MARINE PROTECTED AREAS
TOOLS FOR SUSTAINING OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS
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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report and the committee were supported by grants from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Marine protected areas : tools for sustaining ocean ecosystems / Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the United States Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council.
Includes bibliographical references (p. ).
ISBN 0-309-07286-7 (hard)
1. Marine parks and reserves. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring Marine Reserves and Protected Areas in the United States. II. Title.
QH91.75.A1 M28 2001
Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems is available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area); Internet: http://www.nap.edu
Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
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National Research Council
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COMMITTEE ON THE EVALUATION, DESIGN, AND MONITORING OF MARINE RESERVES AND PROTECTED AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES
EDWARD HOUDE, Chair, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Solomons
FELICIA C. COLEMAN, Florida State University, Tallahassee
PAUL DAYTON, University of California, San Diego
DAVID FLUHARTY, University of Washington, Seattle
GRAEME KELLEHER, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (consultant), Canberra, Australia
STEVEN PALUMBI, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
ANA MARIA PARMA, Centro National Patagonico, Chubut, Argentina
STUART PIMM, Columbia University, New York
CALLUM ROBERTS, University of York, United Kingdom
SHARON SMITH, University of Miami, Florida
GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California
RICHARD STOFFLE, University of Arizona, Tucson
JAMES WILEN, University of California, Davis
SUSAN ROBERTS, Study Director
ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant
OCEAN STUDIES BOARD
KENNETH BRINK, Chairman, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts
ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison
OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida
JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
CORTIS COOPER, Chevron Petroleum Technology, San Ramon, California
G. BRENT DALRYMPLE, Oregon State University, Corvallis
EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas
D. JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs
RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle
EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons
CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook
ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa
NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee
BONNIE MCCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey
RAM MOHAN, Gahagan & Bryant Associates, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland
SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Naragansett
NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin
WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee
PAUL TOBIN, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, Fairfax, Virginia
KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
MORGAN GOPNIK, Director
DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer
ALEXANDRA ISERN, Program Officer
SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer
ROBIN MORRIS, Administrative Associate
SHIREL SMITH, Office Manager
ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant
DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant
JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant
MEGAN KELLY, Project Assistant
COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES
GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), South Charleston, West Virginia
LYNN GOLDMAN, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland
THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
THOMAS J. GRAFF, Environmental Defense, Oakland, California
EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Maryland, College Park
DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C.
BRAD MOONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia
HUGH C. MORRIS, El Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia
H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens
MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (emeritus), Knoxville
ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts
E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park
ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director
GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director
JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer
CHRISTINE HENDERSON, Scientific Reports Officer
SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate
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The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) is pleased to present this report, Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. It represents the culmination of a two-year, in-depth examination of this controversial approach to marine resource management that required analysis of issues in both marine ecology and fisheries science.
For many years the OSB has been interested in topics concerning marine ecology and the preservation of marine biodiversity. Notable reports in this area include Priorities for Coastal Ecosystem Science (1994), Understanding Marine Biodiversity (1995), and From Monsoons to Microbes: Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health (1999). At the same time, the board has concerned itself with the sound, science-based management of marine fisheries, as exemplified by studies such as Improving Fish Stock Assessments (1998), Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas (1999), and Sustaining Marine Fisheries (1999). These two interests come together on the issue of marine reserves, which have been proposed as an ecosystem-based approach for conserving living marine resources, both for fisheries management and for preserving marine biodiversity.
It is our hope that this report will serve as a sound basis for future efforts to design and implement marine reserves and protected areas. It provides a summary of what we know, recommendations about how to apply that knowledge, and a description of what we need to know to maximize the effectiveness of this marine management tool.
The board is grateful to the committee members who volunteered enormous amounts of their time to complete this ambitious undertaking.*
Chair, Ocean Studies Board
* To view this report on-line, or to learn more about the OSB's mission and other projects, please visit our Web site at www.national-academies.org/osb.
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The concept of marine reserves has been repeatedly addressed in the past 25 years, but implementation and subsequent evaluation of these protected areas has been relatively infrequent until the past decade. In recent years, there has been strong advocacy for reserves among the conservation community and those concerned about losses of habitat and biodiversity in the sea. At the same time, conventional users of marine resources, especially fishing industries and communities, have asked serious questions about the efficacy of marine reserves as a tool for resource management because of the modest level of experience with their proper design, siting, and evaluation. The Ocean Studies Board appointed a committee with broad disciplinary expertise to objectively investigate the potential use of marine reserves with respect to design, implementation criteria, and probable efficacy in relation to meeting biodiversity, conservation, and fisheries management goals. Issues emphasizing ecology, oceanography, and socioeconomic impacts are prominent in the report, which strives to integrate and synthesize the diverse information on reserves, followed by conclusions and recommendations.
Few would deny that the oceans are stressed by human activities and that new, or additional, management measures are required to ensure that the ocean's living resources and ecosystem services are conserved. The concept of designating specific areas as marine protected areas (MPAs) and reserves proffers another tool with the potential for expanding our ability to manage resources. Increasing designation and implementation of reserves represent a shift in emphasis toward spatially explicit management measures, an emphasis that many believe is needed given the present heavy utilization of ocean resources. The recent presidential executive order (May 2000) directing the Department of Commerce and the
Department of the Interior to develop a plan for MPA networks in U.S. coastal waters is one major step toward wider application of this approach. This report will serve as a comprehensive and critical description and evaluation of MPAs and reserves as a management tool that can help to guide agencies as they move forward in developing plans for a national system of MPAs.
The Committee on the Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of Marine Reserves and Protected Areas is very grateful to the many individuals who played a significant role in the completion of this study. The committee met five times and would like to extend its gratitude to all of the individuals who appeared before the full committee or otherwise provided background information and discussed pertinent issues (see Appendix D for a complete list of speakers and participants).
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Tundi Agardy (Conservation International), Ann Bucklin (University of New Hampshire), Larry Crowder (Duke University Marine Laboratory), Christopher D'Elia (State University of New York at Stony Brook), Paul Durrenberger (Pennsylvania State University), Jane Lubchenco (Oregon State University), James MacMahon (Utah State University), Melissa Miller-Henson (California Resources Agency), and Richard Young (commercial fisherman). Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by H. Ronald Pulliam (University of Georgia), appointed by the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources and Robert Frosch (Harvard University), appointed by the NRC's Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
The committee extends its thanks to the staff of the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council (NRC), who provided both leadership and logistical support for the study. Study Director Susan Roberts tirelessly contributed her time to all aspects of the study, and her important contributions to the study and report are gratefully acknowledged. Senior Project Assistant Ann Carlisle provided superb logistical support throughout the study and during re-
port preparation. OSB Director Morgan Gopnik and OSB Senior Program Officer, Ed Urban, both provided critical comments and editorial advice during the preparation of the report. Merrie Cartwright and Kate Shafer provided valuable research assistance during their internships at the NRC. Additionally, Associate Director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology David Policansky, participated in several committee meetings and contributed valuable ideas and expertise.
The committee is also grateful for the assistance provided by the following individuals who provided additional background material, data, publication lists, and figures for consideration and use by the committee: Bill Ballantine (Leigh Marine Laboratory, New Zealand), Jim Bohnsack (National Marine Fisheries Service), Elizabeth Clarke (National Marine Fisheries Service), Jeff Cross (Sandy Hook Laboratories), Larry Crowder (Duke University Marine Laboratory), Michael Murphy (National Marine Fisheries Service), and Mike Pentony (New England Fishery Management Council). We would also like to thank the many institutions and organizations that provided us with related background information, reference materials, and reports.
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