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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
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References

Browner, C.M. 1994. Memorandum to Assistant, Associate and Regional Administrators; General Counsel; Inspector General; and Staff Office Directors. Peer Review Program. Peer Review and Peer Involvement at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of the Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. June 7.

Budde, W.L. 1997. “Good turmoil” at EPA Labs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31(4):166A-167A.

Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. 1992. Environmental Research and Development: Strengthening the Federal Infrastructure. New York: Carnegie Commission. 143 pp.

CEQ (U.S. Council on Environmental Quality). 1970. Environmental Quality: the First Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 326 pp.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Safeguarding the Future: Credible Science, Credible Decisions. The Report of the Expert Panel on the Role of Science at EPA. EPA/600/9-91/050. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1993. Report to Congress: Fundamental and Applied Research at the Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-93/038. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994a. Report to Congress FY 1994: Fundamental and Applied Research at the Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-94/040. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994b. Research, Development, and Technical Services at EPA: A New Beginning . Report to the Administrator. EPA/600/R-94/122. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994c. Report to Congress: Development of Peer Review Systems at EPA. Interim Report. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996a. Strategic Plan for the Office of Research and Development. EPA/600/R-96/059. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996b. Particulate Matter Research Program Strategy. External Review Draft. NHEERL-MS-97-019. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ordntrnt/ORD/resplans/oldresplans.html

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997a. 1997 Update to ORD's Strategic Plan. EPA/600/R-97/015. Office of Research and Development , U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997b. EPA Strategic Plan. EPA/190-R-97-002. Office of the Chief Financial Officer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997c. Research Plan for Microbial Pathogens and Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water. EPA 600-R-97-122. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998a. EPA Science Policy Council Handbook: Peer Review. EPA 100-B-98-001. Office of Science Policy, Office on Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998b. Research Plan for Arsenic in Drinking Water. EPA/600/R-98/042. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998c. Research Plan for Endocrine Disruptors. EPA/600/R-98/087. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998d. Ecological Research Strategy. EPA/600/R-98/086. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998e. Pollution Prevention

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×

Research Strategy. EPA/600/R-98/123. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999a. Waste Research Strategy. EPA/600/R-98/154. Office of Research and Development , U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999b. Office of Inspector General Survey Report: EPA's Selection of Peer Reviewers. 1999-P-217. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPABOSC (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Board of Scientific Counselors). 1998a. Program Review of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) . Final Report. April 30.

EPABOSC (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Board of Scientific Counselors). 1998b. Program Review of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL). Final Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. April 30.

EPABOSC (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Board of Scientific Counselors). 1998c. Program Review of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). Final Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. April 30.

EPABOSC (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Board of Scientific Counselors). 1998d. Program Review of the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA). Final Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. April 30.

EPABOSC (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Board of Scientific Counselors). 1998e. Program Review of the National Center for Environmental Research and Quality Assurance (NCERQA). Final Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. April 30.

EPAORD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development). 1989. Promotion of Scientists and Engineers in Research, Development, and Expert Positions. Chapter 5.9 in ORD Policy and Procedures Manual. ORD 5300. Office of Research and Development , U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPASAB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board) . 1988. Future Risk: Research Strategies for the 1990s. SAB-EC-88-040. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPASAB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board) . 1990. Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection.SAB-EC-90-021. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×

EPASAB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board) . 1994. An SAB Report: Review of MITRE Corp. Draft Report on the EPA Laboratory Study. EPA-SAB-RSAC-94-015. Science Advisory Board, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPASAB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board) . 1995. Beyond the Horizon: Using Foresight to Protect the Environmental Future. EPA-SAB-EC-95-007. Science Advisory Board, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

EPASAB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board) 1997. Letter to C.M. Browner, administrator, EPA, on Evaluation of Research Needs for the Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) from the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. EPASAB-CASAC-LTR-97-004. Science Advisory Board, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. March 12.

EPASAB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board) . 1999. An SAB Report: Review of the Peer Review Program of the Environmental Protection Agency. A Review by the Research Strategies Advisory Committee of the SAB . EPA-SAB-RSAC-00-002. Science Advisory Board, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1994. Peer Review: EPA Needs Implementation Procedures and Additional Controls . Letter Report. GAO/ RCED-94-89. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1996. Peer Review: EPA's Implementation Remains Uneven. GAO/RCED-96-236. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1999. Drinking Water Research: Better Planning Needed to Link Needs and Resources. GAO/T-RCED-00-15. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

Hansen, F. 1996. Memorandum to Robert J. Huggett, Assistant Administrator for Research and Development, Agency Peer Review. Office of the Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Washington, DC. Nov. 5.

Lock, S., ed. 1985. A Difficult Balance: Editorial Peer Review In Medicine. Philadelphia: ISI Press.

MITRE. 1994. Assessment of the Scientific and Technical Laboratories and Facilities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. MTR 94W0000082V1. Center for Environment, Resources and Space, McLean, VA.

NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems, B.R. Allenby and D.J. Richards, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 272 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×

NAPA (National Academy of Public Administration). 1994. A Review, Evaluation, and Critique of a Study of EPA Laboratories by the MITRE Corporation and Additional Commentary on EPA's Science and Technology Programs.

NRC (National Research Council). 1974. Report of the Review Committee on the Management of EPA's Research and Development Activities. Letter Report to EPA Administrator Russell E. Train. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. Aug. 27.

NRC (National Research Council). 1977. Analytical Studies for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Volume III: Research and Development in the Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 99 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 191 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 500 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Research to Protect, Restore, and Manage the Environment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 242 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994a. Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Forests and Estuaries . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 98 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994b. Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Surface Waters . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 66 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994c. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 640 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1995a. Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Overall Evaluation . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 164 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1995b. Interim Report of the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA . Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1997. Building a Foundation for Sound Environmental Decisions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 87 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1998a. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 195 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×

NRC (National Research Council). 1998b. Peer Review in Environmental Technology Developmental Programs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1999a. Arsenic in Drinking Water. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 310 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1999b. Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 430 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 1999c. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 111 pp.

NRC (National Research Council). 2000. Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 239 pp.

NSF (National Science Foundation). 1998. Grant Proposal Guide. NSF 99-2. National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. October.

NSF (National Science Foundation). 1999. Interim Report: Environmental Science and Engineering for the 21st Century: The Role of the National Science Foundation. NSB 99-133. National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Available: http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/tfe/nsb99133

OSTP (U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy). 1994. Technology for a Sustainable Future: A Framework for Action. U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC.

Powell, M.R. 1999. Science at EPA: Information in the Regulatory Process. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management. 1997a. Framework For Environmental Health Risk Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management. 1997b. Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision Making . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Reilly, W.K. 1993. Memorandum to Assistant, Associate, Deputy Assistant, Regional, and Deputy Regional Administrators; General Counsel; and Inspector General . Peer-Review Policy. Office of the Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Washington, DC. Jan. 19.

Reiter, L.W. 1999. Memorandum to Assistant Administrator Norine Noonan. Response to the Board of Scientific Counselors' Review of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. March 31.

Rennie, D., ed. 1990. Guarding the guardians, research on editorial peer review: Selected Proceedings from the First International Congress on Peer Review in Biomedical Publication. JAMA 263(10).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×

Rennie, D., and A. Flanagin, eds. 1994. The Second International Congress on Peer Review in Biomedical Publication . JAMA 272(2).

Rennie, D., and A. Flanagin, eds. 1998. The Third International Congress on Peer Review in Biomedical Publication . JAMA 280(3).

Robertson, P.D. 1999. Memorandum to Regulatory Policy Council. Sound Science and Peer Review in Rulemaking. Office of the Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Washington, DC. June 15.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
Page 148
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
Page 150
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2000. Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9882.
×
Page 154
Next: Appendix: Biographical Information on the Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA »
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In the three decades since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created, the agency's scientific and technical practices and credibility have been independently assessed many times in reports from the National Research Council (NRC), EPA Science Advisory Board, General Accounting Office, and many other organizations; in congressional oversight and judicial proceedings; and in countless criticisms and lawsuits from stakeholders with interests in particular EPA regulatory decisions. As a previous independent panel put it in the 1992 report Safeguarding the Future: Credible Science, Credible Decisions, EPA's policy and regulatory work receives a great deal of public attention, but the agency's scientific performance typically receives a similar degree of attention only when the scientific basis for a decision is questioned. Thus, strong scientific performance is important not only to enable EPA to make informed and effective decisions, but also to gain credibility and public support for the environmental protection efforts of EPA and the nation.

This report is the fourth and final one in a series prepared by two independent expert committees convened by the NRC in response to a request from Congress and to subsequent, related requests from EPA. The Committee on Research Opportunities and Priorities for EPA - the companion committee in this study - was charged to provide an overview of significant emerging environmental issues, identify and prioritize research themes most relevant to understanding and resolving those issues, and consider the role of EPA's research program in the context of research being conducted or supported by other organizations. That committee published an interim report in 1996 and a final report, Building a Foundation for Sound Environmental Decisions, in 1997. The Committee on Research and Peer Review in EPA was charged to evaluate research management and scientific peer-review practices in the agency. The committee published an interim report in 1995 and this final report.

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