This comprehensive volume follows up and expands on an earlier National Academy of Sciences book. It is the result of an intensive multidisciplinary effort to assess the problems relating to petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Specifically, it examines the inputs, analytical methods, fates, and effects of petroleum in the marine environment. The section on effects has been expanded significantly, reflecting the extensive scientific effort put forth in determining the effects of petroleum on marine organisms. Other topics discussed include petroleum contamination in specific geographical areas, the potential hazards of this contamination to human health, the impact of oil-related activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and the potential impact of petroleum on fisheries.