FIGURE 2-15 Average, annual input (1990-1999) of petroleum hydrocarbons (kilotonnes) for the Pacific Seaboard of North America (plus Hawaii).

agencies, especially the U.S. Coast Guard, should work with the transportation industry to undertake a systematic assessment of the extent of noncompliance. If the estimates of noncompliance assumed in this report are essentially correct, more rigorous monitoring and enforcement policies should be developed and implemented.

Gasoline and lube oil inputs from two-stroke recreational vessels are a large marine source of petroleum hydrocarbons. These discharges are primarily gasoline and lube oil, which have high evaporation rates and low PAH levels. However, these inputs frequently occur near ecologically sensitive areas (estuaries, mangroves) during vulnerable stages in the life cycle of organisms. Federal agencies, especially the EPA, should continue efforts to regulate and encourage the phase-out of inefficient two-stroke engines, and a coordinated enforcement policy should be established.

Large quantities of VOC are discharged into the atmosphere from tank vessels and oil and gas operations. How

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