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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
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Index

A

AARP. See American Association of Retired Persons audit study

ACM. See Association for Computing Machinery

ACWIA. See American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act

ADEA. See Age Discrimination in Employment Act

Adjunct faculty drawn from industry, making greater use of, 236, 294

Age

and employment in the IT workforce, 7-8

distribution of Category 1 IT, Category 2 IT, and professional specialty workers, 141

of the Category 2 IT workforce, 86

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 136-138

Age-related discrimination, 140-146

avoiding, 288

definition of, 136

impact on tightness in the IT labor market, 150

legal dimensions of, 136-138

legal theories for showing, 137-138

relieving perceptions of, 298n

American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) audit study, on possible age-related discrimination against older IT workers, 146-148, 150

American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA), 161, 167-169

American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), 265

Assessment to expand the pool of immediately available workers, 9-10, 201-212

accounting for unintended bias, 204-205

effectiveness of assessment techniques and the role of job analysis , 205-209

future trends in assessment of IT workers, 211-212

legal dimensions of assessment, 209-211

research needed into, 302

structured methods for, 10, 206-207, 287-288

Associate's degrees, awarded in computer science, 82

Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 232, 235n, 247, 311

ASTD. See American Society for Training and Development

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

Attracting IT workers, 188-201

improved recruitment and retention, 194-199

increased use of overtime, 189-194

Attributes of IT workers, essential versus optional, 199-201

Availability of foreign IT workers to U.S. firms, 177-184

competition for foreign workers, 178-179

locating IT work abroad, 179-184

B

Baccalaureate level, formal education at, 10-11, 228-240

Bachelor's degrees

awarded in computer science, xi, 82

Category 1 IT workforce majority holding, 67-68

two-year turnover rates for IT and non-IT workers with, 95

Barriers to employers providing enough training, 297-298

Basic concepts supporting IT, understanding of needed for IT work, 56

Being Fluent with Information Technology , 292

Biotechnology, 317-330

and bioinformatics, 319-321, 328

global nature of sector, 321

impact on the economy, 321-324

number of companies and their valuation, 322-323

relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, 322-323

short history of, 317-318

similarities to and differences from IT industries, 329-330

Biotechnology Industry Organization, 318

Biotechnology workforce, 324-329

foreign worker participation in, 327

growth in, 324

trends in, 327-329

Black colleges and universities differences in the number of science, engineering, and IT-related graduates, from majority institutions , 238-239

lessons from, in promoting IT-related study, 238-239

BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics

Bridging the Gap , 231n, 342

BSFs. See Business supply firms

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 44, 79n, 84, 86, 101, 104-105, 338

IT labor market survey data from, 140-146, 301

job projections from, 110, 120-122

Bureau of National Affairs, 96n

Business See IT sector;.

U.S. IT firms

Business models, for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor , 166-167

Business supply firms (BSFs), model for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor, 167

C

C++ programmers, 142, 262, 264

Carnegie Technology Education (CTE), 248

Category 1 IT work, 4-7, 47-48

defining, 48

Category 1 IT workforce, 51-54, 66-68

age distribution of, 141

average annual increase in income for, 71

changes in employment for, 65

compensation in, 68-79

demographics of, 66-68

difficulty understanding composition of non-U.S, citizen portion of, 67

distribution by employment sector, 68

distribution by size of employer, 83

estimates of size of, 63, 331-343

majority holding at least a bachelor's degree, 67-68

numbers growing, 61-65

numbers in industrial employment by size of company, 83

older and younger workers in, 142-146

Category 2 IT work, 4-7

defining, 49

Category 2 IT workforce, 49, 51-54, 85-90

age distribution of, 86, 141

annual changes in mean wages for, 90

characteristics of, 85-90

educational background of, 85-86

growth in mean wages, 90

percentage of females, 90

percentage of foreign-born, 87

percentage of whites, 87, 90

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

rapidly growing occupational groups within, 85

Central Intelligence Agency, 159

Certification

industrial, 11, 251-253

vendor, 16

Change

accelerating pace of technological, 24-25

broad-scale social, 37

incremental vs. paradigmatic, 259

in employment for Category 1 computer occupations, 65

in employment for selected science and technology occupations, 65

in mean wages for selected Category 2 occupations, annual, 90

in median annual salary for World Wide Web/Internet developers by region, 77

in median salaries for selected information technology occupations, annual, 75

Characteristics of H-1B visa holders in the U.S., 164

Characteristics of the Category 1 IT workforce, 51-54, 61-65, 66-68, 79-84

Characteristics of the Category 2 IT workforce, 85-90

rapidly growing occupational groups, 85

Characteristics of the IT workforce, 60-90

educational background, 79-82

in the hardware subsector within information technology, 84-87

size of, 60-61

Characterizing the workforce problem, 92-132

context, 92

inference of a worker shortage, 97-108

perspective on the federal government and workforce issues in IT, 113-119

projections for the future, 119-131

reports of difficulty in hiring, 92-97

segmentation of demand for IT workers, 110-112

view of the IT labor market, 109

Chief Information Officers (CIO) Council, 18, 116-118, 310-311

Clearing of the IT labor markets, factors impeding, 108

COBOL programmers, 94, 142

COCOMO model, for productivity, 59

Cognitive theory, 57, 270

Collaboration, remote, 184

Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development, recommendations from the report of, 216-218

Communications networks, 26-27, 53

jobs opening in, 110, 120

Community college level

formal education at, 11, 245-251

programs in biotechnology, 326

Compensation issues.

See also Salaries;

Wages

in the Category 1 IT workforce, 68-79

in inferring a worker shortage, 102-107

ranking of by workers, 4

Competition

for foreign workers, 178-179

in the IT sector, 29

with the private sector for the federal government IT workforce, 113-114

Computer Industry Salary Survey, 72

Computer programmers

annual increases in mean income for, 76

number of hours worked per week, 190

Computer Science Accreditation Board (CSAB), 232

Computer science education, 10-11, 220-253;

see also Formal IT education

baccalaureate level, 229-233

community college level, 247-249

Computer systems analysts and scientists

annual increases in mean income for, 76

number of hours worked per week, 190

percent who worked more than 40 hours per week by size of firm, 192

Computer Technology Industry Association (CompTIA), 251

Contract teaching faculty.

See also Project-based employment

making greater use of, 236, 294

Council on Competitiveness, 286n

CPS. See Current Population Survey

CSAB. See Computer Science Accreditation Board

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

Current Population Survey (CPS), 6, 40, 61-66, 70, 74, 79, 85, 103, 189, 191, 332-333, 335-337

estimate of employment and unemployment in computer and computer-related occupations, 300, 336, 338, 341, 343

Cyber security needs, 118

D

Data mining, 320

Data on displaced workers, 145, 146

Data on IT employment

from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146

collecting better, 17, 300-301

from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 139-140

need for better, xvi, 7, 278-279

DataMasters, 72-74

Degrees

granted in computer science and computer engineering, 81

held by U.S.-born workers, 67n

professionals with advanced, among permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 158

Demographics of the Category 1 IT workforce, 66-68

Department of Commerce, 29, 35, 68, 311, 336, 341

Department of Defense (DOD), 113-114, 116-117, 308-309

Department of Energy (DOE), 117

Department of Labor (DOL), 158-159, 165, 170-171, 173-174, 208, 267, 300, 305-306

Department of the Treasury, 113-114, 118

Dictionary of Occupational Titles , 208

“Digital convergence,” 27

“Digital divide,” 215

Digital technologies, 23

Disequilibrium See Market disequilibrium models.

Disincentives, for employer-provided formal training, 255-257

Displaced workers, 145-146

Displacement rates, 142n

Distance learning, 253-254

E

E-commerce, 36-37, 94

Educational background, 10-11, 297-298.

See also Computer science education;

Formal IT education;

IT education

of the Category 1 IT workforce, 79-82

of the Category 2 IT workforce, 85-86

of U.S. K-12 students, 222-223

Educational institutions.

See also Black colleges and universities;

Computer science education;

Degrees;

Formal IT education;

Training IT workers

alignment of educational programs in IT with employer needs, 16, 292-294

faculty recruitment pools, 294-295

formal IT education for students who concentrate in non-IT-related disciplines, 16, 295-296

funding formulas for state-supported, 301

IT fluency in K-12 and in colleges, 292

secondary mathematics education, 291-292

training capacity of, 108

EEOC. See Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Efficient use of IT workers, improving, 188-201

improved recruitment and retention, 194-199

increased use of overtime, 189-194

making clearer distinctions between essential and optional attributes , 199-201

Electrical and electronic technicians, numbers growing, 85

Empirical evidence on the labor market experiences of older and younger IT workers, 139-147

AARP audit study, 146-147

data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 139-140

labor market survey data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146

Employees See Displaced workers;.

Female workers;

Foreign workers;

IT workers;

IT workforce;

Male workers;

Older workers;

Skilled workers;

Younger workers

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

Employer needs, better aligning educational programs in IT with, 292-294

Employer-provided formal training, disincentives for, 255-257

Employers of IT workers, 199-201

avoiding discriminatory behavior, 288

barriers to providing enough training, 297-298

desire to minimize labor costs, 104

direct grants to, for training, 298-299

distribution of Category 1 IT workers, by size of, 83

perspective on the H-1B visa program, 172

recruiting practices, 287

relationships with universities and other sources of talent, 287

slow response time by, 108

use of structured assessment methods, 287-288

worker quality of life, 288-289

Employment See IT work;.

IT workers;

Jobs in the IT sector;

Project-based employment;

Unemployment

End-user programming, 127

Enterprise Resource Programs (ERPs), 110

Enterprise-wide software systems, 127

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

complaints filed, 139

data on possible age-related discrimination against older IT workers , 139-140

EEO offices, 147n

judgments on cases alleging age-related discrimination, 140

Equilibrium.

See also Market disequilibrium models

time to reach, in inferring a worker shortage, 107-108

ERPs. See Enterprise Resource Programs

Estimating

the Category 1 IT workforce, 331-339

demanding accuracy in, 130

employed and unemployed workers in computer and computer-related occupations, 338

employment in computer and computer-related occupations, 341

the larger IT workforce, 339-343

the population of electrical, electronic, and computer engineers in government data sets, 337

the size of the IT workforce, 331-343

Existing IT workforce

attracting and using IT workers more efficiently, 188-201

engaging, 9-10

expanding the pool of immediately available workers, 201-216

making more effective use of, 188-219

Experience

impact on productivity, 59

role as a hiring filter, 203

role in IT work, 56-60

F

Faculty recruitment pools

complements to regular tenure-track faculty, 236

expanding, 16, 294-295

upgrading skills of existing faculty, 294-295

use of adjunct faculty drawn from industry, 294

use of faculty in other departments to assume some of the teaching load, 295

Fair Labor Standards Act, 193n

FASB. See Financial Accounting Standards Board

Federal Cyber Corps, 18, 116, 118

Federal government IT workforce issues, 113-119

competition with the private sector, 113-114

concerns expressed by government contractors, 118-119

coping with tightness, 18, 116-117

flexibility for contractors, 310

incentives, 114-116

recruitment and retention issues, 116

remuneration and recruiting methods, 308-309

resources for training, 309

security, 117-118

working conditions, 309

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), 106

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

Flexible working conditions, 116

Foreign facilities, investment in by the IT industry, 181

Foreign students' (“F”) visas, 162, 241

Foreign-worker programs

“Extraordinary ability” workers, priority granted to, 157-158

H-1B visa program, 171-177

in the United States, 157-170

issues regarding, 170-178

permanent residence program, 170-171

permanent residents in, 157-160

temporary nonimmigrant workers in, 160-170

Foreign workers in the biotechnology workforce, 326

Foreign workers in the IT workforce, 8-9, 152-187

availability to U.S. firms, 177-184

Category 2 IT workforce percentage, 87

cost savings using, 186

impact on the U.S. economy and workforce, 152-155

incentives for, 195n

interaction with locating work offshore, 185

in the United States, 156-177

numbers overall, 156-157

Formal IT education, 10-11, 220-254

and type of IT work, 54-55

distance learning, 253-254

for students who concentrate in non-IT-related disciplines, 295-296

higher education, 228-251

industry certification, 251-253

secondary education, 221-228

Forsythe list, 235n, 237n

FORTRAN programmers, 142

Future projections for the IT workforce, 23-24, 119-131

project-based employment, 123-126

prospects for improvements in productivity, 126-131

quantitative outlook, 120-122

relevant time horizons, 119-120

skills for the future, 122-123

G

Gates Foundation, 235n

Gender factors See Female workers;.

Male workers

Genentech, 317

General Agreement on Trade in Services, 161n

Geographical issues

in the biotechnology workforce, 327

in the IT workforce, 111

Government contractors.

See also Project-based employment

concerns expressed by, 118-119

effective use of, 18, 310

Grants, direct, to employers for training, 298-299

Green-card process, 18, 158-160

research needed into streamlining, 303-307

Greenspan, Alan, 40, 155n

Groups See Occupational groups;.

Underrepresented groups

Growth

in mean wages for the Category 2 IT workforce, 90

in the biotechnology workforce, 324

in the Category 1 IT workforce, 61-65

in total compensation for IT workers, 106

H

H-1B visa holders

characteristics of U.S., 164

numbers of temporary nonimmigrant workers in foreign worker programs , 161-168

plausible scenario for dilemma of, 174

H-1B visa program, 17-18, 171-177.

See also Green-card process

employer perspective on, 172

investigations of alleged violations of, 175-176n

worker perspective on, 172-173, 175

H-1B visas

making more “portable,” 18, 304

numbers granted to IT workers, 164n

pros and cons of changes to levels of, 8-9, 178

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

requirements for, 168-169

Hardware subsector, within information technology, 25, 84-87

HBCUs. See Historically black colleges and universities

High-technology sector

economics of, 32, 35-38

rise of, 32-35

training opportunities in, 260-261

Higher education in IT

baccalaureate level, 228-240

community college level, 245-251

postbaccalaureate level, 240-245

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), 238-239

Hours worked per week

by computer programmers, 190

by computer systems analysts and scientists, 190

Human resources policies, improving internal, 198-199

I

ICCP. See Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals

Immediately available workers, expanding the pool of, 201-216

Immigrants.

See also Foreign workers in the IT workforce

illustrative contributions to the U.S. economy, 154

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 159-160, 165, 169, 300

Incentives for employers to increase training, 17, 297-299

direct grants to employers for training, 298-299

and the federal government IT workforce, 114-116

levy/grant or mandatory training programs, 298-299

subsidized loans, 298

tax credits, 298

Incentives for IT workers, nonmonetary, 115-116

Incremental change, vs. paradigmatic, 259

Incumbent workers, 99

India, IT education policy in, 242

Industrial sector.

See also High-technology sector;

IT sector

making greater use of adjunct faculty drawn from, 294

vast predominance of the Category 1 IT workforce in, 68

Industry certification, 251-253

Industry-wide software systems, 127

Information technology See IT.

Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), 335-336, 339, 342-343

Infrastructure, for training, 258-260

INS. See Immigration and Naturalization Service

Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP), 251-252

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society , 232, 311

Integration

of work and learning, 12, 268-270

of work organization, assessment, and software engineering, 302-303

Intellectual abilities, needed for IT work, 55-56

Interactions, between Category 1 and Category 2 IT work, 49-51

Internal Revenue Service, 114

International Webmasters' Association, 251

Internet, jobs advertised on, 93

Internships, 16

Interviews

structured, 207

unstructured, 204

Investment abroad by the IT industry, 181-183

employment in U.S. parent companies and their affiliates abroad, 182-183

foreign facilities, 181

strategic alliances, 181-182

IT careers

annual changes in median salaries for selected, 75

fluidity of, 221

joint action needed to promote awareness of and interest in, 311

targeting underrepresented groups for, 212-216

young people's views of education and, 226-228

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

IT education, 79-82.

See also Computer science education;

Formal IT education

policy in India, 242

IT firms See U.S. IT firms.

IT fluency, promoting in K-12 and in colleges to a greater degree , 15-16, 292

IT labor market, 109, 140-146.

See also

IT workforce

AARP audit study on, 146-147

applicants “testing,”

data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 139-140

data on job loss, Category 1 IT workers, 142

data on job replacement, Category 1 IT workers, 143-146

data on the relative youthfulness of Category 1 IT workforce, 141-142

elasticity of demand within, 103n

empirical evidence on, 139-147

factors impeding the clearing of, 108

integrating work and learning, 12, 268-270

overall, in inferring a worker shortage, 99

role of formal education, 10-11

survey data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146

training IT workers, 254-267

IT sector, 23-132

as a policy driver, 38-40

attention captured by, 28-40

character of, 23-43

characterizing the workforce problem within, 92-132

competition in, 29

definitions, 25-26

flourishing of, 29-32

future of, 23-24

global nature of, 39, 152

hardware subsector within, 25, 84-87

influence on the IT workforce, 24-28

investment abroad by, 181-183

jobs in, 194-198

role in present assessment of IT workforce issues, 40-42

understanding the IT workforce, 44-91

unemployment in, 93

IT skills

access in the secondary classroom, 225-226

combining with knowledge of a specific business, 122-123

concerns of government contractors, 118

future projections, 122-123

standards from the Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, 248-249

IT users, 45n

IT work, 90-91

Category 1 vs. Category 2 IT workers, 51-54

Category 1 work, 47-48

Category 2 work, 49

core knowledge and abilities needed for, 55-56

formal education, by type of, 54-55

fulfillment that comes from responsible positions serving the nation , 308

in Category 1 IT occupations by occupational category, 64

integrating with learning, 12, 268-270

interaction between Category 1 and Category 2 work, 49-51

locating abroad, 179-184

nature of, 4, 47-54

organizing for productivity, 291

role of experience and situated learning and knowledge in, 56-60

IT workers

attracting and using more efficiently, 188-201

average change in median annual salary for, by region, 73

defining, 44-47

defining shortage of, 109

displaced, 145-146

educational background of, 79-82

expanding the pool of immediately available, 201-216

federal government in competition with private sector for, 113-114

future trends in assessment of, 211-212

growth in total compensation for, 106

improving quality of life for, 288-289

improving working conditions for, 309

intellectual and knowledge requirements for, 54-60

numbers of H-1B visas granted to, 164n

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

reducing relative need for, 126-131

sample titles of, 46

slow response time by, 108

training, 254-267

IT workforce.

See also Category 1 IT workforce;

Category 2 IT workforce;

Existing IT workforce

characteristics of, 60-90

future projections for, 119-131

geographical issues in, 111

influence of entire IT sector on, 24-28

regional supply issues in, 112

size and structure of the, 6-7, 60-61, 344

size of hardware subsector, 86-87

understanding, 44-91

IT workforce problem, 2, 4-6, 92-132

compensation, 102-107

for the federal government IT workforce, 113-119

inference of worker shortages, 97-108

IT labor market, 109

overall labor market, 99

projections for the future, 119-131

relieving, 135-272

reports of difficulty in hiring, 92-97

role of IT sector in current assessment of, 40-42

segmentation of demand for IT workers, 110-112

size of the applicant pool, 99-102

skills shortages vs. worker shortages, 102

time to reach equilibrium, 107-108

ITAA. See Information Technology Association of America

J

Java programmers, 94, 253, 262, 264

Jobs in the IT sector.

See also Wages advertised on the Internet, 93

effectiveness of assessment techniques for analyzing, 205-209

improving attractiveness of, 15, 194-196

increasing awareness of among potential workers, 196-198

sample titles, 46, 88

Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network, 96, 266

K

Knowledge needed for IT work, 56-60.

See also Attributes of IT workers;

Being Fluent with Information Technology;

Educational background

enduring vs. perishable, 56-57, 293

“hard” vs. “soft,” 56-57, 293

intellectual abilities, 55-56

social abilities, 56

understanding of basic concepts supporting IT, 56

L

Labor condition application (LCA), 165, 170, 173

Labor market See IT labor market.

LCA. See Labor condition application

Learning See Computer science education;.

Degrees;

Formal IT education;

Organizational learning;

Situated learning;

Training IT workers

Legal dimensions of age discrimination, 136-138

definition of age discrimination, 136

legal theories for showing age discrimination, 137-138

Supreme Court rulings on, 138-138

Legal dimensions of assessment, 209-211

Levy/grant training programs, 298-299

Lifelong learning, need for, 254-255

Loans for training programs, subsidized, 298

M

Male workers, Category 1 IT workforce predominance of, 66

Management

for greater productivity, 127-130

for software engineering, 130

micromanagement, 130

of organizational learning, 49n

Mandatory training programs, 298-299

Market disequilibrium models, of an occupational labor shortage, 98

Marketplace See IT labor market.

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

Massachusetts Software Council (MSC), 266-267

Meeting the Federal IT Workforce Challenge , 18

Minority groups See Underrepresented groups.

Moore's law, 25

MSC. See Massachusetts Software Council

Multiple employment applications, 100-101

N

NACE. See National Association of Colleges and Employers

NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress

NAFTA. See Trade-NAFTA (“TN”) visas

NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASSCOM. See National Association of Software and Service Companies

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 115, 117-118

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 222-223

National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), 70, 114

National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM), 179

National Center on Employee Ownership (NCEO), 74

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 291

National Employer Survey, 260

National Science Foundation (NSF), 3, 62, 82, 241, 303n, 326-327

NCEO. See National Center on Employee Ownership

“New economy,” 35

Non-H-1B nonimmigrant visa categories, 162-163

“E” treaty traders and investors, 162

“F” foreign students, 162

“J” exchange visitors and spouses, 162-163

“L” intracompany transferees, 163

“TN” trade-NAFTA visas, 163

Non-U.S. citizens, in the Category 1 IT workforce, 67

Nonimmigrant foreign workers See Temporary nonimmigrant workers in foreign worker programs.

Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies (NWCET), 247-248

IT skills standards from, 85, 88-89, 208, 212, 224, 248, 343-344

NSF. See National Science Foundation

NWCET. See Northwest Center for

Emerging Technologies

O

Object-oriented languages, 259

Occupational Employment Survey (OES), 64, 70, 72, 300, 332-333, 336-337, 340

Occupational groups.

See also Science and technology occupations

and related skill standards, 88-89

rapidly growing in the Category 2 IT workforce, 85

OES. See Occupational Employment Survey

Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 113, 115-118, 311

Older workers

and possible age-related discrimination, 135-151

empirical evidence on the labor market experiences of older and younger IT workers, 139-147

legal dimensions of age discrimination, 136-138

older workers equally likely to find new jobs as younger, 143-146

older workers more likely than younger to lose their jobs, 142

O*NET , 208

OPM. See Office of Personnel Management

Organizational learning, management of, 49n

Outsourcing, 32, 129

Overtime for IT workers

exemption from restrictions on, 193n

increasing use of, 9, 189-194

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

P

Permanent labor certification (PLC) See Green-card process.

Permanent residence program, 170-171

Permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 157-160

numbers, 157-158

obtaining a green card, 158-160

priority workers, 157-158

skilled workers, professionals, and other workers, 158

Personnel, reducing relative needs for, 126-131

Personnel supply firms (PSFs), model for third-party use of nonimmigrant foreign labor, 166-167

PITAC. See President's Information Technology Advisory Committee

Policy driver, the IT sector as, 38-40

Postbaccalaureate level, formal education at, 11, 240-245

Potential workers, increasing awareness of jobs among, 196-198

President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC), 286n

Priority workers, among permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 157-158

Private sector IT workforce, federal government in competition with, 113-114

Problem solving for IT workforce issues, 135-272

foreign workers in the IT workforce, 152-187

increasing the supply of qualified labor by training and education, 220-272

making more effective use of the existing IT workforce, 188-219

older IT workers and possible age-related discrimination, 135-151

Productivity of the IT workforce

COCOMO model for, 59

defining, 126n

illustrative tools for, 127

impact of experience on, 59

increasing, 126-131

likely impact of improvements in, 129, 131

management and organization, 127-130

organizing work for, 291

research needed into, 302

tools, 126-127

variations among software developers, 52

Professional development, release time for, 16

Professional societies and groups, using to support educational efforts, 16, 296

Professional specialty workers, 66n

age distribution of, 141

Project-based employment

forms taken by, 123-124

future projections for, 123-126

Proprietary information issues, 125

PSFs. See Personnel supply firms

Q

Quality of life, improving for IT workers, 15, 288-289

Quantitative outlook for the IT workforce, future projections, 120-122

Quotas, per-country, 160

R

Recruitment and retention of IT workers, 194-199

being more flexible in, 308-309

changing practices in, 287

for the federal government IT workforce, 116

improving internal human resources policies, 198-199

improving job attractiveness, 194-196

increasing awareness of jobs among potential workers, 196-198

Reduction-in-force (RIF) notices, impact of, 114-115

Regional supply issues, in the IT workforce, 112

Regional training consortia, supporting, 299-300

Regulation, of the biotechnology industry, 13

Relief, for the IT workforce problem, 135-272

Remote collaboration, 184

Remuneration, federal government increasing flexibility in, 18, 308-309

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

Research needed, 17, 302-303

in software engineering, 302

into assessment tools for IT jobs, 302

into better integration of work organization, assessment, and software engineering, 302-303

into productivity, 302

into situated learning, 302

into streamlining the green-card process, 303-307

into work organization, 302

Retention See Recruitment and retention of IT workers.

RIF notices See Reduction-in-force notices.

Risk management, 130

S

Salaries, 77-79

Salary increases

in mean annual salary for science and technology occupations, 71, 73

in mean income for computer programmers, annual, 76

in mean income for computer systems analysts and scientists, annual , 69n, 76

SC/CHiPS Professional & Managerial (P&M) Total Compensation Survey, 105n

Science and engineering graduates, percentage, by age group, employed in IT and non-IT occupations, 67

Science and technology occupations changes in employment for selected , 65

Secondary education, 10, 221-228

access to IT in the classroom, 225-226

improving, 15, 102n

state of, 223-225

young people's views of education and IT careers, 226-228

Secondary mathematics education, improving, 291-292

Sectors See High-technology sector;.

Industrial sector;

IT sector

Security issues, in the federal government IT workforce, 117-118

Self-study programs, 16

SESTAT data system, 62, 64, 66, 84, 86, 327, 336

Shared training, approaches to, 266-267

Shortage of IT workers.

See also IT workforce problem;

Tightness in the IT labor market

defining, 109

Situated learning

research needed into, 302

role in IT work, 56-60

Skilled workers.

See also IT skills among permanent residents in foreign worker programs, 158

needed for the future, 122-123

Skills of existing faculty, upgrading, 294-295

Skills shortages.

See also “Upskilling” programs

vs. worker shortages, in inferring a worker shortage, 102

Social abilities, needed for IT work, 56

Social change, broad-scale, 37

Social demand model, of an occupational labor shortage, 97-98

Software engineering, 25-26

elements of managing, 130

evaluating, 52

international aspect of, 152-153

research needed in, 302

Software reuse, 127

Software systems, industry and enterprise-wide, 127

Standish Group, 128

STAR program, 116

State-supported educational institutions, changing funding formulas for, 301

Strategic alliances, investment in by the IT industry, 181-182

Strategic Tactical Advocates for Results See STAR program.

Strategies for increasing the supply of qualified labor, 220-272

integrating work and learning, 268-270

role of formal education, 220-254

training IT workers, 254-267

Structured assessment methods, 10, 206-207

making more use of, 287-288

validated, 15

Structured interviews, 207

Students. See Educational institutions;

Foreign students' (“F”) visas

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
×

Supreme Court, rulings on age discrimination, 137-138

Survey data, on the IT labor market, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 140-146

T

Taulbee survey, 80-82, 244

Tax credits for training programs, 298

Technical writers, numbers rapidly growing, 85

Tek.Xam assessment, 211

Temporary nonimmigrant workers in foreign worker programs, 160-170.

See also H-1B visas

numbers of H-1B visas and workers, 161-168

obtaining an H-1B visa, 165-170

Tenure-track faculty, complements to regular, 236

Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 222-223

Tightness in the IT labor market, 109

coping with, 5, 13-14, 17

federal government coping with, 116-117

impact of age-related discrimination on, 150

worldwide, 100

Titles of IT workers, sample, 46, 88

Tools for greater productivity, 126-127

Training IT workers, 11-12, 15, 254-267

and firm size, 262-264

approaches to shared training, 266-267

costs of, 119

disincentives for employer-provided formal training, 255-257 , 297-298

extent of, 261-262

factors affecting, 257-258

historical experiences in, 264-265

in ASTD firms, 265

incentives for employers to increase, 297-299

making more resources available for, 18, 309

need for lifelong learning, 254-255

opportunities in the economy and in high technology, 260-261

promoting, 289-291

release time for, 16

support and infrastructure for, 258-260

supporting regional consortia for, 299-300

time needed for, 108

training realities, 261-264

Tuition reimbursement, 116

Turnover rates, 95

U

Underrepresented groups

and concerns of government contractors, 118-119

joint action needed to expand opportunities for, 15, 312-313

targeting for IT careers, 16, 212-216

Unemployment, in the IT sector, 93

Unintended bias, accounting for, 204-205

Universities See Educational institutions.

“Upskilling” programs, 221

U.S.-born workers

in the Category 1 IT workforce, 66-67

degrees held by, 67n

U.S. Census Bureau, 260, 335

U.S. economy, 2-3, 35-38, 152-155, 260-261, 297

U.S. IT firms, 30-31

availability of foreign IT workers to, 177-184

employment in affiliates abroad, 182-183

number employed in by IT industry sector, including foreign affiliates, 182-183

size of, and training, 262-264

U.S. workforce, impact of foreign workers on, 152-155

V

Vacancy, defining, 93-96

Visa categories.

See also Green-card process

“E” treaty traders and investors, 162

“F” foreign students, 162, 241

“H-1B” visas, 161-177

“J” exchange visitors and spouses, 162-163

“L” intracompany transferees, 163, 185

“TN” trade-NAFTA visas, 163

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
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W

Wages.

See also Remuneration;

Salaries

being more flexible in, 308-309

growth in mean for Category 2 IT workforce, 90

growth in total compensation for IT workers, 106

in beginning salaries for bachelor's degree recipients, annual, 72

in inferring a worker shortage, 102-107

in the Category 1 IT workforce, 68-79

Women See Female workers;.

Underrepresented groups

Word-of-mouth hiring, 197-198

Work See Category 1 IT work;.

Category 2 IT work;

IT work;

Jobs

Workers.

See also Displaced workers;

Female workers;

Foreign workers;

IT workers;

Male workers;

Older workers;

Skilled workers;

Younger workers

Worker shortages.

See also IT workforce problem

inference of, 97-108

perspective on the H-1B visa program, 172-173, 175

vs. skills shortages, 102

Workforce See Biotechnology workforce;.

IT workforce;

U.S. workforce

Working conditions

flexible, 116

improving for IT workers, 309

Work organization, research needed into, 302

Y

Younger workers

equally likely to find new jobs as older, 143-146

relative predominance in the Category 1 IT workforce, 66, 141-142

Young people, views of education and IT careers, 226-228

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9830.
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A look at any newspaper's employment section suggests that competition for qualified workers in information technology (IT) is intense. Yet even experts disagree on not only the actual supply versus demand for IT workers but also on whether the nation should take any action on this economically important issue.

Building a Workforce for the Information Age offers an in-depth look at IT. workers-where they work and what they do-and the policy issues they inspire. It also illuminates numerous areas that have been questioned in political debates:

  • Where do people in IT jobs come from, and what kind of education and training matter most for them?
  • Are employers' and workers' experiences similar or different in various parts of the country?
  • How do citizens of other countries factor into the U.S. IT workforce?
  • What do we know about IT career paths, and what does that imply for IT workers as they age? And can we measure what matters?

The committee identifies characteristics that differentiate IT work from other categories of high-tech work, including an informative contrast with biotechnology. The book also looks at the capacity of the U.S. educational system and of employer training programs to produce qualified workers.

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