TABLE 3–6 Reasons for 332 Medical Evacuations from All Submarines, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, 1993 to 1996

Reason for Evacuation

Number of Cases

Trauma

71

Psychiatric illness

41

Chest pain

34

Infection

40

Kidney stone

23

Appendicitis

21

Dental problem

31

Other

71

Totala

332

aRate=1.9 to 2.3 per 1,000 person-months.

SOURCE: Sack, 1998.

the Antarctic environment (drowning and exposure, n=5; outdoor injuries, n=5), seven nonpredictable deaths occurred in the Antarctic because of appendicitis (n=1), cerebral hemorrhage (n=1), acute myocardial infarction (n=2), carbon monoxide poisoning (n=1), perforated gastric ulcer (n =1), and burns (n=1). Each of these is a possible medical event on a spacecraft, indicating the wide variety of medical emergencies that can occur and that must be considered in planning for health care management in

TABLE 3–7 ANARE Health Register Illnesses in Antarctica from 1988 to 1997

Disorder

Number

Percent

Injury and poisoning

3,910

42.0

Respiratory

910

9.7

Skin, subcutaneous

899

9.6

Nervous system or sensory organs

702

7.5

Digestive

691

7.4

Infection or parasitic

682

7.3

Musculoskeletal or connective tissue

667

7.1

Ill-defined symptoms

335

3.6

Mental

217

2.3

 

SOURCE: Lugg, 2000.



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