Among the oldest and most enduring of American institutions are those that have been devoted to the encouragement of the arts and the sciences. During the nineteenth century, a great many scientific societies came and went, and a few in individual disciplines achieved permanence. But the century also witnessed the founding of three major organizations with broadly interdisciplinary interests: the Smithsonian Institution in 1846; the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists, which in 1848 became the American Association for the Promotion (later, Advancement) of Science; and the National Academy of Sciences in 1863.
The founding of the National Academy of Sciences represented a momentous event in the history of science in the United States. Its establishment in the midst of a great civil war was fortuitous, perhaps, and its early existence precarious; and in this it mirrored the state of science at that time. The antecedents of the new organization in American science were the national academies in Great Britain and on the Continent, whose membership included the principal men of science of the realm. The chartering of academies under the auspices of a sovereign lent the prestige and elements of support and permanence the scientists sought, and in return they made their scientific talents and counsel available to the state.
The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963 describes the National Academies from inception through the beginning of the space age. The book describes the Academies' work through different periods in history, including the Postbellum years, World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II.
Table of Contents
|1 The Academy's Antecedents||1-15|
|2 Scientists and Scientific Organizations in Mid-Century America||16-42|
|3 The Incorporation and Organization of the Academy||43-78|
|4 The Government Calls upon the Academy||79-99|
|5 Postbellum Years and the Crisis within the Academy||100-133|
|6 The End of the Nineteenth Century||134-164|
|7 The Academy Marks Its Semicentennial||165-199|
|8 World War I and the Creation of the National Research Council||200-241|
|9 The Research Council's Permanent Status and the Academy's New Home||242-280|
|10 The Twenties: New Horizons in Science||281-316|
|11 The Academy during the Great Depression||317-346|
|12 The New Dealand the Science Advisory Board||347-381|
|13 The Academy in World War II||382-432|
|14 The Postwar Organization of Science||433-474|
|15 The Years between the Wars||475-516|
|16 The Academy in the Fifties--Beginnings of the Space Age||517-564|
|17 Academy Centennial||565-594|
|APPENDIX A Act of Incorporation: National Academy of Sciences||595-597|
|APPENDIX B Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences at the Meeting Held for Organization in the Chapel of the New York University on the 22nd, 23rd,and 24th days of April 1863||598-605|
|APPENDIX C Constitution and By-Laws of the National Academy of Sciences, Adopted January 1864||606-613|
|APPENDIX D Members and Foreign Associates of theNational Academy of Sciences,1863-1963, and Year of Election*||614-633|
|APPENDIX E Officers and Members of the Council of the National Academy of Sciences, 1863-1963||634-643|
|APPENDIX F Executive Orders Defining the Duties and Functions of the National Research Council||644-647|
|APPENDI X G Chairmen of the National Research Council||648-649|
|APPENDIX H Executive Secretaries and Executive Officers of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council||650-651|
|APPENDIX I Executive Orders Relating to the Science Advisory Board: Establishment, July 31, 1933; Appointment of Additional Members, May 28, 1934; and Continuation, July 15, 1935||652-656|
The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Rightslink service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Rightslink, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Rightslink allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Rightslink you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the National Academies Press (NAP) through Rightslink:
Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Rightslink service, please contact:
Rightslink Customer Care
Tel (toll free): 877/622-5543
To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at 800-624-6242 for pricing.
To request permission to translate a book published by the National Academies Press or its imprint, the Joseph Henry Press, please click here to view more information.