The Science of
Effective Mentorship in STEMM

Online Guide v1.0

To engage in the most effective mentoring relationships, university leadership, department chairs, program directors, mentors, and mentees all need to take action and use the tools and resources available to them. This section provides some guidance about how to implement effective mentorship—at the institutional level or at the relationship level.

Developing a Culture of Mentorship

One of the more challenging aspects of realizing widespread and lasting improvements in the mentorship at an institution is the need to develop a culture that supports and values mentorship. Indeed, organizational change can be challenging, particularly with units composed of individuals who value their independence and consider themselves experts in many areas of their work. Research on teaching reform, which parallels mentorship reform, has identified a number of barriers to organizational change (Brownell and Tanner, 2012; NASEM, 2016, 2018a, 2018c, 2018d).

  • Barrier 1: The belief that mentorship is not a problem that needs to be addressed. (read more)
  • Barrier 2: A commitment to and comfort with traditional mentorship practices (read more)
  • Barrier 3: The tendency to place the sole responsibility on the mentee for their mentorship experience (read more)
  • Barrier 4: The lack of commitment to support implementation of effective mentorship (read more)

There are actions that members of the mentorship ecosystem can take to help foster the development of a culture that supports and values effective mentorship. These include:

  • Develop a shared vision of goals for degree attainment in STEMM that includes mentorship as a component.
  • Appoint a task force to review mentorship activities, programs, and practices in STEMM departments and labs. This can raise awareness and become a campus inventory of opportunities available to students and mentors.
  • Engage faculty professional development programs and centers in addressing mentorship as part of undergraduate research, graduate training, faculty learning communities, new faculty orientation, and regular programming.
  • Provide funding to facilitate mentor-mentee activity surrounding students’ research interests. For example, the University of California, Los Angeles Graduate Division funds a summer mentorship program for first-year graduate students as well as an academic year mentorship program targeted for second-year grad students to work on an independent research project with the commitment of faculty mentor.
  • Encourage campus-wide promotion review committees to establish guidelines for evaluating mentorship activities and impact.
  • Encourage campus STEMM programs and other student success programs to evaluate and report on key mentorship components when reviewing overall program impact.
  • Supporting rewards and review processes by addressing mentorship outcomes for faculty in annual review, promotion, and tenure, including both quantity and quality of mentorship experiences, and establishing a mentor award with clear criteria for evaluation.
  • Moving mentorship from “private” to public practice by encouraging faculty to share mentorship challenges, innovations, and evidence with peers.
  • Identifying incentives and support (e.g. financial, release time) for participation and engagement in professional development as it relates to mentorship education.
  • Using data and research to hold broader conversations about mentorship activities and innovations.
  • Providing information about effective mentorship resources available on campus to departmental faculty and staff.
  • Establishing regular reviews of student progress, paying particular attention to the stages of mentorship and addressing issues of equitable access to effective mentorship.
  • Integrating expectations for mentor-mentee performance, including the use of mentorship compacts and other tools.
  • Adopting general guidelines that include establishing learning objectives and responding in a timely and productive fashion to dissertation, requests for letters of recommendation, and other key career development milestones.
  • Establishing more formal mentoring processes, setting expectations, and taking responsibility for monitoring the quality of mentorship experiences.
  • Providing opportunities for mentorship education for both mentors and mentees.
  • Create opportunities to reflect on mentorship, assess mentees’ needs, and set expectations in labs and research relationships.
  • Participate in mentorship education activities to become more aware of practices, career and psychosocial support functions, and to learn to set reasonable expectations in mentor-mentee relationships.
  • Work with other faculty within and across institutions to extend mentee networks, exploring non-dyadic approaches to mentorship to meet the needs of mentees, and encouraging mentees to seek support wherever they can find it and support them in doing so.
  • Initiate and participate in faculty learning communities focused on mentorship.
  • Adopt new policies and practices in departments to ensure access to mentorship and ensure the quality of mentorship experiences for both mentors and mentees.
  • Hold colleagues accountable for adopting effective mentorship practices in reviews for tenure and promotion.
  • Inquire about a potential mentor’s approach to working with students and expectations for students, and reflect on how approaches and expectations align with their own working style and expectations.Inquire about the tools and supports for mentorship used in programs and departments, such as mentoring compacts, mentoring maps, individual development plans, and professional development for mentors.Integrating expectations for mentor-mentee performance, including the use of mentorship compacts and other tools.
  • Adopting general guidelines that include establishing learning objectives and responding in a timely and productive fashion to dissertation, requests for letters of recommendation, and other key career development milestones.
  • Seek multiple mentors to provide diverse forms of support and encourage other students to do so.
  • Seek advice from trusted faculty and peers on how to respond to negative mentoring experiences, including when it may be necessary to change mentors.
  • Ask for evidence of mentor effectiveness from department chairs, program directors, and other students in the program, and carefully weigh this evidence in choosing mentors.
  • Ask for opportunities to report honestly and confidentially on mentorship experiences, perhaps through ombudspersons.

Mentoring Tools

Individual Development Plans (IDPs)

The IDP is a tool for providing structure to mentors and mentees in their work together (Vincent et al., 2015). Developing IDPs requires that mentees think through their short and long-term career plans and formulate a path to enact the plans with support from their mentor. IDPs provide a mechanism for supporting effective mentorship behaviors in a manner tailored and responsive to mentees’ career plans as well as their unique skills, interests, and values (Hobin et al., 2014). The use of IDPs supports structured bilateral engagement and personalization in the mentorship exchange (Hobin et al., 2014; Vincent et al., 2015). Assessments of IDPs indicate they are useful in facilitating skills identification and developing the abilities needed to support career success (Hobin et al., 2014). Given that the use of IDPs is correlated with greater reports of satisfaction and scientific productivity on the part of postdoctoral scientists (Davis, 2009), their expanded use in training programs is expected to benefit a broad range of student scientists (Fuhrmann, 2016).

Examples of IDPs include:

  • MyIDP: “a unique, web-based career-planning tool tailored to meet the needs of PhD students and postdocs in the sciences.”
  • ChemIDP: A free career planning tool designed by the American Chemical Society for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars.
  • The Entering Research IDP for undergraduate students: The “Professional Development Plans” activity may be accessed for free once a profile is created.

Other description of IDPs and examples.

Mentorship Compacts

Communication of expectations may occur when a mentee and mentor(s) begin their relationship through the use of a mentorship compact. This is a written agreement that provides a structure for mentors to outline expectations from, and commitments to, mentees, and vice versa. Compacts differ from an IDP, which focuses on short and long-term career plans, as they are focused on expectations for the working relationship on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. More often than not, the explicit conversations between mentors and mentees about these expectations for the working alliance do not occur or only occur at the start of the relationship, and there is little if any external check that expectations are reasonable. Mentorship compacts can prompt more structured and regular discussions of expectations, making expectations explicit. Written compacts can also ensure that all mentees, regardless of their prior experience and socialization to STEMM, have equal access to information regarding expectations.

Mentorship compacts are usually distinct from the more strictly contractual agreements that are sometimes utilized in laboratory-based training environments. Rather, the term "compact" connotes something both mutual and aspirational. Indeed, examples of mentorship compacts often invoke inspirational language about "promises" that mentors make to mentees and vice-versa, and those promises can be attached to principles (e.g., loyalty, availability) as opposed to deliverables (e.g., publications, research or career milestones). As such, the value of mentorship compacts is not necessarily connected to specific terms and conditions or consequences for breach of contract. Rather, as with many commitments people voluntary make, much of the value arises from declaratively communicating to the other party a serious commitment and set of intentions in support of the success of the mentoring relationship, the parameters and boundaries of those commitments, and a mutual understanding of success in the context of the relationship. The compact can also serve as a positive corrective resource—an objective reminder to the parties of what they had intended to deliver to one another—if failures to hold to the agreements occur. If necessary, such a document can be helpful for an ombudsperson who may become involved in helping to arbitrate or repair a mentoring relationship.

Examples of Mentoring Compacts include:

Mentoring Maps

Mentoring maps are versatile tools designed to help an individual identify academic and career goals, sources of support to reach those goals, and areas where unmet needs could benefit from forming new mentoring relationships as part of a mentorship network. (Montgomery, 2017). The mapping process uses pointed questions rooted in mentorship to drive a personal mentoring needs assessment and a mentoring network mapping exercise.

Examples of Mentoring Maps include:

  • In her 2017 article “Mapping a Mentoring Roadmap and Developing a Supportive Network for Strategic Career Advancement,” Dr. Beronda Motgomery describes 1) how to construct a mentoring roadmap; 2) how to identify mentoring network resource nodes; and 3) how to build a mentoring network map.
  • The Mentoring Up curriculum includes a three part, stepwise activity which takes mentees through the steps of 1) identifying, prioritizing and communicating their needs, 2) identifying mentors within their network who can meet those needs, and 3) building a mentoring map. (The materials can be accessed for free once a profile is created on the CIMER website.)

Mentoring Plans

Mentoring plans refer to several different tools that can facilitate the roles, responsibilities, and approaches of mentors and mentees. Some people refer to mentoring compacts (see above) as mentoring plans since they provide a structure for mentors to outline expectations for their work and their relationship. Others describe mentoring plans as written documents that include both a mentoring philosophy and specific examples of how that philosophy is enacted in their mentoring practices. Mentoring plans can also outline a mentor’s plan of action for assessing their mentoring skills, behaviors, and approaches and detail their plans for advancement by identifying areas of need. The National Science Foundation (NSF) requires mentoring plans specifically in reference to training and mentoring of funded postdoctoral researchers; these plans can include all of the elements above or a selection of them.

Effectively Using Mentoring Tools

Any tool is only as effective as the care with which it is implemented; simply using a tool does not guarantee its success

For example, built in to the IDP tool is the expectation of a process whereby mentors and mentees regularly check-in on progress toward the objectives and milestones laid out with the tool. Similarly, mentoring compacts imply a working agreement about engagement in the mentoring relationship and it is therefore beneficial to agree explicitly on how to handle any failure to meet expectations by either party.

While these tools are intended to be helpful for structuring what should be a positive and mutually beneficial relationship, they can be undermined if the tools are used as blunt instruments of enforcement or of regulatory compliance. However, it is reasonable for mentors and mentees using these tools to agree that the relationship itself is conditioned upon mutual commitment to the objectives and milestones laid out. Mentors and mentees may want to seek out alternative mentoring relationships when there is a breakdown in the ability to follow through on commitments, and these tools can serve as helpful warning indicators of such situations. Ultimately, clarity, follow-up, and open communication are keys to helping ensure successful implementation of these tools.

REFERENCES CITED IN THIS GUIDE

Anderson, E., and D. Kim. 2006. Increasing the success of minority students in science and technology. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Archer, L., J. DeWitt, J. Osborne, J. Dillon, B. Willis, and B. Wong. 2010. “Doing” science versus “being” a scientist: Examining 10/11-year-old schoolchildren’s constructions of science through the lens of identity. Science Education 94(4):617–639.

Armstrong, M. A., and J. Jovanovic. 2017. The intersectional matrix: Rethinking institutional change for URM women in STEM. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 10(3):216–231.

Ashtiani, M., and C. Feliciano. 2012. Mentorship and postsecondary educational attainment of low-income youth. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles.

Baker, V. L., and K. A. Griffin. 2010. Beyond mentoring and advising: Toward understanding the role of faculty “developers” in student success. About Campus 14(6):2–8.

Bakken, L. L., A. Byars-Winston, D. M. Gundermann, E. C. Ward, A. Slattery, A. King, D. Scott, and R. E. Taylor. 2010. Effects of an educational intervention on female biomedical scientists’ research self-efficacy. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice 15(2):167–183.

Barlow, A. E. L., and M. Villarejo. 2004. Making a difference for minorities: Evaluation of an educational enrichment program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41(9):861–881.

Berk A.R., 2005. Survey of 12 strategies to measure teaching effectiveness. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 17(1):48-62.

Blake-Beard, S., M. L. Bayne, F. J. Crosby, and C. B. Muller. 2011. Matching by race and gender in mentoring relationships: Keeping our eyes on the prize. Journal of Social Issues 67(3):622–643.

Branchaw, J. L., A. R. Butz, and A. R. Smith. 2019. Entering research: A conceptual framework for research trainee development and customizable curriculum for undergraduate and graduate research trainees, edited by University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Braun, D. C., C. Gormally, and M. D. Clark. 2017. The deaf mentoring survey: A community cultural wealth framework for measuring mentoring effectiveness with underrepresented students. CBE—Life Sciences Education 16(1):ar10.

Brownell, S. E., and K. D. Tanner. 2012. Barriers to faculty pedagogical change: Lack of training, time, incentives, and...Tensions with professional identity? CBE—Life Sciences Education 11(4):339–346.

Brunsma, D. L., D. G. Embrick, and J. H. Shin. 2017. Graduate students of color: Race, racism, and mentoring in the white waters of academia. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 3(1):1–13.

Burk, H. G., and L. T. Eby. 2010. What keeps people in mentoring relationships when bad things happen? A field study from the protégé’s perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior 77(3):437–446.

Byars-Winston, A., Y. Estrada, C. Howard, D. Davis, and J. Zalapa. 2010. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: A multiple-groups analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology 57(2):205–218.

Byars-Winston, A. M., J. Branchaw, C. Pfund, P. Leverett, and J. Newton. 2015. Culturally diverse undergraduate researchers’ academic outcomes and perceptions of their research mentoring relationships. International Journal of Science Education 37(15):2533–2554.

Byars-Winston, A., P. Leverett, R. Benbow, C. Pfund, N. Thayer-Hart, and J. Branchaw. Race and ethnicity in biology research mentoring relationships. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education (forthcoming).

Calabrese Barton, A., H. Kang, E. Tan, T. B. O’Neill, J. Bautista-Guerra, and C. Brecklin. 2013. Crafting a future in science: Tracing middle school girls’ identity work over time and space. American Educational Research Journal 50(1):37–75.

Chemers, M. M., E. L. Zurbriggen, M. Syed, B. K. Goza, and S. Bearman. 2011. The role of efficacy and identity in science career commitment among underrepresented minority students. Journal of Social Issues 67(3):469–491.

Cohen, J. 1995. The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist 49(12):997–1003.

Crenshaw, K. 1991. Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review 43(6):1241–1299.

Crisp, G., and I. Cruz. 2009. Mentoring college students: A critical review of the literature between 1990 and 2007. Research in Higher Education 50(6):525–545.

Crisp, G., and I. Cruz. 2010. Confirmatory factor analysis of a measure of ‘mentoring’ among undergraduate students attending a hispanic serving institution. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education 9(3): 232–44. doi:10.1177/1538192710371982.

Cropps, T. A., and L. T. Esters. 2018. Sisters, other-mothers and aunties: The importance of informal mentors for black women graduate students at predominantly white institutions. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education.  https://diverseeducation.com/article/119653/. (August 16, 2019).

Davidson, M. N., and L. Foster-Johnson. 2001. Mentoring in the preparation of graduate researchers of color. Review of Educational Research 71(4):549–574.

Davis, G. 2009. Improving the postdoctoral experience: An empirical approach. In Science and engineering careers in the United States: An analysis of markets and employment, edited by R. B. Freeman and D. L. Goroff. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Pp. 99–127.

DeCastro, R., D. Sambuco, P. A. Ubel, A. Stewart, and R. Jagsi. 2013. Mentor networks in academic medicine: Moving beyond a dyadic conception of mentoring for junior faculty researchers. Academic Medicine 88(4):488–496.

Dennehy, T. C., and N. Dasgupta. 2017. Female peer mentors early in college increase women’s positive academic experiences and retention in engineering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114(23):5964–5969.

Dreher, G. F., and R. A. Ash. 1990. A comparative study of mentoring among men and women in managerial, professional, and technical positions. Journal of Applied Psychology 75(5):539–546.

Eagan, M. K., F. A. Herrera, J. A. Sharkness, S. Hurtado, and M. J. Chang. Crashing the gate: Identifying alternative measures of student learning in introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. Paper presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 8–12, 2011. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute.

Eby, L. T., and T. D. Allen. 2002. Further investigation of protégés’ negative mentoring experiences: Patterns and outcomes. Group and Organization Management 27(4):456–479.

Eby, L. T., T. D. Allen, B. J. Hoffman, L. E. Baranik, J. B. Sauer, S. Baldwin, M. A. Morrison, K. M. Kinkade, C. P. Maher, S. Curtis, and S. C. Evans. 2013. An interdisciplinary meta-analysis of the potential antecedents, correlates, and consequences of protégé perceptions of mentoring. Psychological Bulletin 139(2):441–476.

Eby, L. T., M. M. Butts, J. Durley, and B. R. Ragins. 2010. Are bad experiences stronger than good ones in mentoring relationships? Evidence from the protégé and mentor perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior 77(1):81–92.

Eby, L. T., and E. L. Dolan. 2015. Mentoring in postsecondary education and organizational settings. In APA handbook of career interventions, volume 2: Applications, edited by P. J. Hartung, M. L. Savickas, and W. B. Walsh. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Pp. 383–395.

Eby, L. T., S. E. McManus, S. A. Simon, and J. E. A. Russell. 2000. The protégé’s perspective regarding negative mentoring experiences: The development of a taxonomy. Journal of Vocational Behavior 57(1):1–21.

Ensher, E. A., and S. E. Murphy. 1997. Effects of race, gender, perceived similarity, and contact on mentor relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior 50(3):460–481.

Estrada, M., A. Eroy-Reveles, A. Ben-Zeev, T. Baird, C. Domingo, C. A. Gómez, K. Bibbins-Domingo, A. Parangan-Smith, and L. Márquez-Magaña. 2017. Enabling full representation in science: The San Francisco build project’s agents of change affirm science skills, belonging and community. BMC Proceedings 11(12):25.

Estrada, M., P. R. Hernandez, P. W. Schultz, and J. Herrera. 2018. A longitudinal study of how quality mentorship and research experience integrate underrepresented minorities into STEM careers. CBE—Life Sciences Education 17(1):ar9.

Estrada, M., A. Woodcock, P. R. Hernandez, and P. W. Schultz. 2011. Toward a model of social influence that explains minority student integration into the scientific community. Journal of Educational Psychology 103(1):206–222.

Felder, P. 2010. On doctoral student development: Exploring faculty mentoring in the shaping of African American doctoral student success. Qualitative Report 15(3):455–474.

Felder, P. P., and M. J. Barker. 2013. Extending Bell’s concept of interest convergence: A framework for understanding the African American doctoral student experience. International Journal of Doctoral Studies 8(1):1–20.

Felix-Ortiz, M., M. D. Newcomb, and H. Myers. 1994. A multidimensional measure of cultural identity for Latino and Latina adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 16(2):99–115.

Fleming, M., S. House, V. Shewakramani, L. Yu, J. Garbutt, R. McGee, K. Kroenke, Z. Abedin, and D. M. Rubio. 2013. The mentoring competency assessment: Validation of a new instrument to evaluate skills of research mentors. Academic Medicine 88(7):1002–1008.

Freeman, K. 1999. No services needed?: The case for mentoring high-achieving African American students. Peabody Journal of Education 74(2):15–26.

Fuhrmann, C. N. 2016. Enhancing graduate and postdoctoral education to create a sustainable biomedical workforce. Human Gene Therapy 27(11):871–879.

Gandara, P., and J. Maxwell-Jolly. 1999. Priming the pump: Strategies for increasing the achievement of underrepresented minority undergraduates. New York, NY: College Entrance Examination Board.

García, I. O., and S. J. Henderson. 2014. Mentoring experiences of Latina graduate students. Multicultural Learning and Teaching 10(1):91–110.

Gasiewski, J. A., M. K. Eagan, G. A. Garcia, S. Hurtado, and M. J. Chang. 2012. From gatekeeping to engagement: A multicontextual, mixed method study of student academic engagement in introductory STEM courses. Research in Higher Education 53(2):229–261.

Gershenfeld, S. 2014. A review of undergraduate mentoring programs. Review of Educational Research 84(3):365–391.

Golde, C. M. and T. M. Dore. 2001. At Cross Purposes: What the Experiences of Today's Doctoral Students Reveal about Doctoral Education. https://search.proquest.com/docview/62348592?accountid=152665.

Good, J. M., G. Halpin, and G. Halpin. 2000. A promising prospect for minority retention: Students becoming peer mentors. Journal of Negro Education 69(4):375–383.

Griffith, A. 2010. Persistence of women and minorities in STEM field majors: Is it the school that matters? Economics of Education Review 29(6):911–922.

Gullan. R.L., K. Bauer, P. Korfiatis, J. DeOliveira K. Blong, and M. Docherty. 2016. Development of a quantitative measure of the mentorship experience in college students. Journal of College Student Development 57(8): 1049-1055. https://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed September 19, 2019).

Haeger, H., and C. Fresquez. 2016. Mentoring for inclusion: The impact of mentoring on undergraduate researchers in the sciences. CBE—Life Sciences Education 15(3)ar36

Hall, L., and L. Burns. 2009. Identity development and mentoring in doctoral education. Harvard Educational Review 79(1):49–70.

Hall, S. 2014. Cultural identity and diaspora. In Diaspora and visual culture, edited by N. Mirzoeff. London, UK: Taylor & Francis. Pp. 21–33.

Halvorson, M. A., J. W. Finney, X. Bi, N. C. Maisel, K. P. Hayashi, J. C. Weitlauf, and R. C. Cronkite. 2015. The changing faces of mentorship: Application of a developmental network framework in a health services research career development program. Clinical and Translational Science 8(6):824–829.

Handelsman, J., C. Pfund, S. M. Lauffer, and C. M. Pribbenow. 2005. Entering mentoring: A seminar to train a new generation of scientists. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Harrison, D., K. H. Price, and M. P. Bell. 1998. Beyond relational demography: Time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal 41(1):96–107.

Hathaway, R. S., B. A. Nagda, and S. R. Gregerman. 2002. The relationship of undergraduate research participation to graduate and professional education pursuit: An empirical study. Journal of College Student Development 43(5):614–631.

Helms, J. E. 1990. Black and white racial identity: Theory, research, and practice. Edited by J. E. Helms. New York, NY, England: Greenwood Press.

Hernandez, P. R., B. Bloodhart, R. T. Barnes, A. S. Adams, S. M. Clinton, I. Pollack, E. Godfrey, M. Burt, and E. V. Fischer. 2017. Promoting professional identity, motivation, and persistence: Benefits of an informal mentoring program for female undergraduate students. PLOS ONE 12(11):e0187531–e0187531.

Hobin, J. A., P. S. Clifford, B. M. Dunn, S. Rich, and L. B. Justement. 2014. Putting PhDs to work: Career planning for today’s scientist. CBE—Life Sciences Education 13(1):49–53.

Hoyt, C. L., J. L. Burnette, and A. N. Innella. 2012. “I can do that: The impact of implicit theories on leadership role model effectiveness.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (38) 2: 257–68. doi:10.1177/0146167211427922.

Huang, G., N. Taddese, and E. Walter. 2000. Entry and persistence of women and minorities in college science and engineering education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

Hunter, A.-B., S. L. Laursen, and E. Seymour. 2007. Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students’ cognitive, personal, and professional development. Science Education 91(1):36–74.

Hurtado, S., N. L. Cabrera, M. H. Lin, L. Arellano, and L. L. Espinosa. 2009. Diversifying science: Underrepresented student experiences in structured research programs. Research in Higher Education 50(2):189–214.

Hurtado, S., M. K. Eagan, M. C. Tran, C. B. Newman, M. J. Chang, and P. Velasco. 2011. ‘We do science here’: Underrepresented students’ interactions with faculty in different college contexts. Journal of Social Issues 67(3):553–579.

Inzer, L. D., and C. B. Crawford. 2005. A review of formal and informal mentoring: Processes, problems, and design. Journal of Leadership Education 4(1):31–50.

Johnson, W. B., and D. Smith. 2016. Athena rising: How and why men should mentor women. Brookline, MA: Bibliomotion.

Jones, S. R., and M. K. McEwen. 2000. A conceptual model of multiple dimensions of identity. Journal of College Student Development 41(4):405–414.

Junge, B., C. Quiñones, J. Kakietek, D. Teodorescu, and P. Marsteller. 2010. Promoting undergraduate interest, preparedness, and professional pursuit in the sciences: An outcomes evaluation of the sure program at Emory University. CBE—Life Sciences Education 9(2):119–132.

Kim, A. Y., G. M. Sinatra, and V. Seyranian. 2018. Developing a STEM identity among young women: A social identity perspective. Review of Educational Research 88(4):589–625.

Kram, K. 1983. Phases of the mentor relationship. Academy of Management Journal 26(4):608–625.

Kram, K. E. 1985a. Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.

Kristof, A. L. 1996. Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology 49(1):1–49.

La Guardia, J. G., R.M. Ryan, C.E. Couchman, and E.L. Deci. 2000. Within-person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology 79, (3) (09): 367-384, https://search.proquest.com/docview/614405487?accountid=152665 (accessed September 19, 2019).

Lave, J., and E. Wenger. 1991. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Levinson, D. J. 1978. The seasons of a man’s life. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Lewis, V., C. A. Martina, M. P. McDermott, P. M. Trief, S. R. Goodman, G. D. Morse, J. G. LaGuardia, D. Sharp, and R. M. Ryan. 2016. A randomized controlled trial of mentoring interventions for underrepresented minorities. Academic Medicine 91(7):994–1001.

Lisberg, A., and B. Woods. 2018. Mentorship, mindset and learning strategies: An integrative approach to increasing underrepresented minority student retention in a STEM undergraduate program. Journal of STEM Education 19(3).

McCoy, D. L., R. Winkle-Wagner, and C. L. Luedke. 2015. Colorblind mentoring? Exploring white faculty mentoring of students of color. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 8(4):225.

McGee, R., and J. L. Keller. 2007. Identifying future scientists: Predicting persistence into research training. CBE—Life Sciences Education 6(4):316–331.

McGinn, A. P., L. S. Lee, A. Baez, J. Zwanziger, K.E. Anderson, E.W. Seely, and E. Schoenbaum. 2015. Mentoring in clinical-translational research: A study of participants in master's degree programs. Clinical and Translational Science8(6): 746–753. doi:10.1111/cts.12343

Merolla, D. M., and R. T. Serpe. 2013. STEM enrichment programs and graduate school matriculation: The role of science identity salience. Social Psychology of Education 16(4):575–597.

Miller, A. 2002. Mentoring students & young people: A handbook of effective practice. London: Kogan Page.

Mondisa, J. Increasing diversity in higher education by examining African-American STEM mentors’ mentoring approaches. Paper presented at the 2015 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL), Florence, Italy, September 20–24, 2015.

Montgomery, B. L. 2017. Mapping a mentoring roadmap and developing a supportive network for strategic career advancement. SAGE Open 7(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017710288 (accessed August 16, 2019).

Nagda, B. A., S. R. Gregerman, J. Jonides, W. von Hippel, and J. S. Lerner. 1998. Undergraduate student-faculty research partnerships affect student retention. Review of Higher Education 22(1):55–72.

NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). 2016. Barriers and opportunities for 2-year and 4-year STEM degrees: Systemic change to support students’ diverse pathways. Edited by S. Malcom and M. Feder. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NASEM. 2017b. Fostering integrity in research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NASEM. 2017c. Effective mentoring in STEMM: Practice, research, and future directions: Proceedings of a workshop–in brief. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NASEM. 2018a. The next generation of biomedical and behavioral sciences researchers: Breaking through. Edited by R. Daniels and L. Beninson. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NASEM. 2018b. An American crisis: The growing absence of black men in medicine and science: Proceedings of a joint workshop. Edited by C. T. Laurencin. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NASEM. 2018c. Graduate STEM education for the 21st century. Edited by A. Leshner and L. Scherer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NASEM. 2018d. Sexual harassment of women: Climate, culture, and consequences in academic sciences, engineering, and medicine. Edited by P. A. Johnson, S. E. Widnall, and F. F. Benya. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Nash, J. C. 2008. Re-thinking intersectionality. Feminist Review 89(1):1–15.

NAS-NAE-IOM. 1997. Adviser, teacher, role model, friend: On being a mentor to students in science and engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NAS-NAE-IOM. 2007. Beyond bias and barriers: Fulfilling the potential of women in academic science and engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NAS-NAE-IOM. 2009. On being a scientist: A guide to responsible conduct in research: Third edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NAS-NAE-IOM. 2011a. Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America’s science and technology talent at the crossroads. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Noe, A. R. 1988. An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relations. Journal of Personnel Psychology (41)3: 457-479.

Nora, A., and G. Crisp. 2007. Mentoring students: Conceptualizing and validating the multi-dimensions of a support system. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice 9(3):337–356.

Noy, S., & R. Ray, 2012. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Their Advisors: Is There Systematic Disadvantage in Mentorship? The Journal of Higher Education, 83(6): 876-914. doi:10.1080/00221546.2012.11777273

NRC. 2010. Gender differences at critical transitions in the careers of science, engineering, and mathematics faculty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2013. Seeking solutions: Maximizing American talent by advancing women of color in academia: Summary of a conference. Edited by K. Matchett. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2015a. Enhancing the effectiveness of team science. Edited by N. J. Cooke and M. L. Hilton. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Nucleus Learning Network (NLN). 2019. STEM mentor training. http://www.nucleuslearningnetwork.org/stemmentor (accessed April 5, 2019).

O’Meara, K., K. Knudsen, and J. Jones. 2013. The role of emotional competencies in faculty-doctoral student relationships. Review of Higher Education 36(3):315–347.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). 2019. ORAU mentor orientation. https://www.orau.gov/mentoring/default.html (accessed May 23, 2019).

Ortiz-Walters, R., and L. L. Gilson. 2005. Mentoring in academia: An examination of the experiences of protégés of color. Journal of Vocational Behavior 67(3):459–475.

Patton, L. D. 2009. My sister’s keeper: A qualitative examination of mentoring experiences among African American women in graduate and professional schools. Journal of Higher Education 80(5):510–537.

Patton, L. D., and S. Bondi. 2015. Nice white men or social justice allies? Using critical race theory to examine how white male faculty and administrators engage in ally work. Race Ethnicity and Education 18(4):488–514.

Pfund, C., J. L. Branchaw, and J. Handelsman. 2015. Entering mentoring version 2. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

Pfund, C., S. C. House, P. Asquith, M. F. Fleming, K. A. Buhr, E. L. Burnham, J. M. Eichenberger Gilmore, W. C. Huskins, R. McGee, K. Schurr, E. D. Shapiro, K. C. Spencer, and C. A. Sorkness. 2014. Training mentors of clinical and translational research scholars: A randomized controlled trial. Academic Medicine 89(5):774–782.

Pfund, C., S. House, K. Spencer, P. Asquith, P. Carney, K. S. Masters, R. McGee, J. Shanedling, S. Vecchiarelli, and M. Fleming. 2013. A research mentor training curriculum for clinical and translational researchers. Clinical and Translational Science 6(1):26–33.

Pfund, C. 2016. Studying the role and impact of mentoring on undergraduate research experiences. Paper commissioned for the Committee on Strengthening Research Experiences for Undergraduate STEM Students, Board on Science Education. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. https://sites.nationalacademies.org/cs/groups/dbassesite/documents/webpage/dbasse_177287.pdf. Accessed September 13, 2019.

Prunuske, A. J., J. Wilson, M. Walls, and B. Clarke. 2013. Experiences of mentors training underrepresented undergraduates in the research laboratory. CBE—Life Sciences Education 12(3):403–409.

Ragins, B. R., and J. L. Cotton. 1999. Mentor functions and outcomes: A comparison of men and women in formal and informal mentoring relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology 84(4):529–550.

Ragins, B. R., and D. B. McFarlin. 1990. Perceptions of mentor roles in cross-gender mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior 37(3):321–339.

Ragins, B. R., J. L. Cotton, and J. S. Miller. 2000. Marginal mentoring: The effects of type of mentor, quality of relationship, and program design on work and career attitudes. Academy of Management Journal 43(6):1177–1194.

Rasheem, S., A.-S. Alleman, D. Mushonga, D. Anderson, and H. F. Ofahengaue Vakalahi. 2018. Mentor-shape: Exploring the mentoring relationships of black women in doctoral programs. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning 26(1):50–69.

Ries, A., D. Wingard, C. Morgan, E. Farrell, S. Letter, and V. Reznik. 2009. Retention of junior faculty in academic medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Academic Medicine 84(1):37–41.

Robert, A. 2000. Mentoring revisited: a phenomenological reading of the literature. Mentoring and Tutoring 8(2), 145–170.

Robnett, R. D., P. A. Nelson, E. L. Zurbriggen, F. J. Crosby, and M. M. Chemers. 2018. Research mentoring and scientist identity: Insights from undergraduates and their mentors. International Journal of STEM Education 5(1):41.

Sanchez, B., U. Colon-Torres, R. Feuer, K. E. Roundfield, and L. Berardi. 2014. Race, ethnicity, and culture in mentoring relationships. In Handbook of youth mentoring, 2nd ed., edited by D. L. DuBois and M. J. Karcher. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing. Pp. 145–158.

San Miguel, A. M., and M. M. Kim. 2015. Successful Latina scientists and engineers: Their lived mentoring experiences and career development. Journal of Career Development 42(2):133–148.

Scandura, T. A. 1998. Dysfunctional mentoring relationships and outcomes. Journal of Management 24(3):449–467.

Schlosser, L. Z., and C. J. Gelso. 2001. Measuring the working alliance in advisor–advisee relationships in graduate school. Journal of Counseling Psychology 48(2):157–167.

Schockett, M. R., and M. Haring-Hidore. 1985. Factor analytic support for psychosocial and vocational mentoring functions. Psychological Reports 57(2):627–630.

Sellers, R. M., M. A. Smith, J. N. Shelton, S. A. J. Rowley, and T. M. Chavous. 1998. Multidimensional model of racial identity: A reconceptualization of African American racial identity. Personality and Social Psychology Review 2(1):18–39.

Shields, S. A. 2008. Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 59(5–6):301–311.

Simon, S. A., and L. T. Eby. 2003. A typology of negative mentoring experiences: A multidimensional scaling study. Human Relations 56(9):1083–1106.

Solorzano, D. G., and T. J. Yosso. 2000. Toward a critical race theory of Chicana and Chicano education. In Charting new terrains of Chicana(o)/Latina(o) education, edited by  C. Tejeda, C. Martinez, and Z. Leonardo. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. Pp. 35–65.

Steiner, J. F., P. Curtis, B. P. Lanphear, K. O. Vu, and D. S. Main. 2004. Assessing the role of influential mentors in the research development of primary care fellows. Academic Medicine 79(9):865–872.

Steiner, J. F., B. P. Lanphear, P. Curtis, and K. O. Vu. 2002. Indicators of early research productivity among primary care fellows. Journal of General Internal Medicine 17(11):845–851.

Stephens, N. M., M. G. Hamedani, and M. Destin. 2014. Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students’ academic performance and all students’ college transition. Psychological Science 25(4):943–953.

Stolzenberg, E. B., K. Eagan, H. B. Zimmerman, J. B. Lozano, N. M. Cesar-Davis, M. C. Aragon, and C. Rios-Aguilar. 2019. Undergraduate teaching faculty: The HERI faculty survey 2016–2017. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles.

Su, R., C. Murdock, and J. Rounds. 2015. Person-environment fit. In APA handbook of career intervention, volume 1: Foundations. APA Handbooks in Psychology [series]. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Pp. 81–98.

Syed, M., M. Azmitia, and C. R. Cooper. 2011. Identity and academic success among underrepresented ethnic minorities: An interdisciplinary review and integration. Journal of Social Issues 67(3):442–468.

Tenenbaum, H., F. J. Crosby, and M. D. Gliner. 2001. Mentoring relationships in graduate school. Journal of Vocational Behavior 59(3):326–341.

Thiry, H., and S. Laursen. 2011. The role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers into a scientific community of practice. Journal of Science Education and Technology 20(6):771–784.

Thomas, K. M., L. A. Willis, and J. Davis. 2007. Mentoring minority graduate students: Issues and strategies for institutions, faculty, and students. Equal Opportunities International 26(3):178–192.

Vaccaro, A., and M. J. Camba-Kelsay. 2018. Cultural competence and inclusivity in mentoring, coaching, and advising. New Directions for Student Leadership 2018(158):87–97.

Vincent, B. J., C. Scholes, M. V. Staller, Z. Wunderlich, J. Estrada, J. Park, M. D. Bragdon, F. Lopez Rivera, K. M. Biette, and A. H. DePace. 2015. Yearly planning meetings: Individualized development plans aren’t just more paperwork. Molecular Cell 58(5):718–721.

Waldeck, J., V. Orrego, T. Plax, and P. Kearney. 1997. Graduate student/faculty mentoring relationships: Who gets mentored, how it happens, and to what end. Communication Quarterly 45(3):93–109.

Wenger, E. 1999. Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, S. N., B. K. Thakore, and R. McGee. 2016a. Career coaches as a source of vicarious learning for racial and ethnic minority PhD students in the biomedical sciences: A qualitative study. PLOS ONE 11(7).

Wilson, Z. S., L. Holmes, K. deGravelles, M. R. Sylvain, L. Batiste, M. Johnson, S. Y. McGuire, S. S. Pang, and I. M. Warner. 2012. Hierarchical mentoring: A transformative strategy for improving diversity and retention in undergraduate STEM disciplines. Journal of Science Education and Technology 21(1):148–156.

Wingard, D. L., K. A. Garman, and V. Reznik. 2004. Facilitating faculty success: Outcomes and cost benefit of the UCSD National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine. Academic Medicine 79(suppl. 10):S9–S11.

Xu, Y. J. 2008. Gender disparity in STEM disciplines: A study of faculty attrition and turnover intentions. Research in Higher Education 49(7):607–624.

Yun, J., B. Baldi, and M. Sorcinelli. 2016. Mutual mentoring for early-career and underrepresented faculty: Model, research, and practice. Innovative Higher Education 41(5):441–451.

 

Comments or Suggestions? www.nap.edu/mentoring