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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

Index

A

Abstract reasoning, 74, 78, 89

Accountability, 20, 271–272

Action research, 191, 199–200, 257

Active learning, 10, 12–13, 80, 182, 218

Adaptive expertise, 45–46, 50, 51, 73, 133, 140, 233

Administrators, schools, 243, 248, 251, 252, 259, 265, 266

Adult learning, 26–27.

See also Teacher learning

African Americans, 72, 73, 109, 110, 135

Algebra, 58, 63, 65, 137–138, 198, 213–214, 225

Alice in Wonderland/Through the Looking Glass books, 105–107

American Association of Physics Teachers, 191

Analogical reasoning, 62, 64, 65–66, 110

Annenberg Critical Friends Project, 197–198

Apprenticeship learning, 109, 191, 214, 220– 221

Assessments, 233, 244–245.

See also Methodologies, learning assessment;

Self-assessment

accountability, 20, 271–272

alternative, 192

conditionalized knowledge and, 43

content-process framework, 143–144

cultural sensitivity in, 72, 110–111, 146

with feedback, 19, 43, 140–141, 154

formative, 19, 24–25, 140–141, 142, 152, 154, 167, 217, 219, 257–258, 268, 277

grading practices, 146

of initial learning, 55, 56, 57

learning environments centered on, 139– 144, 154, 188, 196–197

learning goals and, 18–19

memorization focus, 9, 140, 141, 152, 189, 245

multiple-choice tests, 140

portfolio, 142, 220

principles, 139–140

research recommendations, 251, 254–257, 258–259, 261–263

science education, 143–144, 277

standardized tests, 21, 132, 140, 141, 150, 189, 210–211, 220, 271–272

state education standards, 271

of strategic competence, 97

summative, 140, 141, 154, 189

teacher training, 27, 197–198, 246–247, 264–266, 267–268

certification programs, 197, 272–273

theoretical frameworks, 142–144

of understanding, formats for, 56, 141, 142, 143

uses, 140

Astrocytes, 119, 126

Automaticity of skills, 139

Axons, 116

B

Bank Street College, 208, 227

Bay Area and National Writing Project, 195, 197

Behaviorism, 6–8

Beliefs, teachers, 48, 72, 73, 158, 159, 160– 161, 164, 170, 171, 195, 199, 203

Belvedere system, 214

Biological causality, 4, 88–89, 90, 112, 233

Biology, 68, 70–71, 174–177, 184–186, 187, 193, 216, 227, 233

Brain development, 235

basics, 116–117

blood vessel formation, 118–120, 126

environments for learning and, 119

exercise and, 117–119, 120

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

experiences and, 117–119, 120, 121, 124– 125, 126–127, 233

functional organization, 120–121, 122–123, 126

instruction and, 121–123

language and, 121–124, 127

learning and, 4, 114–115, 119–121

misconceptions about, 114

neural activity and, 119–120, 127, 276

plasticity, 123, 233, 276

social interaction and, 119, 126

synaptic connections, 116–118, 119–120, 122, 126

timetable for, 121–122, 126–127

Brain processes

memory and, 124–126

silent areas, 114

Breadloaf Writing Project, 198

BreadNet, 198

Bridging strategy, 179, 180, 187

Bruer, John, 127

Bush, Vannevar, 213

C

Calculus, 66

Case-based learning, 62, 77

Cat learning, 6–8

Causality

biological, 4, 88–89, 90, 112

physical, 84–88

Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project, 222

Chèche Konnen approach, 183–184, 187, 241

Chess, 32, 34–36, 43, 56

Chicago Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science, 195

Children’s learning, 234–235.

See also Infant cognition

biological causality, 4, 88–89, 90, 112, 233

caregiver-child interactions, 103–104, 112– 113

children’s conceptions of intelligence and, 82, 101–102

choosing strategies, 99–101

community environments, 82, 111, 113

conversational, 109–110

cultural factors, 23, 108–111, 113, 233, 276

eavesdropping, 109–110

guided learning, 102–111

inquiry-based, 107, 110–111

language, 4, 91–95, 102, 109, 112, 121

mathematics, 4, 12, 69, 71, 91, 92, 112, 137–138, 196

memory capacity and, 18, 58, 95–96

metacognition, 18–19, 21, 47, 82, 97–98

motivation, 61, 77, 101–102, 112

multiple intelligences and, 82, 101

multiple-strategy usage, 98–101

non-self-directed, 102

number concepts, 4, 91, 92, 112

observational, 109

physical concepts, 87–88, 102, 112

preconceptions, 10–12, 14–16, 19–20, 24, 70–71, 136, 153, 218, 236–237, 255, 261–262, 263

prior knowledge, 10–11, 14, 53, 54–55, 68–73, 78, 233

privileged-domain competencies, 81–82, 84–95, 102, 112

processing time, 58

reading, 105–108

reasoning complexity, 99, 138, 153

science, 138, 183–186

self-directed, 102

story-telling, 108

strategic competence, 82, 95, 96–98, 112

television and, 26, 82, 150

tool use, 87–88

Chunking/clustering technique, 32–33, 38, 52, 96–97

Classroom Action Research Network, 199

Classrooms

communications technology for, 182, 219, 247

community connections, 25–26, 207–208, 224–226, 246

competitiveness of students, 146

environments for learning, 23–24, 144– 147, 154, 246, 247

Global Lab, 209

norms and expectations, 145–147, 188

research based in, 199–200, 248, 252–254, 255, 259

Classtalk, 182, 219

Coaching, 42, 68, 177–178, 180–182, 222–223

Cognitive

and motivational factors, 280

representations and strategies, 65, 144, 145, 243

science, 8, 234, 244–245, 276, 279

Cognitively Guided Instruction Project, 197

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

Collaborative learning, 279–280

action research, 199

computer technology and, 209, 212–213, 219, 221

scientist-student partnerships, 209, 217

students, 74, 108, 141, 152, 182, 192, 222– 223

teachers, 195, 197–199

Communication. See also Internet

cultural differences, 73, 108–111, 113

interactive, 207–208, 219, 262–263

mass media, 275–276

network, 220–221

research recommendations, 252, 253, 254, 262–263, 274, 282–283

Communities of learners, 100, 156–157, 168, 182, 199, 204

Communities of practice, 183–184, 197–198, 207–208, 209, 227–229, 243

Community learning environments

broad community connections, 61, 147– 149, 154, 224–226, 245–246, 274

children’s learning and, 82, 111, 112

classrooms, 25–26, 144–147, 154, 246

computer technology and, 82, 212–213, 224–226, 227–228

schools, 147, 154

student-scientist partnerships, 209

for teachers, 27, 197–199, 204, 227–229

Competence, 237–238.

See also Expert performance;

Strategic competence

zone of proximal development, 70–71, 72, 108

Competitiveness of students, 146

Comprehension-fostering activities, 107–108

Computational modeling research, 14

Computer language tasks, 53, 55, 60, 65

Computer programming experts, 33

Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments (CSILE), 219–220, 221, 227

Computer technology

classroom communications systems, 182, 247

classroom-community connections, 82, 207–208, 209, 224–226

curriculum innovations, 4, 21, 68, 207– 213, 262–263

feedback through, 178, 182, 216–224, 243, 258

games, 16

importance, 206–207, 229–230, 233, 243, 247

Internet, 27, 209, 220, 224–226, 227–228, 243, 270, 282

recommendations, 243–244, 247, 255–256, 257, 258, 262–263, 269, 270, 277, 284

scaffolds and scaffolding, 68, 213–216, 243

science of learning, databases, 278–279

teacher learning opportunities, 194, 195, 198, 226–229, 269

tools, 21, 68, 74, 207, 213–216, 243–244, 247, 257

tutoring environments, 178, 221–224, 225

Concepts

knowledge organized around, 9, 33, 36, 38, 42–44, 49, 181–182

representations of, 63, 65–66, 276

Conceptual change. See also Preconceptions

science, 179–180, 184–186, 187

understanding, 70–71

Conceptual learning, 14–15, 16–17, 20, 50, 165–166, 260–261

conceptual structures, 9, 33, 36, 38, 40, 42–44, 49, 59, 65–66, 87, 181–182

Conditionalized knowledge, 42–44, 49, 59–60, 62, 197

Consciousness studies, 6

Constructivism, 10–11, 192, 195, 199, 277

Content knowledge. See Subject-matter (discipline) knowledge

Content-process assessment framework, 143– 144

Context

and access to knowledge, 9, 42–44, 49, 77

and language development, 94–95

and transfer of learning, 53, 62–63, 64, 78, 185, 236

Contextualized reasoning, 74–75, 78

Contrasting-cases strategy, 60, 78

Conversational learning, 109–110, 220, 225– 226

Cooperative learning, 192

Counting, 71, 78, 83, 91, 92, 98–99, 100, 165– 166, 167, 169, 196

Cultural practices

children’s learning and, 23, 108–111, 113, 233, 276

classroom norms and, 146–147

communications, 73, 108–111, 113

enrollment demographics, 264

ethnography, 110–111

misinterpretation of, 151

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

school culture, 273–274

sensitivity of teachers to, 23, 133–134, 135–136, 153

transfer of learning and, 4, 71–83, 88, 109–111

Curricula

computer-based innovations, 4, 68, 207– 213, 262–263

design approaches, 43, 138–139, 153, 262–263

limitations of traditional approaches, 136– 137, 138, 139

metacognition, 21

multiple-intelligences basis, 101

with real-world contexts, 69, 74–76, 169, 171, 207–213

research recommendations, 251, 254–259, 260–263, 273–274

scaling-up, 273–274

scope and sequence charts, 138

D

Dade Academy of the Teaching Arts, 198

Dart-throwing experiments, 56

Dendritic fields, 116

Descriptive Review, 198

Developmental psychology, 24, 82–84, 91, 234, 244, 267, 279–280

Dewey, John, 75, 132, 147

Diagnostic teaching, 134–135

Diagraming by experts, 38

Discourse, classroom, 72, 135, 183, 187, 199, 204

Doctrine of formal discipline, 51

Dodgson, C.L. (Lewis Carroll), 105–107

E

Eavesdropping, 109–110

Education

goal changes, 4–5, 131–133

science of learning and, 4–5, 13–14

teacher preservice, 200–203, 204, 228, 229

Elaboration, 96

Entity theories, 102

Environments for learning, 4, 23–26, 233, 243–247, 273–274, 276

alignment of goals, 151–152, 154

assessment-centered, 139–144, 154, 188, 196–197

and brain development, 119

classrooms, 23–24, 144–147, 154, 246, 247

community-centered, 25–26, 144–149, 154, 188, 197–199, 245–246

educational goal changes, 131–133

family, 26, 103–104, 108–111, 112–113, 148–149, 153, 154, 245–246

interconnected components, 133, 134, 136, 138, 154

knowledge-centered, 24, 136–139, 153, 188, 194–195

language development and, 93–95

learner centered, 23–24, 133–136, 138, 153, 188, 192–194, 212–213, 233

for teachers, 4, 192–199

television, 26, 149–151

Ethnography, 110–111

Exercise, and brain development, 117–119, 120

Experiences

and brain development, 117–119, 120, 121, 124–125, 126–127, 233

prior, and transfer of learning, 53, 54–55, 68–73, 78

Expert performance, 237–238, 258, 261

adaptive, 45–48, 50, 51, 73, 133, 140, 233

content/subject matter knowledge and, 16–17, 24, 45, 50, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188

context and access to knowledge, 9, 42– 44, 49, 77

metacognition and, 18, 47–48, 50

organization of knowledge, 4, 16–17, 36– 42, 45, 48, 49, 50, 56, 125, 136, 139, 155, 233, 237–238, 239, 242

pattern recognition, 17, 32–36, 44, 48, 50, 56

principles of, 31, 36–38, 272

retrieval of knowledge, 32–33, 44, 49, 50, 56

segmentation of perceptual fields, 36

talent and, 58

teaching ability, 4, 33, 36, 37, 44–45, 46, 49–50, 155–157, 159–161, 188, 228–229, 241–242, 258

time investment for, 56, 58

Extracurricular clubs and organizations, 149

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

F

Family

internet linkages with schools, 224–225

learning environment, 26, 103–104, 108– 111, 112–113, 148–149, 153, 154, 245– 246, 274

popular version of study at hand, publication, of, 275–276

Feedback, 47

assessments with, 19, 24–25, 43, 140–141, 154

computer technology, 178, 182, 216–224, 243, 258

importance, 77–78, 243

interactive lectures, 180, 187, 219

peer, 19, 219–220, 222–223, 243, 279–280

teacher learning from, 196–197, 203, 268

tutoring environments, 177–178, 221

types of, 158, 160–161

Fish Is Fish, 10–11, 70, 136

Formative assessments, 19, 24–25, 140–141, 142, 152, 154, 167, 217, 219, 257–258, 268, 277

Functional magnetic resonance imaging, 115, 124, 125

G

GenScope Project, 216

Geographic information systems, 17, 215

Geometry, 12, 57, 138, 170, 224

Geometry Tutor, 224

Global Lab, 209, 220

Grading practices, 146

H

Hamlet, 46

Hawaiian children, 108, 135

Heuristic problem-solving strategy, 67–68

Hippocampus, 124

History, 132

curricula (existing), 136

dates-facts teaching method, 157, 158, 160–161

debating evidence, 161–163, 241

experts, 38, 41–42, 47, 158

interpreting events, 158

misconceptions about, 15

teachers’ differing views of, 158, 160–161

teaching, 157–164, 241

Holmes Group, 200

HumBio Project, 227

I

Ideal student initiative, 100

Impetus theory, 70

Incremental theories, 102

Infant cognition

active learning, 10

assessment methods, 79, 82–84

biological causality, 88

habituation paradigm, 83, 84, 85–86, 88, 91

language, 73, 81, 93, 105

memory, 83

non-nutritive sucking, 83

number concepts, 89, 91

physical concepts, 84–88

schema use, 87

social interactions and, 103

theories of, 79–82

transfer of learning, 87

visual expectation, 83, 87, 91

Inferencing processes, 124

Information processing theories, 80, 91, 95– 96

Information systems design, 45–46, 262–263

Initial learning. See also Preconceptions

assessment of, 55, 56, 57

elements that promote, 53, 55–61

memorization and, 55–56, 57

monitoring and feedback, 58–60

motivation and, 60–61

tests of, 66

time allowed for, 56, 58

and transfer of learning, 51, 53, 55–61, 66, 68, 77, 203

understanding and, 55–56, 57, 236

Inquiry-based instruction, 11–12, 16–17, 19, 21, 68, 107, 110–111, 156–157, 217

Institute for Research on Learning, 213

Instruction

abstract, 65–66

and brain development, 121–123

bridging strategy, 179, 180, 187

case-based, 62, 64

changes in methods, 132–133

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

coaching technique, 42, 68, 177–178, 180– 182, 222–223

cognitively guided, 102–111, 138, 197, 240

conceptual change strategies, 179–180

direct or lecture forms, 71

fluency development, 44

inquiry-based, 11–12, 68, 107, 110–111, 156–157, 217, 228–229

interactive, 179–180, 182, 187, 209, 216, 219

in large classes, 182, 219

metacognitive approaches, 12, 21, 57–68, 78, 140, 217

modeling, 67, 68, 185

pattern recognition, 44

problem-based, 62, 63, 64

progressive formalization, 137–138, 139

prompting technique, 66

research recommendations, 251, 254–256

scaffolding, 67, 68

strategic development and, 100–101

time, 58

video archives, 228–229

Instructional design, 21–22, 24, 42, 43, 138– 139, 153

Intelligence. See also Multiple intelligences

children’s conceptions of, 23, 82, 101–102

Internet, 27, 209, 220, 224–226, 227–228, 243, 270, 282

Inuits, 146

J

Japanese

classroom culture, 147

language development, 121–122

sushi experts, 45

Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series, 208, 209, 210–211, 216–217

K

Kamehameha School, 135

KEEP program, 108

Kids as Global Scientists research project, 226, 228

Knowing, theory of, 11

Knowledge, 252.

See also Organization of knowledge

access to, 9, 42–44, 49, 77

competence and, 16–17

conditionalized, 42–44, 49, 59–60, 62, 197

content. See Subject-matter (discipline) knowledge

cultural, 72

environments for learning, 24, 136–139, 153, 188, 194–195

expertise and, 4, 9, 16–17, 24, 36–44, 45, 48, 49, 125, 237–238

facets, 181–182

pedagogical content, 45

pre-existing, 10–12, 14, 69, 78, 233.

See also Preconceptions

representations, 65–66, 78, 276.

See also Schemas

retrieval fluency, 32–33, 44, 49

standardized tests, 21, 132, 140, 141, 150, 189, 210–211, 220, 271–272

teacher learning environments, 20, 27, 194–195, 198

Knowledge Forum, 219

L

Labeling, 104, 107

LabNet Project, 198, 227

Language development

and abstract thought, 79

adult-infant interactions, 73, 104

and brain development, 121–124, 127, 235

Chèche Konnen approach, 241

context and, 94–95

cultural differences in, 109–110, 135–136

early, 4, 73, 81–85, 102, 112, 235

eavesdropping and, 109–110

environments for learning and, 93–95

sign language, 122–123

situated, 94, 109

story-telling, 73, 105, 108

Learner-centered environments, 23–24, 133– 136, 138, 153, 188, 192–194, 212–213, 233

Learning-oriented learners, 61

Learning theories, 3, 14, 48, 51, 53, 63, 65, 131, 199, 203, 204, 250

assessment linked to, 142–144

infants’ capabilities, 79–82

Learning Through Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project, 212, 215, 221

Levin, James, 227–228

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

Literacy, changes in definition of, 132, 133

Literature, teaching, 46

Little Planet Literacy Series, 214

LOGO programming experiment, 53, 55, 60

M

Mass media, 275–276

Math Their Way, 194

Mathematics, 132

algebra, 58, 63, 65, 137–138, 198, 213– 214, 225

assessments, 141, 210–211

attitudes about, 210–211

calculus, 66

children’s knowledge of, 12, 69, 71, 81, 92, 112, 137–138, 196

computer-based tools and scaffolds, 213– 216, 225, 227, 229

contextualized reasoning, 74–76

counting-based arithmetic, 78, 98–99

curricula (existing), 137

experts, 33, 41, 50

fractions, 71, 72, 74, 91, 112

girls’ participation in, 145

guided discussion, 168–170, 240

instruction time, 58

Jasper Woodbury series, 208, 209, 210–211

Math Their Way curriculum, 194

misconceptions, 15, 261

model-based reasoning, 170–171, 215, 240

multiplication, 165–166, 167

negative numbers, 166, 168

number concepts, 4, 91, 92, 112

PUMP curriculum, 225

real-world applications, 69, 74–76, 169, 171, 213–214, 225

software tools, 213–214

standards, 136

strategic activities, 98–99

teacher learning opportunities, 194, 195, 197, 198

teaching, 50, 62, 63, 67–68, 108, 137–138, 141, 164–171

transfer of competence, 65

video archives, 228–229

Mathematics in Context, 136

Mathematics Learning project, 227

Mathline, 198

Measures of learning, 51, 77, 78, 140.

See also Assessments

Medawar, Peter, 183

Media. See Mass media

Medial frontal cortex, 118

Memorization, 8–9, 17, 239

assessments based on, 9, 140, 141, 152, 189, 245

and transfer of learning, 55–56, 57, 59, 77, 235, 236

Memory. See also Organization of knowledge;

Retrieval of knowledge

and brain processes, 124–126

children’s capacity, 18, 58, 95–96

declarative, 124

experiments, 34–35

experts vs novices, 17

false, 125

infants, 83

procedural, 124

short-term, 33, 34–35, 48

strategies, 96–97

synaptic connections and, 117

Metacognition

children’s learning and, 18–19, 21, 47, 82, 97–98, 233

defined, 12, 47

expertise and, 18, 47–48, 50

instruction approaches, 12, 21, 22, 67–68, 78, 137, 140, 217, 258

Methodologies, learning assessment

graduated prompting, 66

infants, 79, 82–84

think-aloud, 32, 184

standardized tests, 132

Microgenetic studies, 100

Microworlds, interactive computer, 216

Middle School Mathematics Through Application Projects, 213–214

Minds on Physics, 193, 194–195

Misconceptions, 14–15, 78, 178–179, 185–186, 187, 240

about brain development, 114

cultural, 151

mathematics, 15, 261

science, 15, 70, 179–180, 218, 229, 237, 240–241

about teaching, 156, 163, 188, 242, 264, 265, 266–267

Model-based learning, 10, 63, 67–68, 166, 168, 170–171, 215, 240, 243

Modeling, 67, 68, 258–259, 265

computational modeling research, 14

technology-based tools, 20–21, 215, 216

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

Model-It, 216

Monitoring of learning, 58–59, 67–68, 78

Motivation to learn

achievement/competence, 61, 102, 103, 212–213

behaviorism, 6

children’s, 61, 77, 101–102, 112

cognitive ability and, 280

competence, 60

computer technology and, 210–211, 212– 213, 224, 227

learning orientation and, 61

performance orientation and, 61

social opportunities and, 61

Motor skills, 56, 65, 119, 121

Multiple-choice tests, 140

Multiple intelligences, 82, 101

Multiple strategies concept, 98–101

Multiplication, teaching, 165–166

N

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards , 259

National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 202

National Research Council, 138

National Science Foundation, 192

Navajos, 146

Neostriatum, 124

Nerve cells, 116, 126

Neural activity, 119–120, 127, 235, 276

Neuroimaging, 115, 124, 125

Non-self-directed learning, 102

Novices

accomplished, 48

experts compared with, 31–50

Numbers

early concepts, 4, 89–91, 92, 112

negative, 166–168

rational, 71, 72, 74, 91, 112

O

Observational learning, 109, 146

Oral skills, oral tradition, 73, 105, 108

Organization of knowledge, 4, 238–239, 281

chunking/clustering technique, 32–33, 38, 52, 96–97

cognitive activity and, 143–144

conceptual, 9, 38, 42–44, 49, 181–182

experts, 4, 16–17, 36–42, 45, 48, 50, 56, 125, 136, 139, 155, 233, 237–238, 239, 242

hierarchical structures, 173–177, 216

in schemas, 33, 36, 38, 40, 59, 65–66

P

Parallel distributed processing, 14

Parental involvement. See Family

Pattern recognition, expertise and, 17, 32–36, 44, 48, 50, 56

Pause times, 38, 49

Pedagogical content knowledge, 45, 50, 155– 156, 163–164, 166, 168, 188, 242

research, 199, 258

teacher learning opportunities, 194, 199

Pedagogy

generic, 194

research laboratories, 268–269

theory of, 11

Perceptual learning, 60, 70

Performance-oriented learners, 61, 245

Phenomenological primitives, 181

Philadelphia Teachers Learning Cooperative, 199

Phonemes, 121

Photosynthesis, 71–72

Physical causality, 102

Physical concepts, 84–88

children’s competencies, 84–88, 102, 112

Physical models, 185

Physics, 11–12

assessments of understanding, 141, 142, 143

calculus and, 66

computer tools, 21, 68, 216, 217, 218, 227

databases, 278–279

experts, 33, 37–38, 39, 171–172

hierarchical analyses, 172–173

metacognition and, 19

Minds on Physics curriculum, 193, 194– 195

misconceptions, 15, 70, 179–180, 218, 237

qualitative strategies, 171–172

teacher learning opportunities, 193, 194– 195, 197, 199

teaching strategies, 172–182, 187

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

Physics Teacher Action Research Group, 199

Physics Teacher Resource Agent Project, 191

Piaget, Jean, 80, 85, 87

Plausibility judgments, 99

Policy makers, 248, 251, 265–266, 270–275

Portfolio assessment, 142, 220

Positron emission tomography, 115, 124

Practice

and brain development, 122, 123, 125

enhanced normal, 199

importance of, 53, 95, 177–178, 236

language, 95, 122

monitoring and feedback with, 58–59

time required for, 56, 58

Preconceptions

policy makers, 274

student, 10–12, 14–16, 19–20, 24, 70–71, 136, 153, 218, 236–237, 255, 261–262, 263

teacher, 264, 265, 266–267

Principled conceptual knowledge, 165–166

Prior knowledge, 10–11, 14, 53, 54–55, 68–73, 78, 153, 233, 236–237

Privileged domains, early competencies, 81– 82, 84–95, 102, 112, 234

Problem-based learning, 62, 77, 239–240

Problem representations, 53, 63, 78, 165–166, 167, 237

Problem solving, 23, 234, 236, 244, 250, 279– 280

collective, 67–68

expert’s approach to, 37–38, 39, 41, 43, 50, 56

heuristic, 67–68

hierarchical analysis, 173–177

human need for, 102, 103

metacognition, 19, 21

trial and error, 6–8

workplace simulations, 209

Procedural facilitation strategy, 67

Professional development. See Teacher learning

Progressive formalization, 137–138, 139

Project GLOBE, 212

Project Rightstart, 91, 100

Project SEED, 195

Project Zero, 198

Prompting, 66, 67

Public opinion, 275–276

Pueblo Indian children, 109

PUMP curriculum, 225

Q

Questions, questioning, question-asking, 11– 12, 68, 107, 110–111, 156–157, 217

QUILL network, 227

R

Radical behaviorism, 8

Radiology experts, 33

Readiness to learn, 81

Reading, 67, 99, 105–108, 132, 133, 229

Real-world learning

computer technology and, 207–213, 225

mathematics, 69, 74–76, 169, 171, 208, 225

workplace simulations, 209

Reasoning

abstract, 74, 78, 79

analogical, 62, 64, 65–66, 110

causal, 99

contextualized, 74–75, 78

generic, 182

model-based, 170–171, 185

scientific, 99, 186–187

spatial, 99

strategies of children, 99, 138, 153

Reciprocal teaching, 18, 67, 100, 105

Referential communications, 99, 106

Reflection, 12, 97–98, 203

Rehearsal activities, 96, 98, 99

Reminiscing, 108

Representations, 106, 276, 281

cognitive, 65, 144, 145

computer technology, 243

of concepts, 63, 65–66

problem representations, 53, 63, 78, 165– 166, 167, 237

virtual models, 215

Research, action, 191, 199–200, 257

Research on learning. See also Science of learning

focus, 5–6

recommendations, 248–270, 276

Retrieval of knowledge

chunking technique, 32–33, 38, 52

context of original learning and, 62

cueing, 98

expertise and, 32–33, 44, 49, 50, 56

practice, 98

schematic organization and, 66

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

S

Scaffolding, 67, 68, 104, 108, 182, 213–216, 226, 243, 276

Schemas

infant push-pull, 87

organization of knowledge in, 33, 36, 38, 40, 59, 65–66

Schools, 23–24, 251, 266

administrators, 243, 248, 251, 252, 259, 265, 266

alignment of goals within, 152

as communities, 26, 82, 224–226

school culture, 273–274

transfer of learning to everyday life, 73– 77, 78

transparent, 224

Science education, 132–133, 250.

See also Biology;

Physics

assessment of understanding, 143–144, 277

Chèche Konnen approach, 183–184, 187, 241

coaching technique, 180–182

computer tools, 214, 216, 229

conceptual change, 179–180, 184–186, 187, 229

curricula (existing), 136–137

girls’ participation in, 145

interactive instruction in large classes, 182

language practices in, 135–136

public policy issues, 214

real-world learning approaches, 212–213, 214

research recommendations, 261, 277

scientific reasoning, 186–187

standards, 136

strategies, 138, 171–178

student-scientist partnerships, 209, 217

teacher learning opportunities, 193–194, 195

teaching, 171–187

for young and “at risk” children, 138, 183–186

Science of learning

active learning, 12–13

development, 6–8

educational implications, 4–5, 13–14

evolution of, 3–4, 14

methodological research, 277–278

pre-existing knowledge, 10–12

research recommendations, 276, 277–279, 283–284

understanding, emphasis on, 8–9

Self-assessment, 12, 140, 244, 257

Self-directed learning, 68, 102

Self-regulation, 19, 97–98

Sense-making approaches, 12, 137, 159–161, 165, 183–184, 187, 198

Sesame Street, 151

Sherlock Project, 222–223

Situated learning, 88, 94, 104, 107–108, 109, 112, 134, 199

SMART Challenge Series, 217, 219

Social interactions, 103, 184, 233, 243

and brain development, 119, 126

caregiver-child, 103–104, 112–113

Social opportunities, and motivations to learn, 61

Social studies, 4, 61, 157, 219

Software, educational, 4, 68, 182, 207–213, 214, 215, 216, 219–220, 221, 227, 244

Spelling, 99

Spines, dendritic, 116

Standardized tests, 21, 132, 140, 141, 150, 189, 210–211, 220, 271–272

State education standards, 271

STELLA modeling environment, 216

Stereotyping, 145, 151

Story-telling, 73, 105, 108

Strategic competence, 182

assessment of, 97

children’s, 82, 95, 96–98, 112

choosing strategies, 99–101

multiple strategies, 98–101

Stroke victims, 123, 235

Structural knowledge. See Organization of knowledge

Student Conference on Global Warming, 212–213

Subject-matter (discipline) knowledge, 20, 45

and effective teaching, 45, 50, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188

expertise and, 16–17, 24, 45, 50, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188

teacher learning, 195, 199, 202–203, 267

Summarization strategy, 96

Summative assessments, 140, 141, 154, 189

SummerMath, 195

Synaptic connections, 116–118, 119–120, 122, 126

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

T

Tabula rasa theory, 79, 80

Taking turns, 67

Teacher learning, 20, 26–27, 242

action research, 191, 199–200, 257

assessment-centered environments, 20, 196–197

assessment methods, 27, 197–198, 246– 247, 264–266, 267–268

certification programs, 197, 272–273

collaborative group work, 195, 197–199, 277–278

community-centered environments, 27, 197–199, 204, 227–229, 243

computer technology and, 194, 195, 198, 226–229, 243–244, 269

environments for, 4, 192–199

feedback from colleagues, 196–197, 203, 268

inservice, 191, 204, 262–266, 267–268, 269–270

knowledge-centered environments, 20, 27, 194–195, 198

learner-centered environments, 27, 192– 194

mentoring, 191, 193, 195, 228

opportunities for practicing teachers, 191– 192, 204

paid time for, 200

preconceptions of teachers, 264, 265, 266–267

preservice education, 200–203, 204, 228, 229, 262–266, 267–269

quality of opportunities, 192–199

recommendations, 242, 243–244, 246–247, 252, 263–270, 272–273, 276

subject matter, 195, 199, 202–203, 267

and transfer of learning, 203, 242

workshops, 193–194, 204

Teacher Professional Development Institute (TAPPED IN), 228

Teaching, 21–23, 239–242, 279.

See also Instruction

accountability, 20

Chèche Konnen approach, 183–184, 187, 241

cultural sensitivity in, 133–134, 135–136, 153

diagnostic, 134–135

differential views of subject matter, 158

expert, 4, 33, 36, 37, 44–45, 46, 49–50, 155–157, 159–161, 188, 228–229, 241– 242, 258

goals-practices relationship, 12–13

history, 157–164, 241

knowledge of individual learners, 20, 168–170

learner-centered, 23–24, 133–134

left brain/right brain, 114

mathematics, 50, 164–171, 194

memory processes and, 125

metacognitive skills, 21

misconceptions about, 156, 163, 188

pedagogical content knowledge, 45, 50, 155–156, 163–164, 166, 168, 188, 194, 242

philosophical traditions of, 201

physics, 172–182, 187

preconceptions of students, 10–12, 14–16, 19–20, 24, 70–71, 136, 153, 218, 236– 237, 255, 261–262, 263

preconceptions of teachers, 264, 265, 266–267

reading, 67

reciprocal, 18, 67, 100, 108

science, 171–187, 191, 193–195, 240–241

subject-matter expertise, 156, 157, 159, 161, 163–164, 166, 188, 202–203

by telling, 11, 71

written composition, 67

Technologies. See Computer technology;

Video-based learning programs

Television, 26, 82, 95, 149–151

Text-editor experiment, 65, 66

Theoretical problem description, 175–176

Theory of mind, 82, 101–102

ThinkerTools Inquiry Curriculum, 21, 217

Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 42, 137

Thorndike, Edward L., 6–8

Time capsules, 159

Time on task, 18, 56, 58, 77–78, 235–236, 239

Time to learn, 56, 58, 67–68

Tools

infant use of, 87–88

research recommendations, 251, 255–256, 267–270

technology, 68, 74, 213–216, 268–269.

See also Computer technology

Transfer of learning, 4, 17, 233, 235–237, 238–239, 251, 258.

See also Teaching

active approaches, 66

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
×

conceptual change and, 70–71

conditions of transfer and, 4, 51, 53, 63– 66

context of learning and, 53, 62–63, 64, 78, 185, 236

cultural practices and, 4, 71–73, 78, 109– 111

defined, 51

feedback and, 59, 77, 78

flexible, 62–63, 64, 77, 78

by infants, 87

initial learning and, 51, 53, 55–61, 66, 68, 77, 203

knowledge base and, 69, 78

measures of, 51, 77

memorization and, 51, 55–56, 57, 77, 235, 236

metacognition and, 67–68, 78

motivation and, 50–51, 77

near, 53

negative, 53, 54–55

passive approaches, 66

practice and, 53, 58–59

previous experiences and, 53, 54–55, 68– 73, 78

problem representations, 53, 63, 78

from school to everyday life, 73–77, 78

teacher role to students, 226–227, 269

tests, 51, 236

time necessary for, 56–58, 77–78, 235–236

understanding and, 6, 55–56, 57, 60–61, 77–78, 136, 236

Tutoring environments, 178, 221–224, 225

U

Understanding

assessment formats, 56, 141, 142, 143

conceptual change, 70–71

contrasting-cases concept, 60

feedback on, 59

learning with, 6, 8–9, 136, 137–138, 139, 140, 180–181

memorization contrasted, 55–56, 57, 59

negative numbers, 166–168

physical causality, 84–88

and problem solving, 41

and transfer of learning, 55–56, 57, 59–60, 70–71, 77–78, 136

U.S. Department of Education, 192

Usefulness of information, 61

V

Video-based learning programs, 208–209, 228–229, 258–259, 268, 270

Visible thinking, 82, 185–186, 220–221, 235

Visual cortex, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121

Visual learning, 65, 215, 276

Voyage of the Mimi, 208

Vygotsky, Lev, 10

W

WEBCSILE, 227

Wisconsin Teacher Enhancement Program in Biology, 193–194

Woodrow Wilson Fellows, 191

Word problems, 43, 63, 169, 196

World Wide Web. See Internet

Writing, 67, 132, 195, 214, 222–223, 227

Wundt, Wilhelm, 6

Z

Zone of proximal development, 80–81, 92, 108

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9853.
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How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition Get This Book
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning.

Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb.

How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system.

Topics include:

  • How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain.
  • How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn.
  • What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach.
  • The amazing learning potential of infants.
  • The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace.
  • Learning needs and opportunities for teachers.
  • A realistic look at the role of technology in education.
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