Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Interim Report Committee on a Review of the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. F0336CC10376 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Smithsonian Institution, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09178-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-53116-0 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION'S NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK R. Michael Roberts (Chair), University of Missouri, Columbia Joseph W. Alexander, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater Bradford S. Bell, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Kurt Benirschke, University of California, San Diego Janet Brannian, University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, South Dakota Charles Capen, Ohio State University, Columbus Rhetaugh Graves Dumas, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Lester Fisher, Chicago, Illinois Harold F. Hintz, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Paul W. Johnson, Oneota Slopes Farm, Decorah, Iowa Maxim Kiefer, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia Rebecca Remillard, MSPCA Angell Animal Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts Bernard A. Schwetz, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland Thomas Yuill, University of Wisconsin, Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, Mapleton, Utah Stephen L. Zawistowski, American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, New York, New York Staff Jamie Jonker, Study Director Jennifer Obernier, Program Officer Tanja Pilzak, Research Assistant Theresa Goedeke, Science and Technology Policy Intern Donna Lee Jameison, Sr. Project Assistant Jim Lawson, Editor v

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES May Berenbaum (Chair), University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Sandra Bartholmey, University of Illinois, Chicago Deborah Blum, University of Wisconsin, Madison H. H. Cheng, University of Minnesota, St. Paul Barbara P. Glenn, Biotechnology Industry Organization, Washington, D.C. Linda F. Golodner, National Consumers League, Washington, D.C. W.R. (Reg) Gomes, University of California, Oakland Perry R. Hagenstein, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts Janet C. King, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center, Oakland, California Daniel P. Loucks, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Whitney MacMillan, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota Terry Medley, DuPont Agriculture and Nutrition, Wilmington, Delaware Ole Nielsen, Ontario Veterinary College, Canada Alice Pell, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Bobby Phills, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee Sharron S. Quisenberry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg Sonya Salamon, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign G. Edward Schuh, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Brian Staskawicz, University of California, Berkeley Jack Ward Thomas, University of Montana, Missoula James H. Tumlinson, III, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park B.L. Turner, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts Staff Charlotte Kirk Baer, Director Karen L. Imhof, Administrative Assistant vi

OCR for page R1
INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Peter A. Ward (Chair), University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor Stephen W. Barthold, University of California, Davis, Center for Comparative Medicine William Campbell, Drew University, Department of Biology, Madison, New Jersey Rosemary W. Elliott, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Buffalo, New York Michael F. Festing, Leicestershire, United Kingdom Janet C. Gonder, Pinehurst, North Carolina Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Central Animal Laboratories, Bilthoven, Netherlands Jay R. Kaplan, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine, Winston- Salem, North Carolina Hilton J. Klein, Merck Research Laboratories, Department of Laboratory Animal Resources, West Point, Pennsylvania William Morton, University of Washington, National Primate Research Center, Seattle Randall J. Nelson, University of Tennessee, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Memphis Emilie F. Rissman, University of Virginia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Charlottesville William S. Stokes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Animal and Alternative Resources, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Michael K. Stoskopf, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh Thomas Wolfle, Cambridge, Maryland Staff Joanne Zurlo, Director Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant vii

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Preface The U.S. House of Representatives Committee on House Administration, chaired by U.S. Representative Robert W. Ney (Ohio-18th district), is responsible for oversight of the Smithsonian Institution, which administers the National Zoological Park and the Conservation and Research Center (CRC). Following a hearing held by the Committee on March 5, 2003, in which questions were raised regarding animal care and management at the National Zoological Park, Congress requested a science-based review of the quality and effectiveness of animal care and management at the National Zoo by the National Academies. In response to this request, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and Institute for Laboratory Animal Research convened a committee to conduct the review. The detailed charge to the committee is as follows: "A committee of experts will be appointed to assess the quality and effectiveness of animal management, husbandry, and care at the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. and the Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. The study will identify strengths, weaknesses, needs, and gaps in the current infrastructure and provide recommendations on changes needed to ensure effective management and care of the National Zoo's animal collection. The study will provide a description of the system currently in place, the elements and characteristics of that system, and the changing nature of concerns surrounding the system. The committee will examine the historic and recent problems with animal health and animal science practices at the zoo, including recent reports on zoo operations and a scientific examination of the causes of recent animal deaths. The committee will review the National Zoo within the context of the larger zoo community, identifying unique aspects of the environment in which the National Zoo operates. The committee will evaluate the communication and coordination of the various divisions of the zoo that impact animal care, analyze the use of resources, and outline attributes of an enhanced system to ensure the health and well-being of the animals at the National Zoo. In addition, the committee will evaluate recent and ongoing changes in zoo operations. An interim report identifying the most pressing issues in animal care and management and aspects of the system in need of immediate attention, will be delivered at the end of the initial 6 months of the study. A final report that provides a comprehensive assessment of the zoo, outlines attributes of an enhanced system to ensure the health and well-being of the animals, and includes the committee's final recommendations, will be delivered at the end of 12 months." In view of the complexity of the National Zoo, any review of the institution, even the current one, which is focused narrowly, requires a range of expertise. Accordingly the assembled committee contains individuals experienced in zoo management and operations, as well as nutritionists, veterinarians, and pathologists. Also included were experts in industrial management, toxicology, safety issues in the workplace, animal disease, zoo keeping, animal welfare, and animal physiology. The committee relied heavily on published information on how zoos should operate, input from experts presented at a National Research Council (NRC) sponsored workshop, and ix

OCR for page R1
x ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT previous evaluations of the National Zoo from the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and by the Smithsonian Institution itself. Committee members visited the Rock Creek Park and CRC campuses to view the facilities and to meet staff members on site, including all levels of management and animal keepers. Some of these meetings were pre-arranged and organized by the NRC Staff. Others were informal and spontaneous, occurring as the result of chance encounters when committee members were walking through the grounds and buildings. Committee members had open access to the entire National Zoo operation and had the opportunity to inspect the facilities much as the public views them, but also "behind the scenes" in areas where the public rarely visits. Many personal, one-on-one, interviews with National Zoo employees were conducted in order to provide insight into perceived weaknesses and strengths of the National Zoo operation. In addition to these interviews, National Zoo staff members were encouraged to submit information to the committee through NRC staff in such a manner that their identities could be protected. These impressions were discussed during the committee's deliberations and lists of issues identified. As a result, several thousand pages of records and documents were requested from National Zoo management and carefully reviewed. The committee then decided which of the issues were most pressing and described them in this initial interim report along with a series of recommendations that the committee believes should be implemented immediately. Animal care and management at zoos has changed dramatically in the past several decades and is guided by scientific peer-reviewed literature and other literature (regulatory, accreditation, and professional standards and data available in proceedings). Specific regulatory standards have been established by the Animal Welfare Act (enforced by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) and the Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Standards have been developed and are obligatory for accreditation by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. National Research Council reports serve as the scientific basis for policy and regulations pertaining to animal nutrition (Animal Nutrition Series) and to the care and use of animals used in research (Institute for Laboratory Animal Welfare publications) as well as standards utilized in industry, research, and academe. Additional standards and guidelines have been developed by professional organizations such as the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Zoological Registrars Association, American Veterinary Medical Association, and the Nutrition Advisory Group of the AZA. Many of these same organizations have annual proceedings that contain new and revised opinions on animal care and management. Finally, some data on animal care and management in zoos is available in the scientific peer-reviewed literature. The committee has reviewed much grey and scientific literature and has judiciously used these various sources of information to formulate its findings. The committee acknowledges the public's disquiet about the present state of the National Zoo and the treatment and condition of the animals housed there. It has looked carefully at the circumstances surrounding the highly publicized animal deaths from the past decade. Several of these cases have been used to illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses of the present National Zoo operation. In other instances, the record is too unclear or incomplete and confounded by hearsay and conflicting statements to allow the committee to reach a firm conclusion. This is an especially opportune time to explore the weaknesses and strengths of the present operations at the National Zoo, where scrutiny by the media has increased over the months since the committee first met. The committee hopes that this report will provide a balanced evaluation of National Zoo operations and provide the National Zoo's employees a foundation on which they can move forward with some confidence to make the National Zoo a first-rate institution. R. Michael Roberts, Chair Committee on the Review of the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgments This report represents the integrated efforts of many individuals. The committee thanks all those who shared their insights and knowledge to bring the document to fruition. We also thank all those who provided information at our public meetings and who participated in our public sessions. During the course of its deliberations, the committee sought assistance from many people who gave generously of their time to provide advice and information that were considered in its deliberations. Special thanks are due the following: Mark Edwards, Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California David Evans, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Michael Hutchins, American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Silver Spring, Maryland Lynn Kramer, Denver Zoological Gardens, Denver, Colorado Denny Lewis, American Zoo and Aquarium Association, Silver Spring, Maryland Tom Meehan, Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Christian Newcomer, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Lucy Spelman, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C. Andrew Teare, Jacksonville Zoological Gardens, Jacksonville, Florida Paul Vinovich, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. Ann Ward, Fort Worth Zoo, Fort Worth, Texas Richard Watkins, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Rosanne Whitehouse, University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centers, Ann Arbor The committee is especially grateful to the staff members of the National Zoo who took time to speak with the committee about the National Zoo and its operations and who provided essential information for the committee's work. The staff's candid, timely, and thoughtful input greatly facilitated the committee's efforts. The committee also appreciates the National Academies staff members who worked diligently to maintain progress and quality in its work. The study and the resulting report would not have been possible without the dedication and hard work of the two study directors, Dr. Jamie Jonker and Dr. Jennifer Obernier. A special acknowledgement is also due Bill Kearney (Director, Media Relations), who helped guide the committee through the challenges associated with a highly publicized subject. Susan Vaupel is thanked for editing the draft report prior to review. The report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: xi

OCR for page R1
xii ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT Govindasamy Agoramoorthy, Pingtung Rescue Center for Endangered Wild Animals, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Robyn Barbiers, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Greg Bauman, National Pest Management Association, Raleigh, North Carolina Val Beasley, University of Illinois, Urbana Marc Bekoff, University of Colorado, Boulder William Foster, Birmingham Zoo, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama Don Janssen, San Diego Wild Animal Park, San Diego, California David Jessup, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento Terry Medley, DuPont Agriculture and Nutrition, Wilmington, Delaware Linda Munson, University of California, Davis Craig Reed, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg Lee Simmons, Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska Andrew Teare, Jacksonville Zoological Gardens, Jacksonville, Florida Steven Thompson, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois Eduardo Valdes, Disney's Animal Kingdom, Orlando, Florida Ann Ward, Fort Worth Zoo, Fort Worth, Texas Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Harley Moon, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa and John Dowling, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................1 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND.................................................................................................9 Personnel.............................................................................................................................................10 National Zoo General Memoranda and Best Practices........................................................................11 The Animal Collection........................................................................................................................16 The National Zoo as Part of the Zoological Community ....................................................................19 2 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................23 Department of Animal Programs ........................................................................................................23 Veterinary Care...................................................................................................................................25 Animal Nutrition.................................................................................................................................35 Animal Welfare...................................................................................................................................41 Overarching Issues..............................................................................................................................45 3 RECORD KEEPING..................................................................................................................................47 Electronic Data Management in Zoological Institutions.....................................................................48 Record Keeping Practices at the National Zoo....................................................................................50 Strengths and Weaknesses in Record Keeping at the National Zoo....................................................51 4 PEST MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................................................55 Considerations for Integrated Pest Management at Zoos....................................................................55 Pest Management at the National Zoo ................................................................................................56 Strengths and Weaknesses in Pest Management at the National Zoo .................................................58 5 MISSION AND STRATEGIC PLANNING..............................................................................................59 Strategic Planning at the National Zoo................................................................................................60 Strengths and Weaknesses in Strategic Planning at the National Zoo ................................................61 REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................................................63 NATIONAL ZOO DOCUMENTS...........................................................................................................................68 APPENDIXES A National Zoological Park General Memoranda...................................................................................71 B Clinical Notes Summary Report MedARKS Medical Record for Grevy's Zebra "Buumba" (Accession #113393) Source: Smithsonian Inspector General ..........................................................75 xiii

OCR for page R1
xiv ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT C Clinical Notes Summary Report MedARKS Medical Record for Grevy's Zebra "Buumba" (Accession #113393) Source: Dr. Don Nichols ..................................................................................81 D Medical Record Report MedARKS Medical Record for Grevy's Zebra "Buumba" (Accession #113393) Source: National Zoological Park ....................................................................87 E Zoo Registrar Job Description ........................................................................................................ 101 F Public Meeting Agendas .................................................................................................................... 105 ABOUT THE AUTHORS...................................................................................................................................... 107 BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES PUBLICATIONS ........................................... 111 INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS................................................... 113 TABLES, FIGURE, AND BOXES TABLES 1-1 National Zoological Park Operating Budget (NZP, September 24, 2003) ...................................................10 1-2 National Zoological Park Capital Budget (NZP, September 24, 2003)........................................................10 1-3 Annual Budget and Staff Number for Ten AZA-accredited Zoos with 2,000 to 3,000 Vertebrate Animals in their Collection (Including the National Zoo)..............................................................................................22 1-4 Animal Collection Size and Staff Number for Ten AZA-accredited Zoos with $20 Million to $46 Million Annual Budget (Including the National Zoo)...............................................................................................22 2-1 Elements of an Effective Preventive Medicine Program..............................................................................26 2-2 Animals for Which National Zoo Medical Records Failed to Document Quarantine Procedures and Tests................................................................................................31 2-3 Lapses in Preventive Medicine Program at the National Zoo between 1998-2003......................................33 2-4 Key Nutrients Found to be Deficient or Excessive in Diets Fed to Three Primate Species at the National Zoo ...............................................................................................................................................................39 2-5 Nutrients Found to be Excessive or Deficient in the Current Winter Diet Fed to Three Zebra at the National Zoo ...............................................................................................................................................................40 3-1 General Responsibilities and Qualifications of a Zoo Registrar...................................................................49 FIGURES 1-1 Organizational chart for the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park........................................12 1-2 Organizational chart for Animal Programs Department...............................................................................13 1-3 Organizational chart for the Conservation and Research Center..................................................................14 1-4 Organizational chart for the Department of Animal Health .........................................................................15 1-5 Organizational chart for the Department of Pathology.................................................................................16 1-6 Annual status of the National Zoo animal collection ...................................................................................17 1-7 Annual animal acquisitions by the National Zoo .........................................................................................17 1-8 Number of animals removed from the National Zoo collection annually ....................................................18 1-9 Annual mortality rate at the National Zoo, by species.1-10....Annual mortality rate at the National Zoo and other zoos .....................................................................................................................................................18 1-10 Annual budget for American Zoo and Aquarium Association accredited institutions.................................20 1-11 Total number of staff for American Zoo and Aquarium Association accredited institutions.......................20 1-12 Vertebrate collection inventory for American Zoo and Aquarium Association accredited institutions.......21 1-13 Vertebrate Collection per Staff for American Zoo and Aquarium Association Members ...........................21 3-1 Range of complexity in information management systems..........................................................................48 BOXES 2-1 Case Study: Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) "Buumba" (Accession #113393), "Shaka" (Accession #113392), and "Arbez" (Accession #113417)..............................................................................................28 2-2 Case Study: African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana) "Nancy" (Accession #26223)...........................30 4-1 Lack of Procedures Jeopardizes Animal Welfare: Red Panda Deaths .........................................................57