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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

References

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

CHAPTER 2

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×

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CHAPTER 3

Allen, B., and A.W.Boykin 1992 African American children and the educational process: Alleviating cultural discontinuity through prescriptive pedagogy. School Psychology Review 21(4):586–596.

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CHAPTER 4

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CHAPTER 7

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1995b Technology’s Role in Education Reform: Findings from a National Study of Innovating Schools. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

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Pea, R.D., L.M.Gomez, D.C.Edelson, B.J.Fishman, D.N.Gordin, and D.K.O’Neill 1997 Science education as a driver of cyberspace technology development. Pp. 189–220 in Internet Links for Science Education: Student-Scientist Partnerships, K.C.Cohen, ed. New York: Plenum.

Pea, R.D., and D.M.Kurland 1987 Cognitive technologies for writing development. Pp. 71–120 in Review of Research in Education, Vol. 14. Washington, DC: AERA Press.

Pellegrino, J.W., D.Hickey, A.Heath, K.Rewey, N.J.Vye, and the Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt 1991 Assessing the Outcome of an Innovative Instructional Program: The 1990– 91 Implementation of the “Adventures of Jasper Woodbury.” Technology Report No. 91–1. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Learning Technology Center.

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Scardamalia, M., and C.Bereiter 1991 Higher levels of agency for children in knowledge-building: A challenge for the design of new knowledge media. Journal of the Learning Sciences 1:37–68.

1993 Technologies for knowledge-building discourse. Communications of the ACM 36(5):37–41.

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Thornton, R.K., and D.R.Sokoloff 1998 Assessing student learning of Newton’s laws: The force and motion conceptual evaluation and the evaluation of active learning laboratory and lecture curricula. American Journal of Physics 64:338–352.

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Vye, N.J., D.L.Schwartz, J.D.Bransford, B.J.Barron, L.Zech, and Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt 1998 SMART environments that support monitoring, reflection, and revision. In Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice, D.Hacker, J.Dunlosky, and A.Graesser, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


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×

1998 Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction 16(1):3–118.

CHAPTER 11

Elmore, R.F. 1995 Getting to Scale with Successful Education Practices: Four Principles and Some Recommended Actions. Paper commissioned by the Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination, U.S. Department of Education.

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Goldman, A.I. 1994 Argument and social epistemology. Journal of Philosophy 91:27–49.


Habermas, J. 1990 Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Judd, C.H. 1908 The relation of special training to general intelligence. Education Review 36:28–42.


Kobayashi, Y. 1994 Conceptual acquisition and change through social interaction. Human Development 37:233–241.

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Moshman, D. 1995a Reasoning as self-constrained thinking. Human Development 38:53–64.

1995b The construction of moral rationality. Human Development 38:265–281.


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×

Pea, R.D. 1999 New media communication forums for improving education research and practice. In Issues in Education Research: Problems and Possibilities, E.G. Lagemann and L.S.Shulman, eds. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.


Salmon, M.H., and C.M.Zeitz 1995 Analyzing conversational reasoning. Informal Logic 17:1–23.

Stokes, D.E. 1997 Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.


Vye, N.J.., S.R.Goldman, C.Hmelo, J.F.Voss, S.Williams, and Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt 1998 Complex mathematical problem solving by individuals and dyads. Cognition and Instruction 15(4).


Youniss, J., and W.Damon. 1992 Social construction in Piaget’s theory. Pp. 267–286 in Piaget’s Theory: Prospects and Possibilities, H.Berlin and P.B.Pufal, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning.

Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb.

How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system.

Topics include:

  • How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain.
  • How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn.
  • What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach.
  • The amazing learning potential of infants.
  • The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace.
  • Learning needs and opportunities for teachers.
  • A realistic look at the role of technology in education.
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