NOTE: eff = effective; sfc = surface; TOA = top of atmosphere.
a This table is a matrix that relates the specific measurement variables to the specific science questions. In the variable/parameter column, all variables listed in sections 3.1-3.5 (in association with the science questions) are listed. Columns 1-5 relate directly to the science questions 1-5, as discussed in sections 3.1-3.5. The specific numbers in columns 1-5 correspond to specific science questions in section 3. For example, a 9 in column #3 corresponds to question 3.3.9. In column 5, the letters correspond to the parenthetical letters assigned to specific models where they were described in the text. For example, A in column 5 corresponds to numerical weather prediction models. Examination of the number of times that a specific variable is cited under the various science questions provides a crude measure of the priority of need for measuring that variable.
models; and (D) indicates land system models for hydrology and terrestrial dynamics.
Examination of the number of times that a specific variable is cited under the various science questions provides a crude measure of the priority of need for measuring that variable. For instance, column one addresses the polar variation of ESE science question #1, “How are polar climate and the biosphere changing?” (which is fundamentally a monitoring question). It identifies atmospheric profiles (temperature, humidity, and winds) and a variety of other measurements as being most relevant to this science question. Chapter 4 looks further at the most frequently cited variables and parameters in this table, such as atmospheric profiles (including temperature, humidity, and winds), cloud properties (including cover, ice/liquid content, and particle radius), etc. The committee recognizes that this is a subjective judgement but believes the logic is sound and provides some indication of the kinds of measurements most needed to answer the ESE questions.