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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Index

A

Adaptation, 31

Adherence, in clinical interventions, 192– 194

Administrative strategies, 246

Adolescents with chronic disease, 212–218

family therapy for, 217–218

interventions affecting family relationship quality and functioning, 215–217

psychoeducational interventions for, 212–215

Adrenal steroids, 44

Adult weight gain, 96–97

Adults with chronic disease, interventions for, 218–219

Advantage, relative, of innovations, 305– 306

Adverse social interactions, 150–151

Advocacy Institute, 346

Affliction, disproportionate, of sexually transmitted infections, 110–112

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), 335–336

Alcohol consumption, 102–107

early data on, 19

maldistribution in, 106

negative health effects, 103–104

positive health effects, 104–105

quantifying net public health benefit, 105–107

socioeconomic factors in, 102–103

Allostasis and allostatic load, 4–5, 41–42

in the autonomic nervous system, 45

patterns of long-term harm associated with, 46

Alzheimer’s disease, 211

American Academy of Pediatrics, 115

American Cancer Society, 107, 117, 119, 203

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 117

American Heart Association, 115

Heart Partners program, 308

American Medical Association, 115, 117

American Psychiatric Association, 22

American Psychological Association, 281

American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST), 203, 308

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Anger, 65

associated with susceptibility to diseases, 4

Anti-tobacco interventions, government level, 339–345

Anxiety, 67

Arousal, and memory modulation, 49–51

Assessing outcomes, 275–278

choice of outcome measures, 275–276

outcome measurement, 276–278

ASSIST. See American Stop Smoking Intervention Study

Atherosclerosis, 63

Autonomic nervous system, 62

allostasis in, 45

B

Behavior

definition of, 3, 20–21

health-related interventions affecting individual, 9–11

Behavior change, 333–335

maintaining, 334–335

models of, 183–191

producing, 333–334

Behavioral disease factors

anger, 65

anxiety, worry, and hope, 67

in cardiovascular health and disease, 64–67

depression, 66–67

hostility, 64–65

vital exhaustion, 65–66

Behavioral factors affecting health, 27, 37– 178

Behavioral intervention studies, of individuals, lessons from, 209

Behavioral interventions, funding supporting long-duration efforts for, 16, 348

Behavioral risk factors, 5–6, 87–137, 197–200

addressing, 197–200

alcohol consumption, 102–107

disease screening practices, 113–121

family and, 211

obesity, physical activity, and diet, 92– 102

sexual practices, 107–113

tobacco use, 87–92

unemployment, 155–156

Behavioral variables, integrating into interdisciplinary research, 16, 348

Bereavement, health and immunity effects of, 57

Biobehavioral factors in health and disease, 4–5, 39–86

brain as interpreter, regulator, and target, 47–51

cardiovascular health and disease, 61–67

defining, 20

developmental trajectories, 68–70

factors influencing long-term effects of stress, 57–61

immune system function in health and disease, 51–57

stress, health, and disease, 40–47

Biological risk factors, 27, 37–178

Biological variables, interdisciplinary research into integrating, 16, 348

Biosocial factors in health and disease, defining, 20–21

Blood cholesterol, screening for high, 115– 116

Bogalusa Heart Study, 70

Bone mineral density, 100

Bootheel Heart Health Project, 203

Brain function

arousal and memory modulation, 49–51

as interpreter, regulator, and target, 47– 51

neurotransmitters, experience, and behavior, 48–49

Breast cancer screening, 119–120

British Regional Heart Study, 155

Buffering, positive social relations providing, 146

C

Calcium intake, 100–101

Canadian Ministry of Health, 243

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Cancer, 99–100

addressing psychosocial risk factors for, 195–196

depression linked with, 66

diet linked with, 100

sexually transmitted infections and, 110

Cancer screening

breast, 119–120

cervical, 117

colorectal, 117–118

prostate, 118–119

Cannon, Walter, 40

Capital. See Social capital

Capitated financing, for managed-care organizations, 303

Cardiac arrhythmia, 276

Cardiovascular disease, 98–99

cardiovascular health and, 61–67

effect of social isolation on risk of, 24

produced by chronic social stress, 62

stress and cardiovascular function in, 61–63

Caregivers

interventions for, 219–220

of relatives with progressive dementia, 7

CATCH. See Child and Adolescent Trial of Cardiovascular Health

Catecholamines, 44

CBA. See Cost/benefit analysis

CD4 cells, 148

CEA. See Cost-effectiveness analysis

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 256

Cervical cancer screening, 117

Change

assumptions about, 253

behavioral, 333–335

organizational, 242–243

theories of, 252–254

Chemical work hazards, 12

Child and Adolescent Trial of Cardiovascular Health (CATCH), 208

Children, stress in, 68–70

Children with chronic disease, 212–218

family therapy for, 217–218

interventions affecting family relationship quality and functioning, 215–217

psychoeducational interventions for, 212–215

Cholesterol screening, 116

CHPGP. See Community Health Promotion Grant Program

Chronic disease, 10

interventions for adults and elderly, 218–219

interventions for children and adolescents, 212–218

Chronic social stress, cardiovascular disease produced by, 62

Cigarette-smoking

early data on, 19

measuring the public health burden of, 88–89

primary prevention of, 91–92

Civic association membership, density of, 164

Classic conditioning, 184–186

Clinical interventions, 192–200, 335–338

addressing behavioral risk factors, 197– 200

addressing psychosocial risk factors, 194–197

adherence in, 192–194

cost-effectiveness of, 337

evaluating, 279–281, 337–338

on individuals, 192–200

need for research on practice, 200

in tobacco use, 335–338

Clinical research findings, presentation to consumers, 297–298

Cognitive social learning model, 186–187

Cognitive theory, 187

Cohesion. See Social cohesion

“Collective efficacy,” 165

Colorectal cancer screening, 117–118

Committee on Health and Behavior, 2, 20, 27

report organization, 33

task statement of, 27–31

underlying assumptions of, 27

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Communicating risk information, to consumers , 294–297

Communities and health, 13–14, 250–254

community-level constructs, 252

geography versus identity and action, 252

interventions for, 13–14, 241–273

Communities of identity, 251

Community-based group dissemination, 304–307

community and organizational readiness for, 305–306

of effective community interventions, 304–305

of interventions in tobacco use, 338–339

research on, 306–307

Community-based participatory research, 285–288

Community Health Promotion Grant Program (CHPGP), 204

Community Intervention Trial (COMMIT) for Smoking Cessation, 203, 205, 308

Community-level interventions, 13–14, 254–258

concurrent, 17, 348–349

East Side Village Health Worker Partnership, 256–257

evaluating, 282–283

lessons from community change interventions, 257–258

Tenderloin Senior Organizing Project, 255–256

theories of change for, 252–254

Community socioeconomic standing,

effects on mortality and morbidity, 8

Community-wide trials, 201–205

large-scale studies, 201–203

small-scale studies, 203–204

Conceptualization of SES, 143–145

general susceptibility versus disease specificity, 144

reverse causation and social selection, 145

Concurrent interventions at multiple levels, individual, family, community, and society, 17, 348– 349

Conditioning, 184–186

Constraints on health, governmental and societal, 260

Constructs, community-level, 252

Consumer dissemination, 294–300

for communicating risk information, 294–297

for presentation of clinical research findings, 297–298

for shared decision making, 298–300

Continuous-improvement models, 199

Coping

facilitated by optimism, 59

with long-term effects of stress, 24, 58– 60

psychosocial aspects of, 31, 333

Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, 162

Coronary heart disease

addressing psychosocial risk factors for, 196–197

hostility linked to, 5

Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (CPPT), 297

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 48–49

Cost/benefit analysis (CBA), 293

Cost-effectiveness, 337

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), 291– 293

Counseling, promoting primary prevention measures, 9

CPPT. See Coronary Primary Prevention Trial

CRH. See Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Current Concepts of Positive Mental Health, 23

Cytokines, pleiotropy of, 55

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

D

Decision making, shared with consumers, 298–300

“Demand/control” model, 152

Dementia, caregivers of relatives with, 7, 220

Depression, 66–67

associated with susceptibility to diseases, 4–5

linked with cancer, 66

“subsyndromal,” 22

Deprivation, relative, 160–161

Determinants of health, model of, 25–26

Developmental links, 68–70

Diabetes mellitus, addressing psychosocial risk factors for, 194–195

Diagnostic thresholds, changing, 3

Diet, 92–102

and adult weight gain, 96–97

early data on, 19

prevalence and trends, 93–95

weight and disease, 97–102

Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 97

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 103

Direct political power, versus relative, 163

Discrimination, social inequalities of, 161– 163

Disease.

See also individual disease conditions

Disease factors.

See also Transmission associated with susceptibility, 4

biobehavioral, 39–86

in cardiovascular health and disease, behavioral, 64–67

psychosocial, 64–67

Disease management, families and, 210–211

Disease screening practices, 113–121

breast cancer screening, 119–120

cervical cancer screening, 117

colorectal cancer screening, 117–118

primary versus secondary prevention, 114–115

prostate cancer screening, 118–119

screening for hypertension and high blood cholesterol, 115–116

screening for sexually transmitted diseases, 120–121

Disproportionate affliction, of sexually transmitted infections, 110–112

Dissemination, 274–327

to community-based groups, 304–307

to consumers, 294–300

through interorganizational linkages, 307–309

through organizations, 301–304

Distribution, of medical care, 141

Drinking, 102–107

linked with smoking, 6

negative health effects, 103–104

positive health effects, 104–105

quantifying net public health benefit, 105–107

socioeconomic factors in, 102–103

DSM-IV, 22

E

East Side Village Health Worker Partnership (ESVHWP), 256–257

Ecological approach, to healthy behavior research, 28–29

Economic adversity, relational strengths protecting against, 7

Educational interventions, 195

promoting primary prevention measures, 9

Effective clinical interventions, 280–281

Effective community interventions,

disseminating to community-based groups, 304–305

Effectiveness, intervention studies

including measures determining, 17, 349

Elderly with chronic disease, interventions for, 218–219

Electronic medication monitors, 193

Emotions, writing about, 60

Employee health behaviors.

See also Job-related risk factors;

Worksite trials changing, 244–245

Endocrine effects, on the immune system, 53

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Engineering strategies, 246

Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) trials, 197

Environmental risk factors, 245–249

Environments

constraining individual health choices, 7

toxic, 141

Ergonomic work hazards, 12

ESVHWP. See East Side Village Health Worker Partnership

Evaluating clinical interventions, 279– 281, 337–338

for efficacy and effectiveness, 280–281

evidence-based medicine, 279–280

Evaluating intervention research, 274–327

cost-effectiveness evaluation, 291–293

disseminating, 294–309

Evaluating interventions, 275–291

clinical, 279–281

community-level, 282–289

governmental, 290–291, 343–345

outcomes of, 275–278

Evaluation design, 284

Evaluation models, 309

Evidence-based medicine, 279–280

Evidence hierarchies, 279

Excise taxes, 343

Extinction, versus original learning, 185– 186

F

Families and health, 11–12, 209–211

families and disease management, 210– 211

family and behavioral risk factors, 211

health-related interventions for, 11–12, 183–240

models and interventions, 183–240

models of behavior change, 183–191

Family interaction interventions, 211–221

for adults and elderly with chronic disease, 218–219

for caregivers, 219–220

for children and adolescents with chronic disease, 212–218

concurrent, 17, 348–349

family therapy, 217–218

relationship quality and functioning, 215–217

Family intervention studies, lessons from, 220–221

Fecal occult blood test (FOBT), 117–118

“Fight or flight,” 40

Findings and recommendations, 16–18, 348–350

application of research results, 347

behavior change, 333–335

for concurrent interventions at multiple levels, 17, 348–349

for funding supporting long-duration efforts, 16, 348

interactions among risk factors, 331– 333

for interdisciplinary research, 16, 348

intervention in tobacco use, 335–347

for intervention studies, 16, 17, 348, 349

for program planners and policy makers, 17–18, 349–350

for resource allocation to health promotion and disease prevention, 17, 349

5-A-Day Campaign, 261

Flexible sigmoidoscopy, 117–118

FOBT. See Fecal occult blood test

Food, affordability of, 259

“Force field analysis,” 243

FORECAST model, 309

Funding supporting long-duration efforts,

for behavioral and psychosocial

interventions, 16, 348

G

Gender, and long-term effects of stress, 60

General Social Surveys, 164

Geography, versus identity and action, 252

Gini coefficient, 158–159

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Government interventions, assessing, 290–291

Government level anti-tobacco interventions, 339–345

evaluation studies, 343–345

media campaigns, 340–342

tobacco taxes, 343

Governmental constraints on health, 260

Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 114

H

HBM. See Health belief model

Health

biological, behavioral, and social factors affecting, 37–178

definition of, 3, 21–25, 27

measurement of, 21–25

model of determinants of, 25–26

Health and Behavior: Frontiers of Research in the Biobehavioral Sciences (1982 report), 19–20, 331

updating, 27

Health behaviors, changing employee, 244–245

Health belief model (HBM), 187–188

Health Care Financing Administration, 291

Health care systems, resource allocation to health promotion and disease prevention by, 17, 349

Health communication campaigns, 261–262

Health-enhancing behaviors, promoting with positive social relations, 147

Health-related interventions, 8–15, 179–327

for communities, 13–14, 241–273

evaluating and disseminating intervention research on, 274–327

for families, 11–12, 183–240

for individuals, 9–11, 183–240

for organizations, 12–13, 241–273

for society, 14–15, 241–273

Health targets, 260–261

Healthy behavior research

ecological approach to, 28–29

program planners and policy makers modifying societal conditions to enable, 17–18, 349–350

Healthy diet, linked with physical activity, 6

Healthy People, 19, 260, 331

Healthy People 2000, 261

Healthy People 2010, 261

Heart Partners program, 308

Hemoglobin A1C, 216–217

High blood cholesterol, screening for, 115–116

HIV

importance of behavior to health, 20

psychological states associated with, 20

Homeostasis, 40

Hope, 67

a component of psychological well-being, 5

Hostility, 64–65

associated with susceptibility to diseases, 4

linked to coronary heart disease, 5

HPA axis, 48–49, 52–53, 63

HSPP. See Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project

Human capital, underinvestment in, 160

Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP), 207, 339, 346

Hypertension, 219

screening for, 115–116

I

Identity. See Communities of identity

Immune system, 44

effects on the nervous system, 53–55

function in health and disease, 51–57

integrated with other physiological systems, 4

neural and endocrine effects on, 53

stress and function of, 55–57

Immunity, neuroendocrine regulation of, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Improving Prevention through Organization, Vision, and Empowerment (IMPROVE) trials, 199

Individual interventions, 183–240

clinical, 192–200

lessons from behavioral studies of, 209

models and, 183–240

population-based, 200–208

Individuals

concurrent interventions for, 17, 348– 349

environments constraining health choices of, 7

families and health, 209–211

models of behavior change for, 183–191

Inequalities, 157–165

in people and places, 157–161

in race, and discrimination, 161–163

in social cohesion and social capital, 163–165

Inflammatory responses, effect on nervous system, 53–55

Innovations, relative advantage of, 305– 306

Interactions, among risk factors, 331–333

Interdisciplinary research, into integrating biological, psychological, behavioral, and social variables, 16, 348

Interorganizational linkages, 307–309

Interpersonal trust, level of, 164

Intersections, of health and behavior, 25– 27

Intervention case study on tobacco, 15, 335–347

clinical intervention, 335–338

community-based intervention, 338– 339

government level intervention, 339– 345

practical solutions, 345–347

Intervention research, 274–327

behavioral, lessons from, 209

cost-effectiveness evaluation of, 291– 293

dissemination of, 294–309

including measures determining effectiveness, 17, 349

into modifying social and psychological factors, 16, 348

Interventions, 8–15

in chronic disease, 212–219

educational, 195

evaluating, 275–291

legal, 290–291

psychosocial, 195–196

targeted at family interactions, 211–221

targeted at individuals, 191–209

targeted at organizations, 243–250

Isolation. See Social isolation

J

Job-related risk factors, 152–153, 156

job strain, 152–153

threat of job loss, 156

Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, 115

K

Kaiser Family Foundation, 204

L

Learning, original, versus extinction, 185– 186

Learning and conditioning model, 184– 186

Legal interventions, 290–291

Life expectancy, 61

Life Skills Training (LST) program, 207

Life stress, 51

Lifespan and lifecourse development, 32

Lifestyle Heart Trial, 192

Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trials, 192

Long-term effects of stress, early development influence on, 46–47

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Long-term resources, establishing and maintaining, through positive social relations, 149

LST. See Life Skills Training program

M

Maintaining behavior change, 334–335

Managed-care organization, 303

Management. See Disease management

Marital discord, health and immunity effects of, 56

Material conditions, 141

distribution of medical care, 141

toxic physical environments, 141

Measurement of health, 21–25

positive health concept, 23–25

time dimension of, 23

Measurement of SES, 143–145

general susceptibility versus disease specificity, 144

reverse causation and social selection, 145

Media campaigns, government level anti-tobacco interventions, 340–342

Medical care, distribution of, 141

Medical practices, dissemination through, 303–304

Medication regimens, nonadherence to, 19, 333

Memory modulation, arousal and, 49–51

Memory processes, 50

Minnesota Heart Health Program (MHHP), 201–202, 208

Models of behavior change, 183–191

cognitive social learning, 186–187

health belief model, 187–188

learning and conditioning, 184–186

social action theory, 190

stages-of-change model/ transtheoretical model, 188–190

theory of reasoned action, 188

Models of determinants of health, 25–26

Models of health-related interventions for individuals and families, 183–240

for organizations, communities, and society, 241–273

Models of planned change, 243

Modulation, of memory with arousal, 49–51

Morbidity data, 21

Mortality data, 21

MRFIT. See Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial

Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, 193

Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT), 139, 143, 191–192

Musculoskeletal health, 100–102

Myocardial infarction, vital exhaustion a predictor of, 65

N

National Cancer Institute (NCI), 117, 203, 261, 275, 302, 308, 339

National Health and Nutrition Examination Study, 70

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 202, 275

National Institute for Dental Research (NIDR) , 307

National Institutes of Health, 27

National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS), 139

National Opinion Research Center, 164

National Surveys of Worksite Health Promotion Activities, 205

Natural killer-cell cytotoxicity (NKCC), 57

Negative health effects, of alcohol consumption, 103–104

Negative social relations, 149–151

adverse interactions, 150–151

isolation, 149–150

Nervous system, effects of inflammatory and immune responses on, 53–55

Neural effects, on the immune system, 53

Neurobiology, advances in, 48

Neuroendocrine regulation, of immunity, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Neuroendocrine responses, 42

Neurotransmitters, experience and behavior, 48–49

NHLBI. See National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

NIDR. See National Institute for Dental Research

NKCC. See Natural killer-cell cytotoxicity

NLMS. See National Longitudinal Mortality Study

NNH. See Number needed to harm

NNT. See Number needed to treat

North Karelia Project, 201

Number needed to harm (NNH), calculating, 298

Number needed to treat (NNT), calculating, 297–298

Nurses Cohort Study, 98

O

Obesity, 92–102

adult weight gain, 96–97

defining, 22, 93–94

prevalence and trends, 93–95

socioeconomic factors in, 95–96

weight and disease, 97–102

Objectives for the Nation, 260

Observability, of innovations, 306

Occupational risk factors, 151–157

job strain, 152–153

retirement, 156–157

threatened job loss, 156

unemployment, 153–156

Occupational safety and health (OSH) programs, 12, 245–246

OD. See Organizational development

Operant-conditioning theory, 184–187

Optimism

a component of psychological well-being, 5

coping facilitated by, 59

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 156

Organizational change interventions, potential targets for, 247

Organizational development (OD), 242–243

Organizational dissemination, 301–304

through medical practices, 303–304

through schools, 301–302

Organizational interventions, 12–13, 241–273

changing employee health behaviors, 244–245

communities and health, 250–254

community-level interventions, 254–258

lessons from, 250

organizations and health, 241–243

reducing environmental risk factors, 245–249

society and health, 258–260

society-level interventions, 260–264

Organizational readiness, in disseminations to community-based groups, 305–306

Organizations and health, 241–243

organizational culture, 242–243

planned-change models, 243

Original learning, versus extinction, 185–186

Osteoarthritis, 101

Outcome measurement, 275–278

choice of measures, 275–276

Outcomes assessment, 22

Overweight. See Obesity

P

Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine, 278

Pap smear, 117

PAR. See Participatory action research PARR. See Physical Activity for Risk Reduction Project

Participatory action research (PAR), 249

Pawtucket Heart Health Program (PHHP), 201–202

People, social inequalities of, 157–161

Pessimistic thinking, 5

PHHP. See Pawtucket Heart Health Program

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Physical activity, 92–102

and adult weight gain, 96–97

linked with healthy diet, 6

prevalence and trends, 93–95

weight and disease, 97–102

Physical Activity for Risk Reduction (PARR) Project, 204

Physical environments, toxic, 141

Physical morbidity, from unemployment, 155

Physical work hazards, 12

Physiological processes, altering with positive social relations, 147–149

Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 157

Place, social inequalities of, 157–161

Planned-change models, 243

Pleiotropy, of cytokines, 55

Policy makers, modifying societal conditions to enable healthy behavior and social relationships, 17–18, 349–350

Population-based interventions, 200–208

community-wide trials, 201–205

by individual, 200–208

school trials, 206–208

worksite trials, 205–206

Positive health, 3, 23–25

components of, 23

difficulty assessing, 24

Positive health effects, of alcohol consumption, 104–105

Positive social interactions, 146–149

altering physiological processes, 147–149

buffering, 146

establishing and maintaining long-term resources, 149

promoting health-enhancing behaviors, 147

Postintervention assessment, 217

PPIP. See Put Prevention Into Practice program

Practice in clinical interventions, need for research on, 200

Preintervention assessment, 217

Prenatal stress, handling, 46

Prevalence

of obesity, 93–95

of sexually transmitted infections, 108

Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People, 92

Prevention

of cigarette-smoking, primary, 91–92

primary versus secondary, 114–115

of sexually transmitted infections, 112–113

Primary prevention, versus secondary, 114–115

Produce for Better Health Foundation, 261

Producing behavior change, 333–334

Program planners, modifying societal conditions to enable healthy behavior and social relationships, 17–18, 349–350

Prostate cancer screening, 118–119

Psychoeducational interventions, 212–215

Psychological factors, intervention studies into modifying, 16, 348

Psychological variables, interdisciplinary research into integrating, 16, 348

Psychological well-being, hope and optimism as components of, 5

Psychoneuroimmunology, 20

Psychosocial aspects of coping, 31

Psychosocial disease factors

anger, 65

anxiety, worry, and hope, 67

in cardiovascular health and disease, 64–67

depression, 66–67

hostility, 64–65

vital exhaustion, 65–66

Psychosocial interventions, 195–196

funding supporting long-duration efforts for, 16, 348

Psychosocial risk factors, 142–143, 194–197

for cancer, 195–196

for coronary disease, 196–197

for diabetes mellitus, 194–195

psychosocial context, 142

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

relationship to health-related behaviors and biological risk factors, 143

Psychosocial work hazards, 12–13

Public health

burden of cigarette-smoking, measuring, 88–89

national concern about consequences of tobacco use, 20

quantifying net benefit of alcohol consumption, 105–107

Public health interventions, 14

Public health systems, resource allocation to health promotion and disease prevention by, 17, 349

Purpose in life, having a sense of, 24

Put Prevention Into Practice (PPIP) program, 304

Q

QALY. See Quality-adjusted life year

Quality-adjusted life year (QALY), measuring by, 276–278, 293, 337

Quantifying net public health benefit, of alcohol consumption, 105–107

R

Race, social inequalities of, 161–163

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 279– 282

RCTs. See Randomized clinical trials

Readiness for dissemination, with community-based groups, 305–306

Reasoned action, theory of, 188

Recommendations. See Findings and recommendations

Regulatory approaches, 262

Relapse rates, 193

Relational strengths, protecting against economic adversity, 7

Relative advantage, of innovations, 305–306

Relative political power, versus direct, 163

Relaxation training, 197

Religious belief, 165–166

Research evidence hierarchy, 279

Research findings.

See also Studies

presentation to consumers, 297–298

Resilience, 31

differential, 5

and long-term effects of stress, 57–58

Resource allocation to health promotion and disease prevention, by public health and health care systems, 17, 349

Retirement, 156–157

Reverse causation, in the

conceptualization and measurement of SES, 145

Risk factors, 3–8

behavioral, 5–6, 87–137, 197–200

biobehavioral, 4–5

environmental, 245–249

interactions among, 331–333

job-related, 152–153, 156

psychosocial, 142–143, 194–197

social, 6–8, 138–178

Risk information, communicating to consumers, 294–297

Risk ratio information, communicating, 297

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 27

Robin Hood index, 159

S

Schools

dissemination through, 11, 301–302

trials in, 206–208

Screening. See Disease screening practices

Second-hand smoke, consequences of, 90

Secondary prevention, versus primary, 114–115

Sedentary lifestyles, 96

early data on, 19

“Self,” distinguishing from “nonself,” 52

Self-control, 27

Self-regard, having high, 25

Self-regulation, 186–187

Selye, Hans, 40

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Serotonin system, 48–49

SES. See Socioeconomic status

Sexual practices, 107–113

contributing factors that affect transmission, 108–110

Sexually transmitted diseases

and cancer, 110

disproportionate affliction of, 110–112

prevalence of, 108

prevention of, 112–113

screening for, 120–121

SFCP. See Stanford Five City Project

Shared decision making, involving consumers, 298–300

Sigmoidoscopy, 117–118

Smoking, 26, 87–92

benefits of ceasing, 92

consequences of second-hand smoke, 90

factors associated with, 5, 258

linked with drinking, 6

major related diseases, 89–90

measuring the public health burden of, 88–89

primary prevention of, 91–92

socioeconomic factors in, 90–91

SMR. See Standard mortality ratio

Social-Action Theory, 190–191

Social capital, social cohesion and, 163–165

Social Cognitive-Learning Theory, 190

Social cohesion

erosion of, 160

and social capital, 163–165

Social factors affecting health, 14–15, 27, 37–178

intervention studies into modifying, 16, 348

occupational factors, 151–157

religious belief, 165–166

social inequalities, 157–165

social networks and social support, 145–151

and socioeconomic status, 139–145

Social inequalities, 157–165

in people and places, 157–161

in race, and discrimination, 161–163

in social cohesion and social capital, 163–165

Social influences, on long-term effects of stress, 60–61

Social interactions

adverse, 150–151

positive, 146–149

Social isolation, 149–150

effect on risk of cardiovascular disease, 24

Social Learning Theory, 187

Social networks and social support, 7–8, 145–151

negative social relations, 149–151

positive social relations, 146–149

Social patterning, 6

Social relationships

high quality, 23–24

program planners and policy makers modifying societal conditions to enable improved, 17–18, 349–350

Social risk factors, 6–8, 138–178

large scale studies of, 19

Social selection, in the conceptualization and measurement of SES, 145

Social stress, cardiovascular disease produced by chronic, 62

Social variables, interdisciplinary research into integrating, 16, 348

Societal conditions, program planners and policy makers modifying, 17–18, 349–350

Societal constraints on health, 260

Society and health, 258–260

governmental and societal constraints on health, 260

and health-related interventions, 14–15, 241–273

Society-level interventions, 260–264

addressing socioeconomic status and health, 262–264

concurrent, 17, 348–349

health communication campaigns, 261–262

health targets, 260–261

regulatory approaches, 262

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

Socioeconomic status (SES), 139–145, 332

and alcohol consumption, 102–103

conceptualization and measurement of, 143–145

and health, 262–264

material conditions affecting, 141

and obesity, 95–96

psychosocial risk factors from, 142–143

and smoking, 90–91

Stages-of-Change Model, 188–190

Standard mortality ratio (SMR), 153–154

Stanford Five City Project (SFCP), 201–202

Stanford Three Community Study, 201–202

Stress factors, 31, 40–47, 57–61

allostasis and allostatic load, 41–42

and cardiovascular function, 61–63

coping with, 58–60

early development influence on long-term effects of, 46–47

gender, 60

and immune system function, 55–57

and resilience, 57–58

social influences, 60–61

Stress in children, 68–70

Stress management, 197

Stress mediators, protective and damaging effects of, 42–46

Stress response, 40–41

and development of allostatic load, 43

Studies

boundaries of present, 31–33

disseminating to community-based groups, 306–307

generalizing current, 2

of health-related interventions, 274–327

large-scale, 201–203

small-scale, 203–204

Substance abuse, 31

early data on, 19

Susceptibility to diseases

anger associated with, 4

depression associated with, 4

general, versus disease specificity, 144

hostility associated with, 4

vital exhaustion associated with, 4

Symptoms, varieties of, 22–23

Systems theory, 242

T

T cells, 57

Taxes, on tobacco, 343

Technology Assessment Panel, 334

Telephone tracking, 218, 303

Tenderloin Senior Organizing Project (TSOP), 255–256

Theories of change, for community-level interventions, 252–254

“Theory-based evaluation,” 254

Theory of Reasoned Action, 188

Thresholds, changing diagnostic, 3

Time dimension of health, 23

Tobacco Institute, 344

Tobacco taxes, 343

Tobacco use, 87–92

benefits of smoking cessation, 92

consequences of second-hand smoke, 90

major smoking-related diseases, 89–90

measuring the public health burden of cigarette-smoking, 88–89

national concern about public health consequences of, 20

primary prevention of cigarette-smoking, 91–92

socioeconomic factors in, 90–91

Toxic physical environments, 141

Transmission, sexual practices that affect, 108–110

Transtheoretical Model, 188–190

Trends in obesity, 93–95

Trialability, of innovations, 306

TSOP. See Tenderloin Senior Organizing Project

Tuberculosis, multi-drug-resistant, 193

Type A behavior, 64

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
×

U

Unemployment, 153–156

biological and behavioral risk factors from, 155–156

physical morbidity from, 155

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 205

U.S. Epidemiologic Catchment Area, 156

U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study, 154

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 113, 115, 117–120, 304

U.S. Public Health Service, 113, 346

V

Village Health Workers (VHWs), 257

Vital exhaustion, 65–66

associated with susceptibility to diseases, 4

predictor of myocardial infarction, 65

W

Weight and disease, 6, 97–102.

See also Obesity

cancer, 99–100

cardiovascular disease, 98–99

musculoskeletal health, 100–102

Well-being

measures of, 22

psychological, hope and optimism as components of, 5

WHO. See World Health Organization

WHP. See Working Healthy Project

Willpower, 27

Working Healthy Project (WHP), 206

Working Well trial, 205–206

Worksite trials, 205–206

World Health Organization (WHO), 21, 88, 261, 263

Worry, 67

Writing about emotions, 60

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9838.
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Health and Behavior reviews our improved understanding of the complex interplay among biological, psychological, and social influences and explores findings suggested by recent research—including interventions at multiple levels that we can employ to improve human health.

The book covers three main areas:

  • What do biological, behavioral, and social sciences contribute to our understanding of health—including cardiovascular, immune system and brain functioning, behaviors that influence health, the role of social networks and socioeconomic status, and more.
  • What can we learn from applied research on interventions to improve the health of individuals, families, communities, organizations, and larger populations?
  • How can we expeditiously translate research findings into application?
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