information technology research, 14-15, 208-209

Failures

complexity of, 112

hardware, 116

Farrell, Joseph, 223

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 11-12, 35, 57, 200

attacks on computers of, 115

troubled systems at, 102-103, 105, 213

Federal Communications Commission, 219

Federal Information Services and Applications Council (FISAC), 192

Federal Information Systems Advisory Committee (FISAC), 204

Federal information technology research programs, xi, 60-63

Federal Reserve, 18

Federal support for information technology research, 51-63

levels of, 20

need for classifying data on, 13, 205-206

need for increased, 9-11, 197-198

role of, ix

sources of, 56-58

styles of, 58-60

trends in, 52-56

in universities, 89

Fidelity Investments Institutional Services Company, Inc., 138

Fingerprint-authentication technology, 73

First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) program (IBM), 165-166, 192, 211

FISAC. See Federal Information Services and Applications Council and Federal Information Systems Advisory Committee

Flexibility challenges associated with large-scale systems, 111-114, 218

Florida fingerprint system, troubled systems at, 102

Focus Centers, 90, 98

Formalism, 139

Fundamental research, 66, 75

defining, x

need for NSA and DARPA to establish programs for, 11, 198-201

Funding. See Investment in information technology research

G

GAO. See General Accounting Office

Gaps

in academic research, 90-91

in the research base, 79-81

Gateway, Inc., 67, 76

General Accounting Office (GAO), 105, 137

General Motors Corporation, 66

Generic research, 156

Genetic materials, information processing capabilities of, 76

Georgia Center for Advanced Telecommunications Technology, 182

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Georgia Institute of Technology, Focus Center at, 98

Global Industries Division (IBM), 166

Global Positioning System Augmentation Program, 105

Global Services Division (IBM), 79

Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, 46, 56

Government research

need for Bureau of the Census to work with the NSF on classifying data about, 13, 205-206

need for increased federal support for, 9-11, 197-198

need for increased support for interdisciplinary, 12-13, 201-205

need for NSA and DARPA to establish fundamental research programs, 11, 198-201

recommendations for expanding the scale and scope of, 9-13, 197-206

Government services, delivery of, 149

Graphical User Interfaces, historical perspective on, 21

Gray, Jim, 24

Group applications, of information technology, 149-150

Group dynamics, and decision making, 170

Gupta, Anoop, 98

H

Hackers, damage done by, 115

Hardware failure, 116

Harvard Business School, 169

Hershey Foods, Inc., 102-103

Heterogeneity issues, 139

challenges associated with large-scale systems, 110-111

Hewlett-Packard

reliability claims by, 138

systems integration services from, 79

Hidden Markov Models, 21

Hierarchical decomposition, 112

Hierarchies, status, 190

High-level programming languages, 23

High Performance Computing and Communications Act of 1991, xii

High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program,

Historical perspective on information technology research, 21

Horn, Paul, 72

HPCC program. See High Performance Computing and Communications program

HPCCI. See High Performance Computing and Communications program

Hubaux, Jean-Pierre, 223

Human-computer interaction (HCI), 147

research in, 62

Human error, 114, 116

I

IBM Corporation, 8, 17, 211

expenditures on R&D, 66, 68, 70, 81

First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) program, 165-166, 192, 211

Global Industries Division, 166

Global Services Division, 79

historical structuring of, 81

industry solution units (ISUs), 165

Institute for Advanced Commerce, 180-181

patents held by, 84

recent trends in research by, 30-31

redirection of research at, 72

relational database research by, 21

Research Division, 81, 180

systems integration services from, 79

work on speech recognition, 21

Identity challenges, 153

“Imitation game,”

Implementation of large-scale systems, improving, 118-133

Improving the design and implementation of large-scale systems, 118-133

designing a research program, 126-133

expanding the systems research agenda, 124-126

limitations of past research, 119-123

Independent requirements, large number of, 6

Independently designed components, 5

Individuals involved in design and operation, large numbers of, 5-6

Industry research

changing structure of, 30-32

federal statistics concerning, 64-65

and gaps in the research base, 79-81

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

interdisciplinary, 179-180

need for closer ties with university research, 208

need for companies to involve end users in, 15-16, 211

recommendations for expanding the scale and scope of, 15-16, 209-211

systems integration, 79-81

Industry sectors, 64-65, 68

Industry solution units (ISUs), 165

Industry support for information technology research, xi, 64-87

countertrend in central research laboratories, 76-79

disincentives to corporate investment, 70-76

internships and sabbaticals, 166-168

need for classifying data on, 13, 205-206

and research by end-user organizations, 82-85

trends in, 66-70

venture capital support for innovation, 85-87

Information Age, 20

Information appliances, 107

Information Assurance and Survivability program, 122

Information economies, 181

Information management, research in, 62

Information Networking Institute, 182

Information sharing, 14, 170

Information technology (IT)

business research related to, and strategic advantage, 169

expanding applications of, ix, 33-37

focus on, 20-23

future of, 1-2, 50

national debate about, ix

need for leadership in, x

progress in, 20, 25-26

retrospective assessments of, 28

social applications of, 144-148

Information technology companies

contribution to economic growth, 18

contribution to employment, 18

expenditures on R&D, 69, 71

need to involve end-users in their research, 15-16, 211

Information technology developments

implications for the research enterprise, 42-43

implications of information technology research for, 37-42

Information technology education and workforce, research in, 62

Information Technology for the Twenty-first Century (IT2) initiative, xii, 19, 61-63, 121, 186

Information technology industries, 64-65

supply chains in, 67

Information technology research, 23-37

changing environment for, 29-37

and changing industrial structure, 30-32

classification of, 26-29

constituencies supporting, 20

embedding in other disciplines, 185-187

and expanding applications of information technology, 33-37

expanding the scale and scope of, 187, 195-213

facets of, 23-29

federal support for, 12-13, 30-31, 51-63, 201-205

goals for, 24-25

historical perspective on, 21

implications of information technology developments for, 37-42

importance of, ix

industry support for, 64-87

mechanisms for strengthening, xi

mechanisms for supporting, 20

national debate about, ix

research goals for, 24

resources for, 48-98

scope of, x-xi, 20

trends in, x

varieties of, 23-26

Information Technology Research (ITR) initiative, xii, 60, 62, 121, 178-179, 193, 201-202

Information Week magazine, 82-83

Informix, relational database research by, 21

Infrastructure programs, limitations of, 132-133

Infrastructures

critical, 7, 101, 156

existing, 132-133

underlying, 34

Innovation

customer support for, 76

venture capital support for, 85-87

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Inspiration from natural and social systems, in the design of research programs, 127

Institute for Advanced Commerce (IBM), 180-181

Integrated circuits .

See also Systems integration

funding research in, 78

Integrated Terminal Weather System, 105

Intel Corporation, 3, 81, 86

expenditures on R&D, 67, 70

Intel microprocessor architecture, 74

Intel Pentium microprocessors, 138

Intellectual property protection arrangements, 140

Intelligent systems, learning and, 178

Interactions among components, deep, 5

Interdepartmental collaboration, encouragement of by universities, 206-207

Interdisciplinary research

in academia, 168-179

in industry, 179-180

need for federal agencies to increase support for, 12-13, 201-205

need for universities to encourage faculty and students in, 13-14, 206-208

Interfaces .

See also Graphical User Interfaces

efforts to develop intuitive, 79

research in human-computer, 62

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 12, 35, 57, 200

troubled systems at, 102-103

International competitiveness issues, x

Internet

data on, 141

economics of, 170

future problems facing, 74, 76, 160

global dimensions of, 113

growth of, x, 4, 22, 30, 131

historical perspective on, 21

IPv4 protocol of, 74

IPv6 protocol of, 74

making more robust, 140, 201

search engines on, 92

Internet

Internet EDI, 181

Internet service providers (ISPs), 133

data on, 141

“Internet time,”

Internships and sabbaticals, 166-168

Intrico consortium, 104

Intuitive interfaces, efforts to develop, 79

Investment in information technology research .

See also Corporate investment in research and development;

Federal support for information technology research;

Private-industry sector support for research

economics of, 75

inadequacy of current, 4

IPv4 protocol, 74

IPv6 protocol, high cost of implementing, 74

IRS. See Internal Revenue Service

ISPs. See Internet service providers

ISUs. See Industry solution units

IT. See Information technology

IT2. See Information Technology for the Twenty-first Century

J

Java programming language, 23

JavaBeans, 130

Junior faculty, encouraging innovative work by, 209

K

Katz, Michael, 223

KDI. See Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence initiative

Kepler, Johannes, 26

Kleinrock, Leonard, 46, 145

Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence (KDI) initiative, 177-178

Knowledge content challenges, 153-154

Knowledge discovery, 106

Knowledge management

defining, 191

in social applications of information technology, 150-151

Knowledge networking, 177-178

KPMG, 79

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

L

Laboratories .

See

Research laboratories

Lampson, Butler, 47

“Large-enough”-scale network systems,

Large numbers

of independent requirements, 6

of individuals involved in design and operation, 5-6

of users, 6

Large-scale-image databases, efforts to develop, 79

Large-scale systems

defining, 3, 108

ecological and economic systems as models for, 128

examples of troubled, 102

faculty needing to pioneer research in, 14-15, 208-209

failure rate in development of, 99-100

improving the design and implementation of, 118-133

need for research into, 3

operational failures experienced by, 100

performance prediction in, 109

problems with, 5-6, 100-107

research on, 99-141

technical challenges associated with, 107-118

testing, 112

Layering, 120

Learning, and intelligent systems, 178

Leveson, Nancy, 90

Limitations, of past research, 119-123

Linux, 97

“Lock-in,”

Lockheed Martin, 8, 80-81

Long-term research, 70, 74

Lucent Digital Radio, 73

Lucent Technologies, 8, 81

expenditures on R&D, 66, 76-78

redirection of research at, 72-73

LYCOS, 92

M

Macintosh, 21

Management

information, 62, 106

knowledge, 150-151

problems with, 103-104, 221

“supply-chain,”

Manhattan Project, 26

Manufacturing design, 149

Marketplace factors, 76

Markov models, hidden, 21

“Mass customization,”

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 17, 90, 92, 211

educational venture with Microsoft, 179-180, 211, 213

Media Lab, 182

“professors of the practice” at, 167-168

Project Oxygen, 62, 96

Sloan School of Management, 84

MCC .

See

Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation

MCI Corporation, expenditures on R&D,

Mechanisms for social applications research, 160-187

embedding information technology research in other disciplines, 185-187

industry internships and sabbaticals, 166-168

interdisciplinary research in academia, 168-179

interdisciplinary research in industry, 179-180

multidisciplinary research centers, 180-185

participation of end-user organizations, 160-166

Mechanisms for strengthening information technology research, xi

Mechanisms for supporting information technology research, 20

Media Lab, 182

Medical informatics, 163, 168

lessons from, 163, 171

Memex capability, goal for information technology research, 24

MEMS .

See

Microelectromechanical systems

Merrill Lynch, 66, 83-84, 97

Trusted Global Advisor system, 97

Metcalfe, Robert, 97

Metcalfe's law, 97

Methodology research, 124

Metrorail, troubled systems at, 117

Microdrive device, 72

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), advances in, 106, 137

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC), 163-164

Micropayments, 181

Microprocessors, complexity of, 137

Microsoft Corporation, 3, 8, 81, 86, 179-180

educational venture with MIT, 179-180, 211, 213

expenditures on R&D, 65-67, 70, 81

recent trends in research by, 30

Microsoft Office, grammar checker in, 97

Microsoft Research, 78-79

Microsoft Windows standard, 74

Middleware, 138

MIT. See Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Mobile code, 220

Modem Media, 193

Modularity, 120

Modules, reusable, 129-130

Moore's law, 22, 31, 108, 110

Motorola, Inc., 3, 97

Motorola Labs, 78

Mouse, development of, 21

Multidisciplinary research

centers for, 180-185

difficulties with, 143

N

Nanoscale devices, advances in, 106

National Academy of Engineering, 184

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 58-62, 161, 166, 200

involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 123, 201

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 200

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 62, 200

involvement in Next Generation Internet program, 201

National Library of Medicine (NLM), 59, 171, 201

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 62

National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Computing, Information and Communications,

National Science Foundation (NSF), x, 18,

Computation and Social Systems program, 174-176

Engineering Directorate, 122

Engineering research centers, 98, 183-184

Information Technology Research (ITR) initiative, xii, 60, 62, 121, 178-179, 193, 201-202

Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence initiative, 177-178

need for Bureau of the Census to work with, 13, 205-206

programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology promoted by, 173-174

recommendations for new programs at,

Scalable Enterprise Systems, 122-123

science and technology centers, 183, 185, 193

National Weather Service, troubled systems at, 102

Natural systems, inspiration for the design of research programs, 127

NEC Corporation, recent trends in research by, 30

Network Control Protocol, 140

Network effect, 74

Network externalities, 170

Network security, 221-223

Network systems

academic, 133

“large-enough”-scale, 131

very high speed, 132

New York Stock Exchange, 102

Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative,

NGI. See Next Generation Internet initiative

NIH. See National Institutes of Health

NLM. See National Library of Medicine

NOAA. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Nomadicity, 110

Nortel, expenditures on R&D, 78

North American Industrial Classification System codes, efforts to implement,

NSF. See National Science Foundation

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

NSFnet, commercialization of, 98

Numbers of components, dealing with large, 5

NYNEX, expenditures on R&D, 77

O

1 Gbps network systems, 132

Office, computing, and accounting machines industry sector, 64-65, 68

Open Market, Inc., 92

Operation Desert Storm, transport to, 29

Operation of large-scale systems, large numbers of individuals involved in,

Operational challenges, 154

associated with large-scale systems, 118

Operational facilities, linking to multidisciplinary research centers, 182

Oracle, 8

expenditures on R&D, 81

relational database research by, 21

Organizations .

See also End-user organizations

novel activities and shifts in structures, 7

P

PACI. See Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure

Packet switching, historical perspective on,

Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), 63, 179

redirection of research at, 73

PARC. See Palo Alto Research Center

Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (PACI), 59-60

Pasteur, Louis, 26

Pasteur-style research, 27-29

Patents, limitations of, 74-75

“Path-dependent effects,”

Pentium Pro microprocessor, 137

PeopleSoft, 8

Performance prediction, in large-scale systems, 109

Personal computers, assemblers of, 67, 76

Personal memex capability, goal for information technology research, 24

Personal privacy challenges, 153

Persystant Technologies, 73

PITAC. See President's Information Technology Advisory Committee

Portolano/Workscape, 62

Postel, Jonathan, 131

Prediction. See Performance prediction

Prepackaged software, development of, 65, 81

President of the United States, 18

Presidential Decision Directive

President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC), xii, 10, 19, 46-47, 62, 178, 190-191, 198

PricewaterhouseCoopers, 79, 98

Princeton University, deconstructing wireless, 217

Privacy, 153

Private-industry sector support for research, xi, 64-87

levels of, 20

Process handbook, 169

Processing, transaction, 139

Productivity issues, 169

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies industry sector, 64, 68

“Professors of the practice,”

Programming

custom, 65

efficiency of, 140

Programming languages .

See also Automatic programmer capability

high-level, 23

new designs for, 28

Programs. See Federal information technology research programs;

Research programs

Project Oxygen, 62, 96

Project Whirlwind, 21

Public goods, 75

Q

Quantum mechanics, computers based on, 76

R

R&D. See Research and development

RBOCs. See Regional Bell operating companies

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Recommendations, for expanding the scale and scope of information technology research, 9-16, 197-211

Reduced-instruction-set computing (RISC)

historical perspective on, 21

microprocessors employing, 27

Reengineering applications, 146

Regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs), expenditures on R&D, 64, 77-78

Regulation, role of, 170

Reinventing applications, 146

Relational databases, historical perspective on, 21

Reliability issues, 116-118, 153

Remote conferencing, 190

Repairs, computer, 65

Representation and Analysis for Modeling, Specification, Design, Prediction, Control and Assurance of Large Scale, Complex Systems,

Requirements, large numbers of independent, 6

Research .

See also Academic research;

University research

case, 124, 156

countertrend in central laboratories, 76-79

defining, x, 17

economics, 170

by end-user organizations, 82-85

fundamental, 11, 66, 75, 198-201

generic, 156

goals for information technology research, 24

implications of information technology developments for, 42-44

limitations of past, 119-123

methodology, 124

multidisciplinary centers for, 180-185

need for, 4

quadrant model of, 27

quality of, 95

social science, 170

support for infrastructure, 131-133

targeted, 65-66, 70

telecommunications, 77-78

Research agenda, expanding, 3-4, 6, 8-9, 62, 124-126

Research and development (R&D), 1, 3, 61-62, 64-71, 80-83, 85

disincentives to corporate investment in, 70-76

need for companies to involve end users in, 15-16, 211

need for NSF and Bureau of the Census to classify data on investments in,

Research base

degree of consensus regarding, xii

diversity in, 49-51

gaps in, 79-81

Research challenges in social applications of information technology, 148-155

commerce, 151-152

common, 153-154

coordination and control, 152-153

group applications, 149-150

knowledge management, 150-151

in system-specific research, 154-155

Research Division (IBM), 81, 180

Research motivated by social applications of information technology, 142-194

challenges in, 148-155

conducting, 155-160

defining, 144-148

expanding the scope of, 187

mechanisms for, 160-187

Research on large-scale systems, 99-141

improving the design and implementation of, 118-133

moving forward, 133-134

problems with, 100-107

technical challenges associated with, 107-118

Research programs

design of, 126-133

designing, 126-133

Research teams, for conducting research on social applications, 157-160

Research topics involving social applications, 217-223

Researchers, influx of communications from, 62-63

Resources for information technology research, 48-98 .

See also End-user organizations

and diversity in the research base, 49-51

federal support for, 51-63

industry support for, 64-87

university research, 87-93

Retrospective assessments, of information technology, 28

Reusable modules, 129-130

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Revolutionary computing, research in, 62

RISC. See Reduced-instruction-set computing

RSA Data Security, 92

S

Sabbaticals, 166-168

Sabre Group, 83-84

Safety, software, 90

SAGE defense system, 21

SAP, 8

expenditures on R&D, 81

Saudi Arabia, mobilizing war materiel to,

Scalability issues, 139

goal for information technology research, 24, 137

problems with, 100

Scalable Enterprise Systems, 122-123

Scalable information infrastructure, research in, 62

Scaling Up: A Research Agenda for Software Engineering,

Science and technology centers (STCs), 183, 185, 193, 203

Scientific computing, 46

Scope, of information technology research, x-xi, 20

Seagate Technologies, 67

Secure systems, 115-116

goal for information technology research, 24

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), corporate filings to, 66-67

Security challenges, 154

network, 221-223

SEMATECH, 163-164

Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC), 90, 163-164

Senior faculty, needing to pioneer information technology research, 14-15, 208-209

Sloan Foundation, 193

Sloan School of Management, 84

“Smart matter,”

Social applications of information technology, 144-148 .

See also Group applications

defining, 3, 142

examples and features of, 149

need for federal agencies to increase support for, 12-13, 201-205

Social applications research, 7, 142-194

challenges in, 148-155

citizens, 156

critical infrastructure, 156

faculty needing to pioneer, 14-15, 208-209

groups, 155

mechanisms for, 160-187

organizations, 156

topics involving, 217-223

Social implications of computing and communications, 155

research in, 62

Social science research, 157-158

contributing to information technology development, 170

Social Security Administration, 12, 57, 200

Social structures, novel activities and shifts in, 7

Social systems

embedding large-scale systems within larger contexts, 6

providing inspiration for the design of research programs, 127

Social trust challenges, 153

Sociotechnical systems, 3, 138, 142

Software .

See also Middleware

component, 129-130

development of prepackaged, 65, 81

research in, 62

Software bugs, 116

testing for, 112

Software developers, expenditures on R&D, 65

Software development

methodologies for, 169

processes in the design of research programs, 127, 129

Software Engineering Institute, 158-159

Software engineering research, 157, 162

Software safety, 90

Speech-recognition, 72

historical perspective on, 21

Speech-to-text capability, goal for information technology research, 24

“Spin-ins” and “spin-outs,”

Sprint Corporation, expenditures on R&D,

SRC. See Semiconductor Research Corporation

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, 17, 213

efforts to replace, 96, 205

expansions of, 66

Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System, 105

Standish Group, 137-138

Stanford University, 90, 92

Center for Integrated Turbulence Simulation, 96

programs in medical informatics, 171

Stateless Architecture, 83

Status hierarchies, 190

STCs. See Science and technology centers

Stokes, Donald, 26

Stokes' quadrant model of research, 27

Strategic advantage, information technology and, 169

Strengthening information technology research, mechanisms for, xi

Students, encouraging participation of in interdisciplinary research, 13-14, 206-208

Styles of federal support, 58-60

Sun Microsystems, 92

Supplies industry sector, 64, 68

“Supply-chain” management, 106

Support for research infrastructure .

See also Investment in information technology research

computer, 65

in the design of research programs, 131-133

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne, deconstructing wireless, 217

Sybase, relational database research by, 21

Syracuse University, programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174

System-specific research challenges, in social applications of information technology, 154-155

Systems, 32

always-up, 24

consequences of changes or additions to, 5

deconstructing, 220

difficulties with upgrades, 113

emergent behaviors of, 5

secure, 24

sociotechnical, 138

trouble-free, 24

Systems integration, 65

challenge of, 79-81

expenditures on R&D in, 80

Systems research agenda, expanding, 124-126

T

3Com Inc., 97

Tablet computer, efforts to develop, 79

Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse, 34, 47

Targeted research, 65-66, 70

TCP/IP standard, 74

Technical challenges associated with large-scale systems, 107-118

complexity, 108-110

distributed operation and administration, 118

flexibility, 111-114

heterogeneity, 110-111

large scale challenges, 108

trustworthiness, 114-118

Telecommunications research, changes in, 77-78

Telepresence, 24

Testbed networks, 131

Testbeds, linking to multidisciplinary research centers, 182

Testing large-scale systems, 112

Text-to-speech capability, goal for information technology research, 24

Theoretical approaches, to the design of research programs, 126

Transaction processing, 139

Transforming applications, 146

Trends

in federal funding, 52-56

in industrial support, 66-70

in support for university research, 88-90

Trouble-free systems, goal for information technology research, 24

Trusted Global Advisor system, 97

Trustworthiness challenges

associated with large-scale systems, 110, 114-118, 153

availability issues, 116-118

reliability issues, 116-118

security issues, 115-116

Turing Award, 24

Turing test, 24

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
×

U

U S WEST, expenditures on R&D, 77

Unintended and unanticipated consequences, of changes or additions to systems, 5

Unit testing, 112

University of California at Berkeley, 17, 90, 92-93

deconstructing wireless, 217

Endeavor expedition, 62

Focus Center at, 98

programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174

relational database research at, 21

University of California at Irvine, 192

University of California at Los Angeles, programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174

University of Chicago, Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, 96

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets, 96

programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174

University of Michigan, 17

programs in sociotechnical aspects of information technology, 174

University of Utah, 21

Center for Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, 96

programs in medical informatics, 171

University of Washington, 92

Portolano/Workscape, 62

University research, 87-93

commercialization of, 91-93

faculty needing to pioneer information technology research, 14-15, 208-209

gaps in, 90-91

need for closer ties with industry research, 208

need for faculty and students to participate in interdisciplinary research, 13-14, 206-208

recommendations for expanding the scale and scope of, 13-15, 206-209

trends in support for, 88-90

Untrustworthy components, creating trustworthy systems from, 110

Upgrades, difficulties with, 113

US Air Force, SAGE defense system, 21

Usability issues, within large-scale systems,

Users. See End-users

V

VC. See Venture capital

Venture capital (VC), support for innovation, 31, 85-87

Venture One Corporation, 98

Veridical, Inc., 73

Very high speed network systems, 132

Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit Program, 21, 96

ViaVoice product, 72

Visual Insights, 72

Visualization, 96

von Hippel, Eric, 84

W

Washington, DC, Metrorail, 117

Willamette microprocessor, 137

Wireless, deconstructing, 217-221

Work, changing nature of, 146

Workscape, 62

World memex capability, goal for information technology research, 24

World Wide Web, 150

capturing information from, 106

needs of, 25

recent growth of, 22

X

Xerox Corporation, 17, 179 .

See also Palo Alto Research Center

Alto computer, 21, 97

expenditures on R&D, 66, 70

patents held by, 84

redirection of research at, 73

Y

Yahoo, 86

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9829.
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Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs Get This Book
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The flood of information technology (I.T.) products and services entering the market place often obscures the need to nurture the research enterprise. But as I.T. becomes integrated into all aspects of society, the need for research is even greater. And the range of issues that need to be addressed is broader than ever.

This new book highlights the fundamental importance of research to ensure that I.T. meets society's expanding needs. Against the background of dramatic change in the I.T. landscape, the committee examines four key questions:

  • Is the scope of I.T. research broad enough—particularly in the arena of large-scale systems—to address government, business, and social applications?
  • Are government and industrial sponsors providing sufficient funding for I.T. research?
  • Is the research net big both big and diverse enough to capture sufficient financial and intellectual resources to advance the field?
  • Are structures and mechanisms for funding and conducting research suited to the new sets of research challenges?
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