A report on youth violence released by the U.S. Surgeon General in January, 2001 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a) contained an overview of model and promising programs that deter antisocial behaviors. These programs cover a wide range of intervention strategies, including family therapy, drug and alcohol awareness, parent training, and early childhood programs. Two of these programs are described below as examples of universal, school-based prevention with some form of parent involvement.
Bullying Prevention Program
This program is a school-wide prevention effort that originated in Norway and proved to be effective enough to reduce bully-victim problems by 50 percent. It also reduced vandalism, theft, and truancy, and students reported that it contributed to a better school climate. This program has been replicated in England, Germany, and the United States. It is an all-inclusive measure designed to heighten awareness and knowledge about bullying behavior by increasing the involvement of all responsible adults—teachers, parents, school bus drivers, administrators, counselors, and students.
The program establishes clear rules against bullying and provides support and protection for the victims. The first step in the process is the administration of the Olweus (the founder) Bully/Victim Questionnaire to students. This survey assesses the extent of the school’s bullying problem and provides data against which improvement can be measured.
A committee consisting of representatives of teachers and other responsible adults, as well as students, is then set up to oversee the school’s antiviolence efforts. In the classroom, students and teachers agree on a few simple rules—not bullying other students, helping those students who are bullied, including everyone in all activities. Teachers are given program materials and training to help students develop positive incentives to abide by the rules. All school staff receive training. Adults in the school are expected to intervene immediately if there is any indication of a bullying problem.
tions is consistent with the claims that analysts have made concerning culture (e.g., Heath, 1982).
Ineffective classroom management and instruction are certainly not the only reasons for classroom behavior problems. As Chapter 3 indicated, at kindergarten entry before academic demands are placed on students, some students are rated by parents and teachers as exhibiting more behavior problems. As with reading failure, some (but many fewer) students are likely to exhibit behavior problems even in the best-managed classrooms.
Sprague et al. (1998) organize student populations into three groups according to the level of behavior intervention they require. They recommend universal, school-wide social skills interventions for all students, concluding that most students (about 80 percent of the total) should be able to