About the Authors
ALEXANDER L. GEORGE is professor emeritus of international relations at Stanford University. He is an author or a coauthor of a number of books, including Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Personality Study (John Day Company, Inc., 1956), Deterrence in American Foreign Policy (Columbia University Press, 1974), Presidential Decision Making in Foreign Policy (Westview, 1980), and Avoiding War: Problems of Crisis Management (Westview, 1991). His most recent book, for the United States Institute of Peace, is Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice of Foreign Policy (1993). He is preparing a book on the use of case studies for theory development.
JUERGEN DEDRING is an adjunct professor of political science at the City University of New York and at New York University and is a senior research associate at the Ralph Bunche Institute on the United Nations, City University of New York. From 1975 to 1996 he was a political officer in the United Nations Secretariat and worked specifically for the Security Council Department, the Office for Research and the Collection of Information, and the Department of Humanitarian Affairs. He published a critical survey of peace and conflict research in 1976 and more recently articles on conflict resolution, humanitarian issues, early warning, and the role and functions of the UN Security Council. He is currently working on a book-length manuscript about the role of the UN Security Council in peace and security matters in the post-Cold War era. He received a degree of Diplom-Politologe from the Free University, Berlin, Germany, and A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in political science from Harvard University.
FRANCIS M. DENG is special representative of the United Nations secretary-general on internally displaced persons and is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, where he helped establish the African Studies branch of the Foreign Policy Studies program, which he heads. Born in the Sudan, he attended schools in both the African-Christianized south and the Arab-Islamic north and holds law degrees from Khartoum and Yale universities. In addition to academic appointments in his home country and at several U.S. universities, Deng served as human rights officer in the United Nations secretariat; as Sudanese ambassador to Canada, the Scandinavian countries, and the United States; and as minister of state for foreign affairs. In 1996 Deng assumed the position of acting chairman of the African Leadership Forum following the imprisonment of General Olsegun Obasanjo, former head of state of Nigeria and founder of the forum. He is the author or editor of more than 20 books.
DANIEL DRUCKMAN (Consultant) is professor of conflict resolution at George Mason University’s Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, where he also coordinates the doctoral program. He formerly directed a number of projects at the National Research Council and held senior positions at several research consulting firms. He has published widely on such topics as negotiating behavior, nationalism, peacekeeping, political stability, nonverbal communication, and modeling methodologies, including simulation. He received the 1995 Otto Klineberg award for Intercultural and International Relations from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and a Teaching Excellence Award in 1998 from George Mason University. He currently sits on the boards of six journals, including the Journal of Conflict Resolution and the American Behavioral Scientist. He is also an associate editor of Simulation & Gaming. He received a Ph.D. in social psychology from Northwestern Unviersity.
RONALD J. FISHER is a professor of psychology and founding coordinator of the graduate program in applied social psychology at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. He specializes in the theory and practice of conflict resolution, with particular interests in unofficial third-party interventions at the intergroup and international levels. His writings include The Social Psychology of Intergroup and International Conflict Resolution (Springer-Verlag, 1990) and Interactive Conflict Resolution (Syracuse University Press, 1997). In addition, he has published numerous chapters and articles in interdisciplinary journals focusing on conflict analysis and resolution. He holds a B.A. (honors) and an M.A. in psychology from the University of Saskatchewan and a Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Michigan.
JAMES E. GOODBY is a senior research fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. He has taught at Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and Georgetown universities and held the Payne Distinguished Lecturer chair at Stanford during 1996–1997. He is the author of Europe Undivided, a book on U.S.-Russian relations published in 1998 by the United States Institute of Peace in cooperation with the Institute for International Studies at Stanford. He has edited or coedited four other books dealing with U.S.-Russian relations and is the author of many articles on Europe and northeast Asia. He entered the U.S. Foreign Service in 1952 and rose to the rank of career minister. His assignments included those of special representative of President Clinton for the security and dismantlement of nuclear weapons, 1995–1996; chief negotiator for nuclear threat reduction agreements, 1993–1994 (the Nunn-Lugar program); head, U.S. delegation, conference on confidence- and security-building measures in Europe, 1983–1985; vice-chair, U.S. delegation to START 1, 1982–1983; ambassador to Finland, 1980– 1981; and deputy assistant secretary in the State Department’s Bureau of European Affairs and Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, 1974–1980. He is the winner of the inaugural Heinz Award in Public Policy, the Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of Germany, and the Presidential Distinguished Service Award. He was named a distinguished fellow of the United States Institute of Peace in 1992. He received an A.B. degree from Harvard and an honorary doctor of laws degree from the Stetson University College of Law.
ROBERT H. MNOOKIN is the Samuel Williston Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and chairman of the steering committee, Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. In both his scholarly and his applied work, Professor Mnookin has taken an interdisciplinary approach to a broad range of questions relating to conflict resolution. He is the author of numerous scholarly articles and six books, including Dividing the Child: Social and Legal Dilemmas of Custody, with E.Maccoby (Harvard University Press, 1992) and Barriers to Conflict Resolution (W.W.Norton, 1995), with colleagues from the Stanford Center on Conflict and Negotiation. His current book projects include Negotiating on Behalf of Others (Sage, 1999), which he coedited with Lawrence Susskind, and the forthcoming Beyond Winning: How Lawyers Help Clients Create Value in Negotiation (Harvard University Press, 2000), with Scott Peppet and Andrew Tulumello. Professor Mnookin received his A.B. in economics from Harvard College in 1964 and his law degree from Harvard Law School in 1968.
RAYMOND SHONHOLTZ founded and directed the Community Board Program for 12 years and in 1989 founded Partners for Democratic
Change, an international organization of national Centers on Change and Conflict Management in Central and Eastern Europe, South Caucasus, Latin America, and the United States. Mr. Shonholtz has written extensively on conflict and change management theory and practice and serves on the editorial boards of Mediation Quarterly, a publication of the Academy of Family Mediators, and Consensus, a publication of the Harvard University Program on Negotiations. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his J.D. degree from the University of California, Berkeley.
JANICE GROSS STEIN is director of the Munk Centre for International Studies and Harrowston Professor of Conflict Management and Negotiation in the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto. She is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and holds the title of university professor. Her recent publications include Choosing to Cooperate: How States Avoid Loss, edited with Lou Pauly (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992); We All Lost the Cold War, with Richard Ned Lebow (Princeton University Press, 1994); Powder Keg in the Middle East: The Struggle for Gulf Security, edited with Geoffrey Kemp (University Press of America, 1995); and Citizen Engagement in Conflict Resolution: Lessons for Canada in International Experience, with David Cameron and Richard Simeon (C.D.Howe Institute, 1997). She received B.A. and Ph.D. degrees from McGill University and an M.A. degree from Yale University.
PAUL C. STERN is study director of both the Committee on International Conflict Resolution and the Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change at the National Research Council, research professor of sociology at George Mason University, and president of the Social and Environmental Research Institute. His work on international conflict issues has included coediting a three-volume series, Behavior, Society, and International Conflict (Oxford, 1989, 1991, 1993), and Perspectives on Nationalism and War (Gordon and Breach, 1995). His work on environmental issues includes coediting Energy Use: The Human Dimension (Freeman, 1984), Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions (National Academy Press, 1992), and Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (National Academy Press, 1996) and coauthoring Environmental Problems and Human Behavior (Allyn and Bacon, 1996). He is also coauthor of Evaluating Social Science Research (second edition, Oxford, 1996). Dr. Stern is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received a B.A. from Amherst College and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in psychology from Clark University.
STANLEY J. TAMBIAH is Esther and Sidney Rabb Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. His most recent books include Sri Lanka, Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy (University of Chicago Press, 1986); Buddhism Betrayed? Religion, Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka (University of Chicago Press, 1992); and Leveling Crowds, Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia (University of California Press, 1996). He received his Ph.D. in sociology, anthropology, and psychology from Cornell University.
M. CRAWFORD YOUNG is professor of political science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he has taught since 1963. He has also taught and conducted research in Uganda, Congo/Zaire, and Senegal. Among his publications are Politics in the Congo (Princeton University Press, 1965); The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, coauthored with Thomas Turner (University of Wisconsin Press, 1985); The Politics of Cultural Pluralism (University of Wisconsin Press, 1976, winner of the Herskovits and Ralph Bunche prizes); Ideology and Development in Africa (Yale University Press, 1982); and The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective (Yale University Press, 1994, winner of the Gregory Luebbert prize). He received a B.A. from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. from Harvard University.
I. WILLIAM ZARTMAN is the Jacob Blaustein Professor of International Organization and Conflict Resolution and director of the conflict management program at the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University. His research focuses on the conceptual study of negotiation and its application in various cases. His recent publications include Power and Negotiation (University of Michigan Press, 2000) and Preventive Negotiation (Rowman and Littlefield, 2000). Dr. Zartman received his M.A. in political science from Johns Hopkins University and his Ph.D. from Yale University in international relations.
BARRY M. BLECHMAN is president of DFI International and chairman of the Henry L.Stimson Center in Washington, D.C., where he works on finding and promoting innovative solutions to the security challenges confronting the United States and other nations in the twenty-first century. His current work also includes analyzing markets and financial conditions affecting U.S. and foreign industry and advising companies on the defense, aerospace, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Dr. Blechman has also worked with senior U.S. government officials and
is a frequent consultant to Department of Defense agencies. He recently served on the Rumsfeld Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. He has served as assistant director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, directed the defense analysis staff at the Brookings Institution, and taught at Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, and the University of Michigan. Among his publications are Force Without War (Brookings Institution, 1978), Rethinking the U.S. Strategic Posture (Ballinger, 1982), and Preventing Nuclear War: A Realistic Approach (Indiana University Press, 1985). He holds a master’s degree from New York University and a Ph.D. in international relations from Georgetown University.
YASH GHAI is the Sir Y K Pao Professor of Public Law at the University of Hong Kong. He has taught at the University of East Africa, Uppsala University, and the University of Warwick (U.K.) and has been a visiting professor at the Yale Law School, Toronto University, Melbourne University, the National University of Singapore, and Harvard Law School. His books on public law include Law in the Political Economy of Public Enterprise (Holmes and Meier, 1977); The Political Economy of Law: Third World Perspectives, edited jointly with Robin Luckham and Francis Snyder (Oxford University Press, 1987); The Law, Politics and Administration of Decentralisation in Papua New Guinea, with Anthony Regan (National Research Institute, Boroko, 1992); Hong Kong’s New Constitutional Order: The Resumption of Chinese Sovereignty and the Basic Law (Hong Kong University Press, 1997; 2nd ed., 1999); and Hong Kong’s Constitutional Debate: Conflict over Interpretation, edited with Johannes Chan and Fu Hua Ling (Coronet Books, 2000). A book edited and partly authored by Ghai, Ethnicity and Autonomy: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-Ethnic States, will be published by Cambridge University Press in 2000. In recent years his research and publications have focused on constitutional settlement of ethnic conflicts, globalization and human rights, and the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong to China. He has served as a consultant on the constitutions of Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji and is currently advising the government of Papua New Guinea on peace negotiations in Bougainville. He is a member of the advisory boards of Interrights, the Minority Rights Group, the International Council on Human Rights Policy, and the Asian Commission of Human Rights. He holds a B.A. degree from Oxford University, a master’s degree in law from Harvard University, and a doctoral degree in law from Oxford.
PRISCILLA B. HAYNER is an independent writer and consultant based in New York City. She has written widely on the subject of official truth
seeking in political transitions. Her book on the subject, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity, will be released by Routledge in 2000. Previous publications include “Fifteen Truth Commissions— 1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study” (Human Rights Quarterly, 1994) and “Commissioning the Truth: Further Research Questions” (Third World Quarterly, 1996). Ms. Hayner has been a program officer on international human rights and world security for the Joyce Mertz-Gilmore Foundation and currently serves as a program consultant to the Ford Foundation on transitional justice issues and as a consultant to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on truth commission developments in Sierra Leone. She received a B.A. from Earlham College and a master’s in international affairs from the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University.
P. TERRENCE HOPMANN is research director of the Program on Global Security at the Watson Institute for International Studies and professor of political science at Brown University. His research focuses on international negotiation and conflict resolution as well as security and arms control in the Eurasian region. His recent publications include The Negotiation Process and the Resolution of International Conflicts (University of South Carolina Press, 1996) and Building Security in Post-Cold War Eurasia: The OSCE and U.S. Foreign Policy (U.S. Institute of Peace, Peaceworks #31, 1999). In 1997–1998 he held a Fulbright senior fellowship to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe based in Vienna, Austria, and in 1998 he was a Jennings Randolph senior fellow at the United States Institute of Peace in Washington, D.C. Dr. Hopmann received his B.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University.
BRUCE W. JENTLESON is director of the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy and professor of public policy and political science at Duke University. He is the author and editor of seven books, most recently American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century (W.W. Norton, 2000) and Opportunities Missed, Opportunities Seized: Preventive Diplomacy in the Post-Cold War World (Rowman and Littlefield, 1999), as well as numerous articles. His current research focuses on post-Cold War strategies of conflict prevention. In 1993–1994 he served on the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff as special assistant to the director. Before going to Duke, Jentleson was on the faculty of the University of California-Davis and was director of the UC Davis Washington Center. He has received fellowships from the United States Institute of Peace, the Brookings Institution, the Social Science Research Council, the Council on For-
eign Relations, and others. He holds a Ph.D. from Cornell University and a master’s degree from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
DAVID D. LAITIN is a professor of political science at Stanford University. He has conducted field research on the relationship of culture and politics in Somalia, Nigeria, Spain, and Estonia. His most recent book is Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad (Cornell University Press, 1998). He is currently writing a book in collaboration with James D.Fearon on large-scale ethnic rebellion. Laitin received his B.A. from Swarthmore College and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.
BEN REILLY is a research fellow in the National Centre for Development Studies at the Australian National University, Canberra, and an external associate at the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) in Stockholm. He has advised on issues of constitutional design to international organizations, such as the UN and OSCE, and in a number of divided societies around the world. His published works include The International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System Design (coauthor, International IDEA, 1997), Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators (International IDEA, 1998), and Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming), as well as numerous journal articles and book chapters. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from the Australian National University.
ANDREW REYNOLDS is an assistant professor of political science at the University of Notre Dame. He has written extensively on issues of democratization and constitutional design in southern Africa and consulted on issues of electoral system design for the United Nations and in South Africa, Guyana, Indonesia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, Jordan, and Fiji. His books include Electoral Systems and Demoralization in Southern Africa (Oxford University Press, 1999), Election ‘99 South Africa: From Mandela to Mbeki (editor, St. Martin’s Press, 1999), Elections and Conflict Management in Africa (coeditor, United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998), and The International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System Design (coauthor, International IDEA, 1997). He has also contributed articles to various journals. Dr. Reynolds received his B.A. from the University of East Anglia, his M.A. in South African politics from the University of Cape Town, and his Ph.D. in political science from the University of California, San Diego.
NADIM N. ROUHANA is a professor with the Graduate Program in Dispute Resolution at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, and an associate at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. At the Weatherhead center at Harvard University, he is chair of the Program on International Conflict Analysis and Resolution and cochair of the Seminar on International Conflict Analysis and Resolution. His work focuses on the role of power and identity in ethnic conflict and conflict resolution and on unofficial third-party intervention in international conflict. He is the author of Palestinian Citizens in an Ethnic Jewish State: Identities in Conflict (Yale University Press, 1997) and has contributed articles to numerous scholarly journals. He received his B.A. in psychology from Haifa University and a Ph.D. from Wayne State University and did his postdoctoral work at Harvard University.
HAROLD H. SAUNDERS is director of international affairs at the Kettering Foundation, a research and operating foundation where he conducts sustained dialogues among groups in conflict. From 1961 to 1981 he worked in the U.S. government on issues affecting the Near East and South Asia, serving on the National Security Council staff, as deputy assistant and assistant secretary of state for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs, and as director of intelligence and research at the State Department. After the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, he flew with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger on the “shuttle” missions that produced three disengagement agreements in 1974–1975 and was a drafter of the Camp David accords in 1978 and the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty of 1979. He has received the President’s Award for Federal Civilian Service and the State Department’s Superior Honor Award. He has been a fellow at both the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research and the Brookings Institution. He has participated in dialogues among Americans and Soviets/Russians; Americans and Chinese; Arabs and Israelis; Indians, Pakistanis, and Kashmiris; Armenians, Azerbaijanis, and Karabakhsi; Estonians and Russian-speaking Estonians; Tajikistanis; and black and white communities in the United States. He is the author of The Other Walls: The Arab-Israeli Peace Process in a Global Perspective (Princeton University Press, 1991) and A Public Peace Process: Sustained Dialogue to Transform Racial and Ethnic Conflict (St. Martin’s Press, 1999).
STEPHEN JOHN STEDMAN is a senior research scholar at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University. His current research focuses on implementation of peace agreements in civil wars, current wars in historical perspective, and the manipulation of refugees by warring parties. He is the author of Peacemaking in Civil War
(Lynne Rienner, 1991) and The New Is Not Yet Born: Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa, with Thomas Ohlson (The Brookings Institution, 1994). He received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University.
TAMARA COFMAN WITTES is director of programs at the Middle East Institute in Washington, D.C. Her current research examines confidence building in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process and the role of ethnic diasporas in conflict resolution. She also writes and teaches on the use of force, complex humanitarian crises, international law, and U.S. counterterrorism policy. Her work has been published in Political Science Quarterly, International Studies Notes, and National Security Studies Quarterly. She has a B.A. from Oberlin College and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in government from Georgetown University.