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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects oil in the sea III Inputs, Fates, and Effects Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Ocean Studies Board and Marine Board Divisions of Earth and Life Studies and Transportation Research Board NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth St., N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the committee were supported by grants from the Minerals Management Service, the American Petroleum Institute, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, the Department of Energy, U.S. Coast Guard, the National Ocean Industries Association, the U.S. Navy, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Oil in the sea III : inputs, fates, and effects. p. cm. “Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects, Ocean Studies Board and Marine Board, Divisions of Earth and Life Studies and Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08438-5 (hardcover) 1. Oil pollution of the sea. 2. Oil pollution of the sea—Environmental aspects. I. Title: Oil in the sea three. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. GC1085 .O435 2002 628.1′6833—dc21 2002015715 Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects COMMITTEE ON OIL IN THE SEA: INPUTS, FATES AND EFFECTS JAMES COLEMAN (Chair), Louisiana State University JOEL BAKER, University of Maryland CORT COOPER, ChevronTexaco Exploration Petroleum Technology Co. MERV FINGAS, Environment Canada GEORGE HUNT, University of California, Irvine KEITH KVENVOLDEN, U.S. Geological Survey KEITH MICHEL, Herbert Engineering Corporation JACQUELINE MICHEL, Research Planning, Inc. JUDITH McDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution JONATHAN PHINNEY, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography ROBERT POND (until October 1, 2000), U.S. Coast Guard NANCY RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium LARRY ROESNER, Colorado State University ROBERT B. SPIES, Applied Marine Sciences and Biomark Staff DAN WALKER, Study Director JENNIFER MERRILL, Program Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant JULIE PULLEY, Project Assistant Consultants LAUREL SAITO, University of Nevada-Reno DAGMAR SCHMIDT ETKIN, Environmental Research Consulting ALEXANDER M. TAIT, Equator Graphics, Inc. JAMES MILLER, Equator Graphics, Inc. The work of this committee was overseen by the Ocean Studies Board and the Marine Board of the National Research Council.
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects OCEAN STUDIES BOARD NANCY RABALAIS (Chair), Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LARRY CROWDER, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina G. BRENT DALRYMPLE, Oregon State University (ret.), Corvallis RICHARD B. DERISO, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, California EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas ROBERT DUCE, Texas A&M University, College Station WAYNE R. GEYER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts D. JAY GRIMES, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs MIRIAM KASTNER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook RALPH S. LEWIS, Connecticut Geological Survey, Hartford BONNIE McCAY, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey JULIAN P. McCREARY, JR., University of Hawaii, Honolulu JACQUELINE MICHEL, Research Planning, Inc., Columbus, South Carolina RAM MOHAN, Blasland, Bouck & Lee, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett JON G. SUTINEN, University of Rhode Island, Kingston NANCY TARGETT, University of Delaware, Lewes PAUL TOBIN, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, Fairfax, Virginia Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer JOANNE BINTZ, Program Officer JENNIFER MERRILL, Program Officer TERRY SCHAEFER, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate SHIREL SMITH, Administrative Associate JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant NANCY CAPUTO, Senior Project Assistant DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant BYRON MASON, Project Assistant JULIE PULLEY, Project Assistant ALISON SCHRUM, Project Assistant
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects MARINE BOARD RADOJE (ROD) VULOVIC (Chair) U.S. Ship Management, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina R. KEITH MICHEL (Vice Chair) Herbert Engineering Corp., Alameda, California PETER F. BONTADELLI, PFB and Associates, Citrus Heights, California BILIANA CICIN-SAIN, Marine Policy Center, Newark, Delaware BILLY L. EDGE, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas PETER J. FINNERTY, American Ocean Enterprises, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland MARTHA GRABOWSKI, LeMoyne College, Cazenovia, New York RODNEY GREGORY, PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP, Fairfax, Virginia I. BERNARD JACOBSON, IBJ Associates, Shelter Island Heights, New York GERALDINE KNATZ, Port of Long Beach, Long Beach, California SALLY ANN LENTZ, Ocean Advocates, Clarksville, Maryland PHILIP LI-FAN LIU, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York RADM MALCOLM MACKINNON, III, MSCL, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia REGINALD McKAMIE, Houston, Texas SPYROS P. PAVLOU, URS Corporation, Seattle, Washington CRAIG E. PHILIP, Ingram Barge Company, Nashville, Tennessee EDWIN J. ROLAND, Elmer-Roland Maritime Consultants, Houston, Texas E. G. “SKIP” WARD, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas DAVID J. WISCH, Exploration and Production Technology Company, Bellaire, Texas Staff JOEDY W. CAMBRIDGE, Director BEVERLY HUEY, Senior Staff Officer PETER JOHNSON, Consultant BRIE SCHWARTZ, Staff Assistant MARY KISSI, Staff Assistant
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Acknowledgments The committee offers thanks to the large number of individuals who provided information and insights. Their assistance was critical for the success of this report. In particular, the committee would like to thank J. Aspland, California Maritime Academy; P. Montagna, University of Texas; M.Kennicutt, Texas A&M University; M. Fry, U. of California, Davis; J. Cimato, MMS; M. Meza, U.S. Coast Guard; M. Mair and S. Harris, U.S.S. Mississinewa Reunion Group; H. Roberts, Louisiana State University; I. MacDonald, Texas A&M University; J. Everett, Earth Satellite Corporation; D.Buthman, Unocal; A. Lugo-Fernandez, MMS; J. Clark, U. of California, Santa Barbara; D. French, Applied Science Associates, Inc.; G. Rainey and D. Panzer of the MMS; D.Hale, Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality; J.Neff, Battelle Laboratories; L.Young, ChevronTexaco; A.Glickman, ChevronTexaco; W. Gala, ChevronTexaco; B.Richarson, ChevronTexaco; T. Suchan; U.S. Census Bureau, J. Ray, Shell Global Solutions; S. Merritt, ChevronTexaco; O. Johansen, Sintef; W. Lehr, A. Mearns, J. Short, and S. Rice, NOAA; J. Corps, AEA Technology; E.Ranheim, International Association of Independent Tanker Operators (INTERTANKO). The committee offers thanks the U.S. Coast Guard and Minerals Management Service for their help in obtaining spill data used in this study. Cheryl Anderson of Minerals Management Service, deserves special thanks. Without Cheryl’s ongoing efforts to maintain the Outer Continental Spills database, many of the results presented here would not be possible. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Thomas D. Barrow, Thomson-Barrow Corporation, Houston, Texas Sue Bucheger, Mercury Marine, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin Charles Cox, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, California John Farrington, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Bill Lehr, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington Al Maki, Exxon Mobil, Anchorage, Alaska Robert Pitt, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Dragos Rauta, INTERTANKO, Oslo, Norway Jeep Rice, NOAA Auke Bay Laboratory, Juneau, Alaska John A. Wiens, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Bailar, University of Chicago, (report review monitor) and Andrew Solow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, (report review coordinator). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Preface In the 1970s scientists began to realize that a significant quantity of pollutants were being discharged into marine waters worldwide, but very little quantitative data on the volume of discharges were available. Realizing the potential danger to sensitive estuarine and marine habitats, the NRC organized a workshop in 1973, bringing together scientists from a variety of backgrounds to address the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon discharge into the marine environment. This workshop culminated in a report in 1975 by the National Research Council entitled Petroleum in the Marine Environment. One of the major findings of the report was recognition that there was a significant lack of systematic data concerning petroleum hydrocarbon discharges. The report, lacking significant quantitative data, was based on estimates and in some instances, educated guesses. Even though lacking substantial quantitative data, the report generated considerable interest and was well-received by industry, government agencies, and scientists. Ten years later, the U.S. Coast Guard requested that the Ocean Sciences Board of the National Research Council update this report, using data that had been acquired in the preceding ten years. Forty-six experts were invited to prepare summary reports on all aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon discharges into the marine environment and to evaluate the fates and effects of these discharges. The resulting report, entitled Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates and Effects, was published in 1985. This report has served as the seminal publication documenting petroleum pollution in the world’s oceans. Realizing that a considerable amount of data had been accumulated in the past fifteen years, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) approached the Ocean Studies Board to undertake an update of the 1985 report. Financial support was obtained from the Minerals Management Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Navy, the American Petroleum Institute, and the National Ocean Industries Association. A committee of fourteen scientists and engineers, representing a wide range of technical backgrounds, was appointed by the National Research Council to prepare the requested report. In addition to simply acquiring and analyzing the data, the committee was charged to document the methodology utilized in preparing the calculated discharges and to verify the databases acquired. This report, hopefully, will serve as a baseline and guide for future studies. It is the committee’s opinion that the inputs computed are based on the latest analysis techniques and utilized the best quantitative data available from a wide-range of existing databases. Even though direct comparisons with the earlier reports are difficult to ascertain because of use of differing computational techniques, it is apparent that even though some sources of inputs have decreased in the twenty-year period, discharges from land-based sources, two-stroke engines, and tank vessel spills still represent a considerable volume of discharge of petroleum hydrocarbons into the sea. These discharges are released directly into the ecologically sensitive coastal estuarine environments and are a major concern. It is hoped that this report will help bring attention to this issue and encourage policymakers to explore a variety of options for reducing these discharges. I wish to thank the committee members for their dedication and hard work during the preparation of the report. Their insistence on maintaining a high level of quality throughout the analysis and interpretation process has resulted in what I believe is a scientifically sound report. The Study Director, Dr. Dan Walker, did an outstanding job of steering the committee to maintain focus on the statement of tasks, insisting on staying on schedule, and providing a balanced approach to the final report. I would like to personally thank him for his professionalism. I would also like to thank Dr. Jennifer Merrill, who worked closely with and guided the committee
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects members that compiled the section on the ecological effects of petroleum hydrocarbon discharges. I did not have the background to evaluate this part of the report and her experience and knowledge relieved me of that burden. Also deserving much thanks and recognition are Drs. Laurel Saito, of University of Nevada-Reno, and Dagmar Schmidt Etkin, of Environmental Research, Inc., both of whom worked extensively to develop much of the raw data used to estimate the input of petroleum to the marine environment. The committee members wish to especially thank the hard-working staff, Ms. Megan Kelly, Mrs. Denise Greene, and especially Ms. Julie Pulley, whose hard work greatly helped the committee develop what I think is a high quality final report. Even though the committee and staff had widely varying scientific and working backgrounds, the compilation of the report proved to be a learning experience for all and most of all, an enjoyable experience. The sponsors are to be commended for their vision in providing funding for this study—a study that could lead to a realization that marine pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons is still a major threat to the marine environment and that future reduction of such discharges should be made a priority of our nation. James C. Coleman, Chair
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 I. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 5 1 Introduction 7 2 Understanding the Risk 19 II. UNDERSTANDING INPUTS, FATES, AND EFFECTS IN DETAIL 63 3 Input of Oil to the Sea 65 4 Behavior and Fate of Oil 89 5 Biological Effects of Oil Releases 119 References 159 III. APPENDIXES 183 A Committee and Staff Biographies 185 B Definitions and Conversions 189 C Natural Seepage of Crude Oil into the Marine Environment 191 D Oil and Gas Extraction 193 E Inputs of Petroleum Hydrocarbons into the Oceans Due to Transportation Activities 203 F Inputs into the Sea from Recreational Marine Vessels 219 G Spills from Coastal Facilities 221 H Atmospheric Deposition and Air-Sea Exchange of Petroleum Hydrocarbons to the Ocean 223 I Estimating Land-Based Sources of Oil in the Sea 233 J Methods Used to Estimate PAH Loadings to the Marine Environment 253 K Regulatory Framework 255 INDEX 259
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