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NOTE: eff = effective; sfc = surface; TOA = top of atmosphere.
models; and (D) indicates land system models for hydrology and terrestrial dynamics.
Examination of the number of times that a specific variable is cited under the various science questions provides a crude measure of the priority of need for measuring that variable. For instance, column one addresses the polar variation of ESE science question #1, “How are polar climate and the biosphere changing?” (which is fundamentally a monitoring question). It identifies atmospheric profiles (temperature, humidity, and winds) and a variety of other measurements as being most relevant to this science question.
Chapter 4 looks further at the most frequently cited variables and parameters in this table, such as atmospheric profiles (including temperature, humidity, and winds), cloud properties (including cover, ice/liquid content, and particle radius), etc. The committee recognizes that this is a subjective judgement but believes the logic is sound and provides some indication of the kinds of measurements most needed to answer the ESE questions.