participation and success and be prepared to use this information in designing instruction.

While a foundational knowledge base can be laid in preservice education, often classroom experience is needed before teachers can make the most of instructional experiences.

  • States should require rigorous professional development for all practicing teachers, administrators, and educational support personnel to assist them in addressing the varied needs of students who differ substantially from the norm in achievement and/or behavior.

  • The professional development of administrators and educational support personnel should include enhanced capabilities in the improvement and evaluation of teacher instruction with respect to meeting student’s individual needs.

In preparing teachers to deliver culturally responsive instruction, it is not our intention that the teacher recreate children’s home lives at school, but rather that the teacher be prepared to incorporate this information into the classroom strategically to (a) improve instruction, as when a teacher is able to help children comprehend text by relating it to familiar cultural events, activities, practices, people, etc., and (b) ensure that all students feel comfortable and have a reasonable opportunity to participate in classroom activities.

Recommendation TQ.2: State or professional association approval for teacher instructional programs should include requirements for faculty competence in the current literature and research on child and adolescent learning and development, and on successful assessment, instructional, and intervention strategies, particularly for atypical learners, including students with gifts and disabilities.

Federal-Level Recommendations

Effective teaching practice requires not only well-prepared teachers but also high-quality, research-based curricula, educational tools and protocols, and tested interventions to support the work of well-trained teachers. We emphasize the need for expanded investments in a program of research and development focused on the needs of educational practice.

Recommendation RD.1: We recommend that education research and development, including that related to special and gifted education, be systematically expanded to carry promising findings and validated prac-

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