packaging technologies (Lipsey, 1993; Newman, 1997). Naturalistic studies on the efficacies of specific training procedures must follow in both simulated and actual space mission settings.

Personalized individual training approaches must also incorporate and evaluate countermeasures based on procedures for evaluation of cognitive and behavioral functioning that are adaptable for computerized administration as self-assessment and supportive intervention procedures (Wolpe, 1958; Beck and Emery, 1985; Power et al., 1990; Beck, 1993; Barlow, 1996; Cautela and Ishaq, 1996; Rosen and Schulkin, 1998; Lazarus, 2000). These programs have been designed within a stress management context and have been effective when combined with a range of interventions including biofeedback, relaxation techniques, systematic desensitization, and pharmacological treatments.

Empirical observations about the nature of both individual and group behaviors and about how behavior patterns influence performance effectiveness can guide decisions about group composition and training. Training approaches can build on experience gained in simulated flight exercises going as far back as World War II (Office of Strategic Services, 1948) and, more recently, on that gained in the Cockpit Resource Management programs used by airline crews. The development of strategies for conflict resolution should be explored as well (Fisher et al., 1994; Heifetz, 1998).

Among the more recent and relevant developments with respect to training for small group performance effectiveness is the distributed interactive simulation methodology. This simulation approach (Box 5–5) uses multiperson computer-generated workstation networks for selection and training in realistic environments (Pratt et al., 1997; Gillis and Hursh, 1999). This method permits the objective recording and evaluation of interpersonal interactions within and between small training groups under conditions that simulate long-duration spaceflights, as well as related ground-based monitoring and support systems.

Training for long-duration space missions must involve an integrated approach that includes ground-based monitoring and support groups specifically selected to participate in such operations. NASA behavioral health personnel should be directly involved in crew selection and in training crewmembers and ground control personnel in crisis intervention and problems with interpersonal functioning. In addition, appropriate assessment tools and countermeasure development will be required to address emergencies and technical assistance requirements under conditions that involve multinational crews and the complexities related to cultural and language



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