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RECOMMENDATION: Psychological effects of cannabinoids, such as anxiety reduction and sedation, which can influence medical benefits, should be evaluated in clinical trials.

Physiological Harms: Tissue and Organ Damage

Many people who spoke to the IOM study team in favor of the medical use of marijuana cited the absence of marijuana overdoses as evidence that it is safe. Indeed, epidemiological data indicate that in the general population marijuana use is not associated with increased mortality.138 However, other serious health outcomes should be considered, and they are discussed below.

It is important to keep in mind that most of the studies that report physiological harm resulting from marijuana use are based on the effects of marijuana smoking. Thus, we emphasize that the effects reported cannot be presumed to be caused by THC alone or even in combination with other cannabinoids found in marijuana. It is likely that smoke is a major cause of the reported effects. In most studies the methods used make it impossible to weigh the relative contributions of smoke versus cannabinoids.

Immune System

The relationship between marijuana and the immune system presents many facets, including potential benefits and suspected harms. This section reviews the evidence on suspected harms to the immune system caused by marijuana use.

Despite the many claims that marijuana suppresses the human immune system, the health effects of marijuana-induced immunomodulation are still unclear. Few studies have been done with animals or humans to assess the effects of marijuana exposure on host resistance to bacteria, viruses, or tumors.

Human Studies

Several approaches have been used to determine the effects of marijuana on the human immune system. Each has serious limitations, which are discussed below.

Assays of Leukocytes from Marijuana Smokers. One of the more common approaches has been to isolate peripheral blood leukocytes from people who have smoked marijuana in order to evaluate the immune



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