Scientific research has enabled America to remain at the forefront of global competition for commercially viable technologies and other innovations. For more than 65 years, the United States has led the world in science and technology. Discoveries from scientific research have extended our understanding of the physical and natural world, the cosmos, society, and of humans - their minds, bodies, and economic and other social interactions. Through these discoveries, science has enabled longer and healthier lives, provided for a better-educated citizenry, enhanced the national economy, and strengthened America's position in the global economy. At a time of budget stringency, how can we foster scientific innovation to ensure America's unprecedented prosperity, security, and quality of life?
Although many studies have investigated the impacts of research on society, Furthering America's Research Enterprise brings to bear a fresh approach informed by a more holistic understanding of the research enterprise as a complex, dynamic system. This understanding illuminates why America's research enterprise has historically been so successful; where attention should be focused to increase the societal benefits of research investments; and how those who make decisions on the allocation of funds for scientific research can best carry out their task.
This report will be of special interest to policy makers who support or manage the research enterprise, to others in public and private institutions who fund research, to scholars of the research enterprise, and to scientists and engineers who seek to better understand the many pathways through which their research benefits society.
Table of Contents
|Chapter 1: Introduction||5-14|
|Chapter 2: Evolution of the U.S. Research Enterprise||15-30|
|Chapter 3: Understanding the Pathways from Research to Innovation||31-42|
|Chapter 4: The Usefulness and Limitations of Metrics in Measuring the Returns on Publicly Funded Research||43-58|
|Chapter 5: Measuring Research Impacts and Quality||59-78|
|Chapter 6: Understanding the Research Enterprise as a Complex System||79-94|
|Chapter 7: Conclusion||95-100|
|Appendix A: An Evaluation of STAR METRICS||115-126|
|Appendix B: U.S. Universities and Industrial Innovation: An Interactive Relationship Producing Economic Value from Research||127-144|
|Appendix C: Annotated Bibliography of Selected Studies||145-154|
|Appendix D: The Study Process||155-156|
|Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff||157-162|
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