National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools

Report and Workshop Summary

Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity

Kenji Hakuta and Alexandra Beatty, Editors

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. R305U960001-98A between the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-07297-2

SUGGESTED CITATION: National Research Council (2000) Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity. Kenji Hakuta and Alexandra Beatty, Editors. Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Additional copies of this report are available from

National Academy Press,
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE AND TESTING EQUITY

ULRIC NEISSER (Co-Chair),

Department of Psychology, Cornell University

WILLIAM T. TRENT (Co-Chair),

Department of Educational Policy Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

ARTHUR COLEMAN,

Nixon Peabody, LLP, Washington, D.C.

KENJI HAKUTA,

Department of Education, Stanford University

LARRY V. HEDGES,

Department of Education, University of Chicago

JAY P. HEUBERT,

Teachers College, Columbia University

EUGENE G. JOHNSON,

American Institutes for Research, Washington, D.C.

JAMES A. KADAMUS,

Office of Elementary, Middle, Secondary and Continuing Education, New York State Department of Education

DIANA LAM,

Providence School Department, Providence, Rhode Island

HENRY M. LEVIN,

Teachers College, Columbia University

GLENN C. LOURY,

Institute on Race and Social Division, Boston University

DIANA C. PULLIN,

Department of Education, Boston College

BELLA H. ROSENBERG, *

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, D.C.

THEODORE M. SHAW,

NAACP – Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., New York

JOHN P. TOBIN,

Siemens Corporation (retired), New York

JULIE UNDERWOOD,

National School Boards Association, Alexandria, Virginia

HERBERT J. WALBERG,

Department of Education, University of Illinois, Chicago

ALEXANDRA BEATTY, Study Co-Director

KAREN MITCHELL, Study Co-Director

ANDREW E. TOMPKINS, Senior Project Assistant

*

Did not participate in workshop or deliberations for this report.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

EVA L. BAKER (Chair), Director,

Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California, Los Angeles

RICHARD C. ATKINSON, President,

University of California

CHRISTOPHER F. EDLEY, JR.,

Harvard Law School

RONALD FERGUSON,

John F. Kennedy School of Public Policy, Harvard University

MILTON D. HAKEL,

Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University

ROBERT M. HAUSER,

Institute for Research on Poverty, Center for Demography, University of Wisconsin, Madison

PAUL W. HOLLAND,

Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey

DANIEL M. KORETZ,

RAND Corporation, Arlington, Virginia

RICHARD J. LIGHT,

Graduate School of Education and John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

LORRAINE McDONNELL,

Departments of Political Science and Education, University of California, Santa Barbara

BARBARA MEANS,

SRI, International, Menlo Park, California

ANDREW C. PORTER,

Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison

LORETTA A. SHEPARD,

School of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder

CATHERINE E. SNOW,

Graduate School of Education, Harvard University

WILLIAM L. TAYLOR,

Attorney at Law,

Washington, D.C.

WILLIAM T. TRENT,

Department of Educational Policy Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

GUADALUPE M. VALDES,

School of Education, Stanford University

VICKI VANDAVEER,

The Vandaveer Group, Inc., Houston, Texas

LAURESS L. WISE,

Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, Virginia

KENNETH I. WOLPIN,

Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania

PASQUALE J. DEVITO, Director

LISA D. ALSTON, Administrative Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

Preface

The Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity was created under the auspices of the National Research Council (NRC), and specifically under the oversight of the Board on Testing and Assessment (BOTA). The committee's charge is to explore the challenges that face U.S. schools as they work to achieve the related goals of academic excellence and equity for all students. BOTA members recognized that an inevitable consequence of the heightened standards that are at the heart of current reforms is that some students will fail to meet them. As a result, BOTA wished to pay close attention to the consequences of these reforms. Of particular interest were the effects that new standards-based tests might have on students already at increased risk for school failure. BOTA members desired attention to be given not only to provisions made in reform programs to prepare all students for the new challenges, but also to the consequences for students who were unable to meet these higher goals. BOTA members were also concerned about the potential unintended consequences of reform efforts. The breadth and importance of these concerns led to the creation of a body that could devote its attention exclusively to these issues.

Thus, in 1998, the Forum on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity was formed. In its first two years this diverse and multidisciplinary body held a series of meetings and workshops to begin surveying the landscape of issues in its purview. At the end of that time the NRC leadership determined that there were a range of important ongoing issues for the

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

forum to address, and that it should be empowered to draw conclusions and make recommendations to policy makers, educators, and researchers based on its findings. In the spring of 2000 the group was reconstituted as the Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity.

This document reflects that transition in that it provides not only the summary of a workshop held by the forum on the testing of English-language learners (students learning English as an additional language) in U.S. schools, but also a report on the new committee's conclusions derived from that workshop and from subsequent deliberations. An important aspect of this committee's mission is to provide policy makers at all levels and others with succinct summaries of the state of research and practice on important topics. Because of its diversity both in expertise and perspective, the committee is well positioned to sift through matters of fact and opinion, and to provide thoughtful analysis for policy makers and others on the issues and debates that concern them.

While much has been written about the needs of English-language learners, there is an air of disarray in the discussion. Sometimes vehement disagreements about the value and fairness of different approaches to educating the growing population of English-language learners in the United States have partly obscured some important aspects of the education of these students. The forum turned its attention to the specific challenges of devising and administering suitable tests to achieve different purposes related to the needs of English-language learners. It considered the need for information about individual students' progress; needs for accountability data for schools, districts, and states; and the need to monitor broader trends in the educational progress of this group of students.

Subsequently, the new committee set aside time to weigh and discuss both the workshop presentations and discussions and other materials. The committee members identified several key messages from their review and present them here together with several recommendations to the field. The summary of the workshop fleshes out these findings with a more detailed picture of the issues. Our hope is that this short report will be of use to those who are actively engaged in addressing the needs of the approximately 3,000,000 children in our schools who are not fully proficient in English. The committee wishes to recognize the contributions of the many individuals who participated in the forum workshop, who are too numerous to list here (a list is included in Appendix A). Both their thoughtful discussions and the many supporting materials they supplied were very useful to the committee as it explored this complex topic and their partici-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×

pation has been much appreciated. Andrew Tompkins' able assistance with the report is gratefully acknowledged as well.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jamal Abedi, Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California, Los Angeles; Anne Hafner, Charter College of Education, California State University, Los Angeles; Charlene Rivera, Center for Equity and Excellence in Education, The George Washington University; Russell Rumberger, School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara; and Wendy Yen, Consultant, Pebble Beach, California.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of htis report was overseen by Richard Duran, University of California at Santa Barbara, appointed by the Center for Education, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Eva Baker, chair

Board on Testing and Assessment

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9998.
×
Page R12
Next: Introduction »
Testing English-Language Learners in U.S. Schools: Report and Workshop Summary Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $47.00 Buy Ebook | $37.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity was created under the auspices of the National Research Council (NRC), and specifically under the oversight of the Board on Testing and Assessment (BOTA). The committee's charge is to explore the challenges that face U.S. schools as they work to achieve the related goals of academic excellence and equity for all students. This report provides not only the summary of a workshop held by the forum on the testing of English-language learners (students learning English as an additional language) in U.S. schools, but also a report on the committee's conclusions derived from that workshop and from subsequent deliberations.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!