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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Page 135
Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Page 136
Suggested Citation:"B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9831.
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Appendix B Analysis of Quantitative Data on Postdocs T he amount of data available on postdoctoral scholars in science and engi- neering is quite limited compared to that available for graduate students. For example, the number of graduate students funded by agency and funding mechanisms is known (such as how many graduate students are supported by NIH via both fellowships and research grants), but the same is not true for postdoctoral scholars. Provided in this appendix is all the available quantitative data COSEPUP was able to locate on postdoctoral scholars. The data provided here in tables is also illustrated in figures throughout the text. The surveys, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), which serve as the basis for the tables and figures in the text are the: • Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED), which is a census of all doctorates awarded by US educational institutions; • Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR), which is a biennial sample survey drawn from the SED; • Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engi- neering, which is an annual survey of the academic departments of all post-baccalaureate institutions. Note that the use of NSF data does not imply NSF endorsement of the research methods or conclusions contained in this report. 122

APPENDIX B 123 The following is a brief description of the assumptions and restrictions used to extract information from the individual data files. SURVEY OF EARNED DOCTORATES (SED) (1920-1998) The specialties list used in the SED for identifying doctoral fields in Science and Engineering (S&E) consists of the following major categories: • Agricultural Sciences • Biological Sciences • Health Sciences • Engineering • Computer and Information Sciences • Mathematics • Physical Sciences • Astronomy • Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology • Chemistry • Geological & Related Sciences • Physics • Miscellaneous Physical Sciences • Psychology • Social Sciences For the purpose of this guide these names were used to identify fields or they were combined as follows: • Life Sciences (Agricultural Sciences, Biological Sciences, Health Sciences) • Engineering • Mathematical Sciences (Computer and Information Sciences, Mathematics) • Physics and Astronomy (Physics, Astronomy) • Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences (Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Geological & Related Sciences, Miscellaneous Physical Sciences [except Other Physical Sciences]) • Chemistry • Social and Behavioral Sciences (Psychology, Social Sciences) All doctorates were selected independent of citizenship in determining the number of doctorates by field and in identifying postdoctoral plans in Table B-11. Only those doctorates who indicated that they have accepted a postdoctoral posi- tion or are negotiating with a specific organization were selected.

124 ENHANCING THE POSTDOCTORAL EXPERIENCE FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS SURVEY OF DOCTORATE RECIPIENTS (SDR) (1973-1997) In using the SDR data set, the same doctoral field identifiers were used as those for the Doctorate Recipient File (DRF). Median salaries were determined only for a six-year cohort, 1991-1996, of doctorates that in 1997 identified them- selves as being in a postdoctoral position and only for fields where a sufficient number of responses would provide reliable information. For the other figures using the SDR data, no restriction to a particular cohort was used. Data for Figure 3-2 was generated for married individuals in the year of the survey and for married individuals with children of any age under 18. Figure 1-7, containing information on the reasons why individuals were in a postdoctoral position, per- tains to their current position; two categories, “additional training” and “postdoc is excepted,” were combined into a single category. Figure 2-4, which reported the employment status of 1995 postdoctoral appointees in 1997, was obtained by merging the 1995 and 1997 data to obtain responses for individuals who responded to both surveys. Figure 1-5 provides data on the median number of years individuals are in postdoctoral positions by doctoral field, and this data was available only for the 1995 survey year as a special module for the survey. SURVEY OF GRADUATE STUDENTS AND POSTDOCTORATES IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (1973-1998) The field taxonomy for this survey is slightly different from that of the SDR or DRF since it is a survey of graduate departments and not research fields. The following departmental identifiers or a subset of those departments were used for this analysis: • Agricultural Sciences • Biological Sciences • Health Fields • Engineering • Mathematics and Computer Sciences • Chemistry • Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences • Physics and Astronomy • Psychology • Social Sciences This data was extracted from the National Science Foundation’s CASPER Data System. Categories were selected from menus provided by the system. Figure 1-2 contains data on all individuals holding a postdoctoral position, inde-

APPENDIX B 125 pendent of citizenship, and whether they received a PhD or a professional degree (MD, DO, DVM, or DDS). Figure 2-5 distinguishes postdoctoral appointments by citizenship, and permanent residents are counted as US citizens. All other figures and tables using data from the Survey of Graduate Students and Post- doctorates in Science and Engineering made no restrictions as to citizenship or type of doctorate. A DESCRIPTION OF THE DEGREE FIELD A broad and fine degree taxonomy was used to describe the doctoral fields in this Guide. The following is a list of the broad field headings with the fine fields that comprise that broad field under its heading. Life Sciences Agricultural Sciences Biological Sciences (includes Biochemistry) Medical Sciences Engineering Mathematical and Computer Sciences Computer Sciences Mathematical Sciences Physical Sciences Physics and Astronomy Chemistry (does not include Biochemistry) Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences Social and Behavioral Sciences Social Sciences Psychology

126 ENHANCING THE POSTDOCTORAL EXPERIENCE FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS LIST OF TABLES TABLE B-1: Postdoctoral Appointees in Academic Institutions by Broad Field, 1980-1998 TABLE B-2: Number and Percentage of Postdoctoral Appointments Across Employment Sectors, 1981-1997 TABLE B-3: US Citizen and Permanent Resident Postdoctoral Appointees at US Universities, 1988-1998 TABLE B-4: Percentage of US Citizens and Permanent Residents with Post- doctoral Appointments in US Institutions by Field, 1988-1998 TABLE B-5: Reasons for Taking first Postdoctoral Appointment, by Field of Doctorate, 1997 TABLE B-6: 1997 Status of 1995 Postdoctorates, by Selected Science & Engineering Field TABLE B-7: Sources of Job Advice for Individuals with and without Post- doctoral Appointments TABLE B-8: Comparison of Primary Concerns of Johns Hopkins University Postdoctoral Appointees in 1992 and 1997 TABLE B-9: Median Number of Months Spent in Postdoctoral Appointment, by Field and Years Since Doctorate TABLE B-10: Number of Science & Engineering Doctorates by Field, 1975-1998 TABLE B-11: Number of Science & Engineering Doctorates Planning Post- doctoral Study by Field, 1975-1998 TABLE B-12: Source of Support for Academic Postdoctoral Appointees by Field, 1998 TABLE B-13: Married and Dependent Status of Postdoctoral Appointees in 1997 TABLE B-14: Ratio of the Number of Tenured Faculty to the Number of Doc- torates in 1987 and 1997 TABLE B-15: Median Postdoctoral Salaries by Employment Sector and Field of Doctorate in 1997 for Doctorate in the Six-Year Cohort, 1991- 1996 TABLE B-16: Median Industrial Salaries in 1997 for Doctorates in the Six- Year PhD Cohort, 1991-1996, by Field and Type of Appointment TABLE B-17: Median Government Salaries in 1997 for Doctorates in the Six- Year PhD Cohort, 1991-1996, by Field and Type of Appointment TABLE B-18: Number of Postdoctoral Appointments in Selective Survey Years, 1981-1997 TABLE B-19: Number and Percentage of 1991-1996 Doctorates that Hold Post- doctoral Positions in 1997, by Gender

TABLE B-1: Postdoctoral Appointees in Academic Institutions by Broad Field, 1980-1998 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Life Sciences 11,721 12,836 12,703 13,699 14,421 14,958 15,920 16,874 17,540 18,984 Physical Sciences and Mathematics 4,796 4,971 4,879 5,128 5,163 5,214 5,556 5,724 6,077 6,128 Engineering 979 1,038 978 1,107 1,202 1,355 1,402 1,444 1,688 1,917 Social and Behavioral Sciences 904 790 804 779 749 860 843 839 818 903 All Science &Engineering Fields 18,400 19,635 19,364 20,713 21,535 22,387 23,721 24,881 26,123 27,932 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Life Sciences 20,214 21,051 22,671 24,158 25,704 25,144 26,119 26,836 28,283 Physical Sciences and Mathematics 6,506 6,673 6,830 6,822 7,132 7,183 7,276 7,495 7,511 Engineering 1,943 2,254 2,360 2,443 2,600 2,641 2,674 2,951 2,830 Social and Behavioral Sciences 902 887 886 899 941 958 1,038 936 995 All Science & Engineerning Fields 29,565 30,865 32,747 34,322 36,377 35,926 37,107 38,218 39,619 Source: Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering, 1980-1998 Note: Life Sciences includes the Agricultural Sciences, Biological Sciences, and the Health Sciences. Physical Sciences and Mathematics includes Chemistry; Astronomy and Physics; Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences; and Mathematics and Computer Sciences 127

128 ENHANCING THE POSTDOCTORAL EXPERIENCE FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS TABLE B-2: Number and Percentage of Postdoctoral Appointments Across Employment Sectors, 1981-1997 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 Academic 8,628 8,848 11,761 13,264 19,358 Percent 91.4% 87.6% 89.4% 80.0% 80.3% Industrial 221 479 555 989 1,663 Percent 2.3% 4.7% 4.2% 6.0% 6.9% Government 593 772 835 2,325 3,090 Percent 6.3% 7.6% 6.3% 14.0% 12.8% Total 9,442 10,099 13,151 16,578 24,111 Source: 1981, 1985, 1989, 1993, and 1997 Survey of Doctorate Recipients TABLE B-3: US Citizen and Permanent Resident Postdoctoral Appointees at US Universities, 1988-1998 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Agricultural Sciences 312 322 353 353 342 347 Biological Sciences 6,110 6,388 6,594 7,283 7,499 7,527 Chemistry 1,331 1,327 1,248 1,427 1,385 1,406 Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 307 377 415 514 504 527 Engineering 587 608 762 1,014 1,050 935 Medical Sciences 3,969 4,440 4,611 5,499 5,475 6,787 Mathematical Sciences 208 139 190 227 258 309 Physics and Astronomy 903 863 976 972 1,065 945 Psychology 425 381 401 426 483 482 Social Sciences 242 247 226 249 308 260 Total US Citizen and Perms 14,420 15,115 15,800 17,986 18,412 19,543 Source: 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998 Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering

APPENDIX B 129 TABLE B-4: Percentage of US Citizens and Permanent Residents with Postdoctoral Appointments in US Institutions by Field, 1988-1998 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Agricultural Sciences 67.2% 61.5% 56.0% 50.1% 50.5% 52.1% Biological Sciences 57.2% 53.5% 50.0% 50.4% 50.2% 48.6% Chemistry 38.7% 36.4% 34.8% 38.3% 38.7% 37.8% Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 61.9% 63.5% 60.0% 62.4% 58.5% 58.8% Engineering 34.8% 31.3% 32.3% 39.0% 39.3% 33.0% Medical Sciences 62.1% 57.3% 52.1% 52.1% 52.1% 55.9% Mathematical Sciences 54.7% 43.4% 54.9% 53.5% 44.8% 48.1% Physics and Astronomy 52.1% 45.0% 45.0% 46.0% 49.1% 42.6% Psychology 85.3% 82.1% 76.4% 77.3% 81.3% 78.8% Social Sciences 75.6% 56.4% 62.6% 63.8% 69.4% 67.9% Total 55.2% 51.1% 48.2% 49.4% 49.6% 49.3% Source: 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998 Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering TABLE B-5: Reasons for Taking First Postdoctoral Appointment, by Field of Doctorate, 1997 Expected Work Training Other or with Outside Employment Additional Specific PhD Not Training Person Field Available Other Total Biological Sciences 6,404 2,427 1,950 1,779 602 13,162 Percent 57.2% 51.8% 57.3% 40.4% 31.5% 54.3% Chemistry 865 308 292 551 168 2,184 Percent 7.7% 6.6% 8.6% 12.5% 8.8% 9.0% Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 343 75 75 238 80 811 Percent 3.1% 1.6% 2.2% 5.4% 4.2% 3.3% Engineering 586 464 288 517 401 2,256 Percent 5.2% 9.9% 8.5% 11.7% 21.0% 9.3% Medical Sciences 205 137 82 68 74 566 Percent 1.8% 2.9% 2.4% 1.5% 3.9% 2.3% Physics and Astronomy 1,010 347 175 399 162 2,093 Percent 9.0% 7.4% 5.1% 9.1% 8.5% 8.6% Social and Behavioral Sciences 1,368 564 412 514 305 3,163 Percent 12.2% 12.0% 12.1% 11.7% 15.9% 13.1% All Postdoctorates 11,197 4,687 3,403 4,406 1,914 24,235 Percent 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1997

130 ENHANCING THE POSTDOCTORAL EXPERIENCE FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS TABLE B-6: 1997 Status of 1995 Postdoctorates, by Selected Science & Engineering Field 1997 Biological Physics and Employment Status Sciences Chemistry Engineering Astronomy Psychology Total Postdoc Appointment 3,445 317 281 504 170 5,281 Percent 50.5% 23.2% 27.8% 33.2% 25.3% 38.0% 4 Yr. or Univ. and TenureTrack 899 230 129 253 94 2,288 Percent 13.2% 16.8% 12.7% 16.7% 14.0% 16.5% Other Academic 1,213 279 103 250 209 2,548 Percent 17.8% 20.4% 10.2% 16.5% 31.1% 18.4% Industry or Self-Employed 735 342 373 320 73 2,173 Percent 10.8% 25.0% 36.9% 21.1% 10.9% 15.6% Non-Profit or Government 451 104 102 190 126 1,382 Percent 6.6% 7.6% 10.1% 12.5% 18.8% 10.0% Unemployed 75 97 24 NA NA 213 Percent 1.1% 7.1% 2.4% NA NA 1.5% Total 1995 Postdoctoral Appointees 6,818 1,369 1,012 1,517 672 13,885 Source: Merged 1995 and 1997 data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients Note:NA = insufficient data to provide reliable information. TABLE B-7: Sources of Job Advice for Individuals with and without Postdoctoral Appointments Best Sources Utilized Sources Biochemistry Mathematics Biochemistry Mathematics Postdoctoral Postdoctoral Postdoctoral Postdoctoral Appointees Appointees Appointees Appointees Postdoctoral Mentor 41% 16% 59% 31% Job Notice in Professional Journal 38% 31% 57% 51% PhD Adviser 25% 39% 42% 60% Sent Unsolicited 7% 13% 21% 37% Other Faculty 16% 27% 39% 56% Former Professional Contacts 16% 28% 25% 40% Job Ads On-Campus 3% 6% 13% 13% Source: Science 1999, Vol. 285, p. 1518

APPENDIX B 131 TABLE B-8: Comparison of Primary Concerns of Johns Hopkins University Postdoctoral Appointees in 1992 and 1997 1992 1997 Future Job Placement 45% 68% Salary Levels 47% 67% Dental Insurance 0% 47% Campus Parking 39% 40% Research Funding 22% 37% Personal Safety 60% 31% Health Insurance 53% 26% Child Care 29% 26% Source: Science 1999, Vol. 285, pp. 1514 (data collected by Johns Hopkins University Postdoctoral Association) TABLE B-9: Median Number of Months Spent in Postdoctoral Appointment, by Field and Years Since Doctorate Years Since Doctorate 4 to 6 7 to 10 11 to 20 Agricultural Sciences 20 22 25 Biological Sciences 46 45 38 Chemistry 22 24 22 Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 23 19 16 Physics and Astronomy 34 32 25 Psychology 15 16 20 All Science and Engineering 29 29 26 Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995 Notes: Years since doctorate are counted from 1995 when data was collected. Data for the most current, 1 to 3 years cohort, is not provided since many doctorates are still in postdoctoral positions.

132 ENHANCING THE POSTDOCTORAL EXPERIENCE FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS TABLE B-10: Number of Science and Engineering Doctorates by Field, 1975-1998 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 Agricultural Sciences 1,067 1,072 1,258 1,321 1,212 1,208 1,112 1,192 Biological Sciences 3,497 3,803 3,793 4,328 5,376 5,723 5,777 5,848 Medical Sciences 462 586 729 956 1,330 1,324 1,422 1,500 Engineering 3,002 2,479 3,166 4,894 6,008 6,305 6,098 5,919 Mathematical Sciences 1,147 962 998 1,597 2,187 2,043 2,030 2,100 Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 634 628 617 769 807 807 897 838 Physics and Astronomy 1,300 983 1,080 1,393 1,652 1,676 1,597 1,584 Chemistry 1,776 1,538 1,836 2,100 2,162 2,148 2,143 2,217 Social Sciences 3,315 2,757 2,647 2,812 3,356 3,474 3,473 3,394 Psychology 2,751 3,098 3,118 3,281 3,279 3,340 3,564 3,681 All Science and Engineering Doctorates 18,951 17,906 19,242 23,451 27,369 28,048 28,113 28,273 Source: Survey of Earned Doctorates, 1920-1998 Note: Includes all doctorates, independent of citizenship status TABLE B-11: Number of Science and Engineering Doctorates Planning Postdoctoral Study by Field, 1975-1998 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1998 Agricultural Sciences 157 154 238 354 334 327 Biological Sciences 1,923 2,310 2,328 2,827 3,500 3,488 Medical Sciences 58 108 96 160 231 214 Engineering 385 279 425 843 1,193 949 Mathematical Sciences 119 111 147 300 437 367 Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 139 176 213 281 338 306 Physics and Astronomy 611 445 486 765 885 672 Chemistry 811 606 747 927 1,089 943 Social Sciences 139 191 193 225 316 357 Psychology 377 476 485 553 751 882 All Science and Engineering Doctorates 4,719 4,856 5,358 7,235 9,074 8,505 Source: Survey of Earned Doctorates, 1920-1998

APPENDIX B 133 TABLE B-12: Source of Support for Academic Postdoctoral Appointees by Field, 1998 Research Non-Federal Fellowships Traineeships Grants Sources Total Agriculture 28 1 345 292 666 Biological Sciences 1,575 1,084 8,557 4,264 15,480 Medical Sciences 1,716 1,548 4,020 4,853 12,137 Engineering 113 21 1,829 867 2,830 Mathematical and Computer Sciences 75 2 370 195 642 Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 71 12 670 144 897 Physics and Astronomy 111 9 1,754 342 2,216 Chemistry 249 28 2,421 1,018 3,716 Social Sciences 35 26 96 226 383 Psychology 79 109 248 176 612 Total 4,052 2,840 20,310 12,377 39,579 Source: Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering, 1998 TABLE B-13: Married and Dependent Status of Postdoctoral Appointees in 1997 HAVE NO NOT CHILDREN CHILDREN MARRIED MARRIED Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Agriculture 373 54.7% 309 45.3% 539 79.0% 143 21.0% Biological Sciences 5,329 40.5% 7,833 59.5% 8,984 68.3% 4,178 31.7% Medical Sciences 276 48.8% 290 51.2% 345 61.0% 221 39.0% Engineering 855 37.9% 1,401 62.1% 1,686 74.7% 570 25.3% Mathematical and Computer Sciences 101 15.3% 557 84.7% 296 45.0% 362 55.0% Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 345 42.5% 466 57.5% 479 59.1% 332 40.9% Physics and Astronomy 555 26.5% 1,538 73.5% 1,160 55.4% 933 44.6% Chemistry 595 27.2% 1,589 72.8% 1,328 60.8% 856 39.2% Social Sciences 1,118 35.3% 2,045 64.7% 1,931 61.0% 1,232 39.0% Psychology 856 38.0% 1,398 62.0% 1,425 63.2% 829 36.8% Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1997

134 ENHANCING THE POSTDOCTORAL EXPERIENCE FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS TABLE B-14: Ratio of the Number of Tenured Faculty to the Number of Doctorates in 1987 and 1997 Ratio Tenured Faculty/ Doctorates Tenured Faculty Doctorates 1987 1997 1987 1997 1987 1997 Agriculture 157 281 5,551 6,107 35.4 21.7 Biological Sciences 1,923 3,324 22,967 24,718 11.9 7.4 Medical Sciences 58 197 2,545 3,899 43.9 19.8 Engineering 385 1,000 12,950 15,691 33.6 15.7 Mathematical and Computer Sciences 119 365 9,841 12,554 82.7 34.4 Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences 139 309 2,944 3,504 21.2 11.3 Physics and Astronomy 611 654 7,047 7,370 11.5 11.3 Chemistry 811 923 9,334 8,623 11.5 9.3 Social Sciences 516 1,019 24,008 26,137 46.5 25.6 Psychology 377 733 12,404 13,993 32.9 19.1 Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1987 and 1997 TABLE B-15: Median Postdoctoral Salaries by Employment Sector and Field of Doctorate in 1997 for Doctorate in the Six-Year Cohort, 1991-1996 Academe Industry Government Life Sciences $27,000 $33,000 $35,000 Engineering $30,000 $56,500 $45,000 Physics and Astronomy $34,000 $48,000 $42,000 Chemistry $25,000 $40,000 $48,000 Social/Behavioral Sciences $27,600 $30,000 $35,000 Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1997 Note: Median salaries are presented only for individuals who received their doctorate between 1991 and 1996 to avoid including senior personnel who might classify a leave position as a postdoctoral appointment. Other fields where not included since the number of data points may be too small to provide accurate information.

APPENDIX B 135 TABLE B-16: Median Industrial Salaries in 1997 for Doctorates in the Six-Year PhD Cohort, 1991-1996, by Field and Type of Appointment Postdoctoral Positions Non-Postdoctoral Positions Life Sciences 33,000 61,000 Engineering 56,500 69,000 Physics and Astronomy 48,000 64,000 Chemistry 40,000 62,400 Social/Behavioral Sciences 30,000 50,000 Note: Median salaries are presented only for individuals who received their doctorate between 1991 and 1996 to avoid including senior personnel who might classify a leave position as a postdoctoral appointment. Other fields where not included since the number of data points may be too small to provide accurate information. Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1997 TABLE B-17: Median Government Salaries in 1997 for Doctorates in the Six-Year PhD Cohort, 1991-1996, by Field and Type of Appointment Postdoctoral Positions Non-Postdoctoral Positions Life Sciences 35,000 50,000 Engineering 45,000 60,000 Physics and Astronomy 42,000 60,000 Chemistry 48,000 60,000 Social/Behavioral Sciences 35,000 51,000 Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1997 Note: Median salaries are presented only for individuals who received their doctorate between 1991 and 1996 to avoid including senior personnel who might classify a leave position as a postdoctoral appointment. Other fields where not included since the number of data points may be too small to provide accurate information.

136 ENHANCING THE POSTDOCTORAL EXPERIENCE FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS TABLE B-18: Number of Postdoctoral Appointments in Selective Survey Years, 1981-1997 Academic Postdoctoral Positions 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 Life Sciences 5,257 5,294 6,909 7,720 11,253 Engineering 192 187 607 919 1,671 Physics and Astronomy 716 781 1,019 1,635 1,541 Chemistry 1,258 1,235 1,562 1,806 1,621 Social and Behavioral Sciences 894 1,090 1,148 588 2,069 Industrial Postdoctoral Positions 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 Life Sciences 100 193 217 404 655 Engineering NA NA 169 198 140 Physics and Astronomy 55 115 57 79 54 Chemistry NA 70 NA 240 307 Social and Behavioral Sciences NA 80 NA 50 465 Governmental Postdoctoral Positions 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 Life Sciences 332 502 583 1,524 1,594 Engineering NA 144 NA 144 384 Physics and Astronomy 62 NA 82 150 468 Chemistry 26 59 82 173 217 Social and Behavioral Sciences 88 NA NA 181 313 Source: 1981, 1985, 1989, 1993, and 1997 Survey of Doctorate Recipients Note: NA = insufficient data to provide reliable information.

TABLE B-19: Number and Percentage of 1991-1996 Doctorates that Hold Postdoctoral Positions in 1997, by Gender Male Female Percentage Percentage Percentage of Male of Female of all Doctorates Doctorates Postdoc Total Number of in Postdoc Total Number of in Postdoc Positions Held PhD Field Doctorates Postdocs Positions Doctorates Postdocs Positions by Females Agricultural Sciencs 2,776 219 7.9% 966 133 13.8% 37.8% Biological Sciences 13,923 5,579 40.1% 9,657 4,011 41.5% 41.8% Medical Sciences 1,694 122 7.2% 4,035 219 5.4% 64.2% Engineering 14,683 826 5.6% 2,354 205 8.7% 19.9% Mathematics 5,327 323 6.1% 1,545 93 6.0% 22.4% Earth and Atmos Sciences 2,454 479 19.5% 841 144 17.1% 23.1% Astronomy and Physics 4,957 1,250 25.2% 579 138 23.8% 9.9% Chemistry 6,453 992 15.4% 2,281 305 13.4% 23.5% Social Sciences 6,983 312 4.5% 5,184 220 4.2% 41.4% Psychology 6,604 651 9.9% 11,677 953 8.2% 59.4% Total 65,854 10,753 16.3% 39,119 6,421 16.4% 37.4% Male Female Percentage Percentage Percentage of Male of Female of all Doctorates Doctorates Postdoc Total Number of in Postdoc Total Number of in Postdoc Positions Held PhD Field Doctorates Postdocs Positions Doctorates Postdocs Positions by Females Life Sciences 18,393 5,920 32.2% 14,658 4,363 29.8% 42.4% Engineering 14,683 826 5.6% 2,354 205 8.7% 19.9% Physical, Math and Comp Sci 19,191 3,044 15.9% 5,246 680 13.0% 18.3% Social/Behavioral Sci 13,587 963 7.1% 16,861 1,173 7.0% 54.9% Total 65,854 10,753 16.3% 39,119 6,421 16.4% 37.4% 137 Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1997

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Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies Get This Book
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The concept of postdoctoral training came to science and engineering about a century ago. Since the 1960s, the performance of research in the United States has increasingly relied on these recent PhDs who work on a full-time, but on a temporary basis, to gain additional research experience in preparation for a professional research career.

Such experiences are increasingly seen as central to careers in research, but for many, the postdoctoral experience falls short of expectations. Some postdocs indicate that they have not received the recognition, standing or compensation that is commensurate with their experience and skills. Is this the case? If so, how can the postdoctoral experience be enhanced for the over 40,000 individuals who hold these positions at university, government, and industry laboratories?

This new book offers its assessment of the postdoctoral experience and provides principles, action points, and recommendations for enhancing that experience.

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