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OCR for page 9
r~ABA 1 lIPABlI~A ~ 0~3AHHOCTH HA^HbIX YtIPE0EHlIlI IlpaBH~EHOe co,~ep~aHne, ncr~0~30saHne ~ ryMaHHoe o6pameHne c *lIBOTHEIM~, ~CHO~B3yeMBIMU B Hay~HEIX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X, ~CHEITaHH~X 06yUeHHU, (HTO B HaCTOSI~eM Py~`offo~cmffe Ha3BIBaeTCH co~ep~aHH ~CHO~B30BaHHeM *HBOTHEIX) Tpe6yeT Hay~HOrO ~ HpO~eCCHOHa~BHOrO rIo,~xo,~a, OCHOBaHHOrO Ha 3HaHHU HE ~BOTHEIX ~ CHe~Ha~BHEIX Tpe60BaHHU HpOrpaMM Hay~HEIX ~CC~e~OBaHHU, ~CHEITaHHU ~ oGy~eHn~. ~HCTpyK~H, co,~ep~amnecsI B BTOH rJIaBe, HpH3BaHEI HOMOUB B BBIpa60TKe HpaBHJI CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ ~BOTHEIX B Hay~HOM y~pe~eHHH. Ka;K,D;oe y'Ipe)K,D;eHHe ,~OJI*HO OlIpe~e~HTE ~ 06eCHeHUTE HeO6XO~HMBIe MaTepua~H~Ie ~ IIe~oselIecKne peCypC~I ,~ pea~3aL~n rIpOrpaMM~I CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaHH~ ~BOTHEIX, OCy~eCTB~HeMOH B COOTBeTCTBHU C HaCTOSlILllIM Py/COffO0CmffOM ~ COOTBeTCTByIO~HMU ~e~epa~BHEIM~, Hp~H~TEIMU ~TaTOM ~ MeCTHEIMU 3aKOHaMU ~ HpaBH~aM~, HaUpUMep, ~e~epa~BHEIM HOCTaHOB~eHHeM O 3a~HTe ~BOTHEIX (AWRs) [SFR, 1985] ~ Upas~aMn no ryMaHHOMy CO~ep~aHUIO ~ ~CHO~B30BaHUIO ~a60paTOpHEIX *HBOTHEIX C~y*6BI 3,~pasooxpaHeHn~ (PHS Policy) [PHS, 1996~. ,~JI~ 3~eKTusHon peaJIn3aunn peKOMeH,~aL~n, co,~ep~am~xc~ B ~aHHOM Py~offo~cmffe, HeO6XO~HMO y~pe~HTE KOMUCCHIO H0 CO~ep~aHUIO ~ ~CHO~B30BaHUIO *HBOTHEIX (IACUC), Ha KOTOpyIO so3~araIoTc~ 06~3aHHoCTH no HpOBepKe ~ O~eHKe yHOM~HyTOH lIpOrpaMMBI. OTseTcTseHHocTB 3a rIpaKTu~ecKoe ocymecTs~eHne rIporpaMM~I 06~mHo Bo3JIaraeTc51 Ha BeTeplIHapa, lIMelo~ero cHe~Ha~EHylo HO~rOTOBKy ~H OHEIT pa60TEI C ~a60paTOpHEIMU ~BOTHEIM~, ~H Ha ~pyroro Ksa~uposaHHoro crIeuna~ncTa. K TaKOn rIporpaMMe '~o~*eH 6BITB HO~IOHeH XOTH 6BI O~HH BeTeplIHap, lIMeIO~H CHe~Ha~BHyIO HO~rOTOBKy H~H OHEIT pa60TEI C 0paTOpHEIMU *HBOTHEIM~, H~H 3HaKOMBIU C ~CHO~B3yeMBIM BH~OM *HBOTHEIX. Y~pe~eHHe HeCeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTB 3a Be~eHHe ~ypHa~a y~eTa ,~e~Te~BHocTn IACUC ~ 3a pea~3a~HIo rIporpaMMBI OXpaHEI Tpy'~a ~ TeXH~KH 6e30TIaCHOCTH. 9

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10 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL KOHTPOJIb 3A CO,LEP*AHHEM ~ MCIIOJIb30BAHHEM ~K0BOTHbIX KOM~CCHR H0 CO~ep~aHMfO ~ MCHO~b30BaHMfO ^MBOTHblX, co3,~aHHa~ IIpH yqpe~eH~ B Ka;K,D;oM Hay~HoM y~pe;K,D;eHnn oTseTcTseHHoe a,~M~HucTpaTusHoe judo HasHa~aeT credos IACUC (KOTOpaSI Hoe TaK*e HMeHyeTCSI >) ~~H KOHTpO~SI ~ O~eHKH HpOrpaMMM pa60TM C ~BOTH~M~, ~CHO~B3yeM~X MeTO~OB ~ bash, ncxo,~ ns Toro, HTO OHM ~O~HM COOTBeTCTBOBaTB peKOMeH~a~M HacToHmero Py~cooodcmea, AWRs ~ PHS Policy. Ha y~pe;K,D;eHne sos~araeTcH 06SI3aHHOCTB obecne~nTB COOTBeTCTByIO~yIO OpHeHTa~HIO, BCHOMOraTe~BHMe MaTeplIaJILI, ~OCTyD K COOTBeTCTByIO~HM peCypCaM A, HpH Heo6Xo~HMocTH, CHe~Ha~BHyIO HO~rOTOBKy H~eHOB KOMUCCHU ~~H TOrO, HTo6M HOMOUB HM lIpaB~IBHO HOHUMaTB ~ a~eKBaTHO O~eHUBaTB BOUpOCEI, BBIHOCHMBIe Ha ee paccMoTpeHHe. B COCTaB KOMUCCHU ~O~*HEI BXO~HTB tie coca: . OKTOp BeTep~HapHOH Me~HHEI, HMeIO~H TOM (CM. HpH~. is, AMep~KaHCKaSI Ko~ern~ no Me~HHCKOMy obecne~eHnIo ~a60paTOpHEIX *HBOTHEIX, ACLAM), n~n cneuna~BHyIo no~roTosKy, n~n OHEIT CHO~B3OBaHH~ ~a60paTOpHEIX *HBOTHEIX B Hay~HEIX ~ Me~HHCKHX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X, ~H OHEIT pa60TEI C ~aHHEIM BH~OM ~BOTHEIX. KaK MlIHlIMyM O~HH aKTHBHO pa60TaIO~H yqeHEIU, HMeIO~H OHEIT lICTIO3IB30BaH~ ~BOTHEIX B 3KCHepUMeHTe. KaK M~HUMyM O~HH 06~eCTBeHHEIU ~e~Te~B, Hpe~CTaB~HIO~H UHTepeCEI 06ILleCTBeHHOCTlI B OTHOIIIeHlIlI ~O~*HOrO CO~ep~aHH~ ~ ~CHO~B3OBaH~ ~BOTHEIX. TaKHe Hpe~CTaBUTe~H 06~eCTBeHHOCTH He MOryT BBICTyHaTB B KaqeCTBe lIOJIB3OBaTe~eH ~a60paTOpHEIX ~BOTHEIX, 6BITB COTpy~H~KaMU HayqHOrO yqpe*~eHH~ H~H 6~3K~MU q~eHaMU CeMBU COTpy~H~Ka . yqpe)K,D;eH~. KO~HqeCTBO ~eHOB ~ CpOK UX pa60TEI B COCTaBe KOMUCCHU OUpe~e~HeTCH q~C~OM ~TaTHEIX COTpy~H~KOB yqpe~eH~ ~ Mac~TaGaMn HpOrpaMM HayqHEIX ~CC~e~OBaHHU, ~CHEITaHHU ~ oGyqeHn~. ~OHO~HUTe~BHyIO UH+OpMa~HIO O COCTaBe KOMUCCHU MO*HO HaUTH B PHS Policy ~ AWRs. T' _ KOMlICCIISI HeCeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTB 3a HpOBepKy ~ OUeHKy HpOrpaMMBI CO~ep~aHH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaHH~ *HBOTHEIX B ~e~OM ~ OT~e~BHEIX ee COCTaB~SlIO~UX, OHUCaHHEIX B HaCTOH~eM ^KOffO0Cmffe. ~yHK~H KOMUCCHU BK~IoqaIoT: nHCrIeKTHpOBaHHe BuBapHeB; OLIeHKy rIpOrpaMM ~ rIoMe~eHHH' r,~e HpOBO~HTCH pa60Ta C *HBOTHEIMH; Hpe~CTaB~eHHe OTqeTOB OTBeTCTBeHHEIM JI~LlaM yqpe*,~eHn~; 3KCTIepTlI3y rIpe,~JIaraeM~Ix MeTO~OB ~CHO~B30BaHH *HBOTHEIX B HayqHEIX nCC~e,~OBaHH~X, nCHEITaHH~X ~ o6yqeHHU (T. e. rIpoToKoJIoB rIo'~o6HEIx MeporIpH~THH) ~ BBIpa60TKy MexaHH3Ma rIOJIyqeHH~ ~ paCCMOTpeH~ ~a~06, KacaIo~nxcH co'~ep~aHH~ ~ ncrIo~B3oBaH~ *HBOTHEIX B yqpe;K,D;eHHH. KOMUCC~ ,~O~*Ha 3aCe,~aTE r~O Mepe Heo6Xo~HMocTH, HO He pe~e o~Horo pa3a B 6 MecH~es. IIPOTOKO~BI COBe~aHHn ~ 3arIncB pe3y~BTaToB ,~nCKyCCHn ,~O~*HEI COXPaHSITBCH. KOMUCCH~ ~O~*Ha PaCCMaTPUBaTB HPOrPaMMBI co'~ep~aH~ ~BOTHEIX ~ rIpoBo'~nTB rIpOBepKy BuBapHeB ~ ,~pyrux rIOMe~eHHn,

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ILPABBJ1A ~ 06~3AHHOC~HA~HL~PE~EHBB 11 B KOTOp~X HpOBO~HTCH pa60Ta C ~BOTH~M~, He Pete o~Horo pasa B 6 Decades. Troche paCCMOTpeH~ lI lIpOBepKlI KOMlICC~ mocha Hpe~CTaBUTB HUCBMeHHMU oT~eT, r~o,~r~ncaHHun 6o~Bm~HcTsoM Credos IACUC, oTseTcTseHHuM ~O~HOCTHEIM Gloam B a~M~HUCTpa~H y~pe~eH~ O COCTO~HHU Den B paMKaX lIpOrpaMMLI CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B3OBaH~ ~BOTH~X ~ ~pyrux Meponp~Tun, yKaSaHH~X B ~Koffo~cmffe ~ Tpe6yeM~x ~e~epa~BHuMH7 Hp~H~T~MU ~TaTOM ~ MeCTHuMU UHCTpyK~nHMU ~ HpaBH~aMH. IIPOTOKO~M OHM paccMaTpuBaTBcH B the ux COOTBeTCTB~ AWRs, PHS Policy, IIp~Hunr~aM r~pasuTe~BcTsa CIIIA B OTHOmeHHn rIpuMeHeH~ ~ co'~ep~aHH~ rIOsBOHOqHuX BOTHuX, ncrIo~BayeM~x B nCrI~TaH~X, HayqHuX nCC~e,~OBaH~X ~ o6yqeHHn [IRAC 1985; CM. rapt. ti7 a TaK*e HaCTOH~eMy py~coffo~cmffy (CM. rIpuM. l). IlpOTOKO~b! CO~ep~aHMB ~ MCHO~b3OBaHMB ^MBOTHblX IlpH rIO,~rOTOBKe ~ paCCMOTpeHHn rIpoToKo~oB co'~ep~aHH ncrIo~BsoBaHH~ *HBOTHuX Heo6xo'~HMo o6paTHTB BHuMaHHe Ha c~e,~ylo~He BorIpocEI: o6ocHoBaHHe ~ berg rIpe,~araeMoro ncrI0~30BaH~ *HBOTHuX. . 060CHoBaHHe BM60pa ,~aHHOrO B~a ~ TpebyeMoro KO~nqeCTBa ~BOTHuX. Ilo BO3MO*HOCTH, Tpe6yeMOe q~C~O ~BOTH~X ~O~*HO HO~TBep~aTBCH CTaTlICTlIqe CKlI. t,ICHO~B3OBaHHe H~H BO3MO*HOCTB HpUMeHeHH~ MeHee UHBa3HBH~X lIpO~e~yp, ~pyrux B~OB ~BOTH~X, HpeHapaTOB H30~HpOBaHH~X OpraHOB, Ky]IBTyp K~eTOK ~H TKaHeH ~H KOM0BlOTepHOrO MO~e~HpOBaHH~ (CM. rip~. A: >~. COOTBeTCTBUe HO~rOTOBKH ~ OH~Ta HepCOHa~a, BMHO~HHIO~erO yKaSaHHMe rIpO~e~ypM. Heo6~qHMe Tpe60BaHUSI H0 co~ep~aHHIo ~ pa3Be~eHHIo ~BOTH~X. pUMeHeHHe COOTBeTCTBylO~UX Ce~aTHBH~X upenapaTos, aHa~BreT~KOB ~ aHeCTeT~KOB. (IIpH HO~rOTOBKe ~ paCCMOTpeHHU HpOTOKO~OB HO~e3H~M MO*eT OKaSaTBCH ~CHO~B3OBaHHe ~Ka~M 60~H ~H UHBa3HBHOCTH; CM. rIp~. A: >.) HeHy*Hoe,~y6~uposaHne ~KCHepUMeHTOB. BLITIOJIHeHlIe MHOrOKpaTHLIX 06IIIlIpHLIX x~pypraqecKHx orIepaLlHH. . KpuTepHn ~ rIpo~ecc CBOeBpeMeHHOrO BMemaTe~BcTBa, H3~HT~ ~BOTHEIX ~ _ H3 3KcrIeDuMeHTa ~n 3nTaHa3~. ecJIn rIDearIoJIaraloTcH noJIe3HeHHEIe ~n ~ r ~ CTpeCCOBBIe CHTya~. yxo'~ 3a ~IBOTHEIMU noc~e BBInO~HeH~ 3KcHepuMeHTa. MeTo,~ anTaHa3~n ~n ~HKBH~a~H *HBOTHOrO. Be30r~acHocT~ pa60qnx r~oMemeHnn ,~H r~epcoHa~a. B HeKOTOpLIX c~yqa~x HpOTOKO~BI Hpe~yCMaTpUBaIOT He BCTpOqaB~HeCH paHee lIJIlI MOryILllIe BBI3BaTB 60JIB lI CTpa~aHH~ HpO~e~ypLI, KOTOpLIe He~B3H Ha~e*HO KOHTpO~HpOBaTB. TaKne HpO~e~ypLI MOryT B~IOqaTB ~3HqeCKyIO ~nKCaun~O, MHOrOKpaTH~Ie 06~upH~Ie x~pypr~qecKne or~epaunn, OrpaHlIqeH~ B rIo~yqaeMon rInme ~n ~KOCTlI, lICTIO3IB30BaHHe a~IOBaHTOB, ~CTIOJIB30BaHHe CMepTlI KaK KOHeqHOlI TOqKlI 3KCTIeplIMeHTa, lIplIMeHeHlIe Bpe~HEIX CTHMy~HTOpOB, TeCTHpOBaHHe pa3~pa~MOCTH KO~ ~H pOrOBH~BI, HeOrpaHlIqeHHEIU pOCT oDyxo~H, B3HTHe KpOBU H3 HO~OCTeH cep~ua n~n

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12 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL r~asHn~Horo c~Hyca n~n ncr~o~sosaHne Heo6~Hux r~apaMeTpos Ape, o6nTaH~. Heo6xo,~uMy~o o6~eKTusHy~o nH~opMaun~o o r~poue,~ypax ~ Rebox KOHKpeTHOrO lICC3Ie~OBaHH~ MO*HO HaUTH B ~HTepaType, HO~yHUTB y seTep~Hapos, nccJIe,~osaTeJIen ~,~pyrux crIeL~naJIncTos, pacrIoJIara~om~x ,~aHHuMn o6 ux BO3~eUCTBHU Ha *HBOTH~X. B comae orpaHn~eHHoro o6~eMa ,~aHH~Ix rIo KoHKpeTHon rIpoL~e,~ype MO*HO lIpe~BapUTe~BHO HpOBeCTH, HOD KoHTpo~eM IACUC, He6o~B~on rIo Mat aKcrIepuMeHT, HarIpas~eHHun Ha OLleHKy BJIn~HH~ ,~aHHOn rIpoLle'~ypM Ha *HBOTHuX. 06~He rIp~HLlurIM O~eHKH rIo'~o6Hux MeTO,~OB rIpuBo'~HTcH B ,~aHHOM payee, O,~HaKO B pace c~y~aeB OHn MOryT oKa3aTBcH HerIpHeM~eMBIMH. G>~3~ecKa~ HKCaLlMB Icon RECKON ~nKcaunen HOHUMalOT HpUMeHeHHe py~H~X H~n MeXaHnIIeCKHX Cpe,~CTB, OrpaHnIInBalO~nX IIaCTHIIHO H~n rIo~HocTBlo HopMa~BHylo rIo'~B~HocTB ~BOTHOrO, C Pueblo era OCMOTpa, sa60pa o6pas~os, BBe~eHH~ ~apMaKo~orn~ecKnx upenapaTos, ~e~eHn~ H~n BBIHO~HeHH ~KCHepUMeHTa~BH~X MaHHUy~. B 60~B~HHCTBe C~yHaeB *HBOTHMe HKCHpyIOTCH Ha KOpOTKOe BpeM~, 06~mHo Ha HeCKO~BKO M~HyT. KpaTKOBpeMeHHaSI ~3~HeCKaH ~HKCa~H *HBOTHEIX OCy~eCTB~HeTCH JIn60 spy~HyIo, JIn60 c lIOMO~BIO ~HKCHpyIO~UXyCTpOUCTB. TaKHe yCTpOUCTBa ~O~HM H0~6HpaTBCH C y~eTOM UX pa3MepOB, KOHCTpy~H ~ cuocoba ~encTs~ ~H TOrO, HTo6M MaKCHMa~BHO yMeHB~HTB ~HCKOM~OpT ~H TpaBM~pOBaHHe ~BOTHOrO. MHOrHe HOpO~M Co6aK, B~M HpUMaTOB [Reinhardt, 1991, 1995] ,~pyrux *HBOTH~X 06yHaIOTCH C HOMO~BIO MeTO~a HO~O*HTe~BHOrO lIO~Kpe~eHH~ Hpe~HB~HTB KOHe~HOCTH ~H OCTaBaTBCH HeHO~BH*HEIMU B TelIeHlIe BBIHO3IHeH~ KOpOTKHX HpOue~yp. IlpUMeHeH~,D~HTe~BHOH ~HKCa~H, B TOM ~nc~e 3aKpe~eH~ upuMaTos B Kpec~e, c~e~yeT nsberaTB, ec~n TO~BKO TaKOH MeTO~ He ~B~HeTCH o6~saTe~BH~IM ~ s~IrIo~HeHn~ sa~a~ ncc~e~osaHn~, rIpu yc~osu~ ero o~o6peH~ IACUC. Ilpe~rIo~TeHne c~e~yeT oT~asaTB MeHee ~ecTK~M c~cTeMaM ~HKCa~H, He OrpaHHHUBaIO~HM CHoC06HOCTB *HBOTHOrO Hp~HUMaTB HOpMa3IBHEIe ~3~0~0rHHeCKHe HO~O*eHH~, HaUpUMep, HOBO~OK ~H lIplIMaTOB lIJIlI lIplIBSI3B ~H Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX *HBOTHEIX, ec~n OHU cosMecTuM~I c 3a~a~aMn ncc~e~osaHn~ [Bryant, 1980; Byrd, 1979; Grandin, 1991; McNamee et al., 1984; Morton et al., 1987; Wakeley et al., 1974~. t,ICHO~B3yeMBIe ~HKCHpylO~He yCTpOUCTBa ~O~*HEI cHe~Ha~EHo H0~6HpaTECH ,~H ,~OCTH*eHH~ 3a'~alI nCC~e,~OBaHH~, KOTOpLIe He~B3H peIIInTB'~pyrnMn cp e ~ CTB aMlI, lIJIlI ~H Hp e~y~p e*~ e HH~ Tp aB M~p O B aHH~ *HB OTHEIX H~H odc~y~sa~omero r~epcoHa~a. H~e HpUBO~HTCH OCHOBHEIe Tpe60BaHH~ K ~HKCa~H ~BOTHEIX: ~HKCHpyIO~He yCTpOUCTBa He~B3H CHUTaTB HOpMa~BHEIM MeTO~OM CO~ep~aH~ ~BOTHEIX. ~lIKCIIpyIO~He yCTpOUCTBa He~B3H HpUMeH~TB HpOCTO KaK y~O6HEIU MeTO~ 06paILleHlISI C *lIBOTHEIMH. IlpO~O~Te~BHOCTB ~HKCa~H ~O~*Ha 6BITB M~HUMa~BHO HeO6XO~HMOH ,~JI~ BBIrIOJIHeH~ 3a'~alI nCCJIe,~OBaH~. * 3~ecb ~ ~a~ee HMelOTCH B B~ nonhuman primates - opuMaTbI (KpoMe ~e~oseKa) fnpu~. ped.).

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ILPABBJ1A ~ 06~3AHHOC~HA~HL~PE~EHBB 13 IBOTHLIe, lIOMeILlaeMLIe B ~HKCHpyIO~He yCTpOUCTBa, ~O~*HM HpOUTH Ipe~BapUTe~BHyIO TpeHUpOBKy ~~H at K yCTpOUCTBy ~ HepCOHa~y. Heo6xo,~uMo rIpe,~ycMoTpeTB Ha6~Io,~eHne sa ~nKcuposaHHuMn IBOTHEIMU Leper pery~pH~Ie upoMe~yTKu speMeHn, ycTaHas~nsaeM~Ie IACUC. O6XO~HMO 06eCHeHUTB BeTep~HapHyIO HOMONYM HpH BO3H~KHOBeHHU HOBpe)K,D;eHHU ~n sa60~esaHnn, CBSI3aHHEIX C ~nKcaunen. ~O~B~eHHe TpaBM, Sa60~eBaHHU H~H SaMeTHEIX H3MeHeHHU B HOBe~eHHU HaCTO BBIHy*~aeT H3BIMaTB *HBOTHOe Ha ~HKCHpyIO~erO yCTpOUCTBa Ha HeKOTOpOe BpeMSI FIJI OKOHIIaTe3IBHO. MHoroKpaTHb~e o6~pHb~e x~pypr~ecK~e onepau~ 06~upHa~ x~pyprn~ecKa~ Crepe rIpe,~rIo~araeT rIpoH~KHoBeHHe B IO3IOCTB Terra ~ ee 3KCH03~HIO H~H BBI3BIBaeT Cy~eCTBeHHOe Hapy~eHHe ~~3~ecKnx H~n ~3~0~0rn~ecKnx ~yHK~. ~O8TOMy MHOrOKpaTHEIe XlIpyprlIIIeCKlIe BMeIIIaTe3IBCTBa Ha WHOM ~ TOM me *HBOTHOM He peKOMeH~yIOTCH, HO MOryT HpOBO~HTBCH, echo Hay~Ho obocHos~IsaIoTc~ ncc~e,~osaTe~eM ~ yTsep*,~aIoTc~ IACUC. HarIpuMep, MHoroKpaTH~Ie ode x~pyprn~ecKne orIepaunn MOryT 6BITB OUpaB~aHEI, echo OHM SIBJISlIOTCH COCTaBHOH HaCTBIO ~KCHepUMeHTa~BHOH HpOrpaMMBI, ec~n OHU H03BO~SlIOT C8KOHOMUTB OrpaH~eHHEIe peCypCEI ~BOTHEIX [NRC, 1990; CM TaK*e HpUM. l, CTp. 2] n~n ec~n OHU Heo6xo'~HMBI H0 K~HHHHeCK~M coo6pa~eH~M. Ec~n IACUC ,~aeT pa3pemeHHe Ha TaKne orIepa~n, TO OHa ,~O~*Ha y'~e~HTB oco60e BHuMaHHe COCTO~HnIO ~BOTHEIX rIyTeM pery~HpHoro Ha6JIIo'~eH~ 3a ux nCXO,~OM. TOJIBKO 3KOHOM~'~eHe*HEIx Cpe,~CTB He ~BJI~eTCH ,~OCTaTO~HEIM OCHOBaHHeM ,~H BBIrIo~HeHH~ MHOrOKpaTHEIX 06~HpHEIX x~pypr~ecKHx orIepaLlHn C rIocJIe'~yIo~HM'~JInTeJIBHEIM BOCCTaHOBJIeHHeM. OrpaHlI~eHlIe IIOTpe6JIeHlISI IIlIILllI lI ~I~KOCTH Ec~n 3KCIlepUMeHTa~EHEIe yc~oBH~ Tpe6yI0T BBe,~eHH~ orpaHHHeHH~ B rIn~e ~ ~KOCTH, TO *HBOTHOe ,~O~*HO rIo~yHaTB XOTSI 6BI ux M~HuMa~BHEIe KO~nHeCTBa, HeO6XO,~HMBIe ,~H pa3BUT~ MO~O,~BIX oco6en H'~H lIO'=ep~aH~ 3,~0pOBB~ BCeX ~BOTHEIX B TeqeHHe '~nTe~BHoro BpeMeHH. TaKoe orpaH~qeHHe B nccJIe'~oBaTeJIBcKHx nHTepeCaX,~O~HO 6BITB HayqHO o6ocHoBaHo; KpOMe TOrO, ,~O~*Ha 6BITB pa3pa6oTaHa rIporpaMMa KOHTpO~H ~3Ho~or~qecKHx ~ IOBe~eHqeCKHX noKa3aTe~en, B~IOqaH KpUTepHU (TaKne KaK CH~eHHe MaCCEI n ypoBeHE r~paTaLlHn opraHH3Ma) ,~H BpeMeHHoro ~n rIo~Horo H3~HT~ ~BoTHoro H3 3KcrIepuMeHTa [Van Sluyters, Oberdorfer, 1991~. orpaH~qeHHoe lIOTpe6JIeHlIe 06BIqHO OUpe~e~HeTCH KaK HpO~eHT OT HeorpaH~qeHHoro (ad li- bitum) H~n HopMa~BHoro cpe'~HecyToqHoro rIoTpe6~eHHH' H~n KaK oTHocHTe~BHoe (B rIpOLleHTaX) H3MeHeHHe MaCCEI Te~a *HBOTHOrO. B c~yqae orpaH~qeHHoro o6ecrIeqeHH~ *n,~KOCTElO Heo6xo,~HMo OlIpe~e~HTB MepLI Hpe~OCTOpO*HOCTH ~H TOrO, qT06BI H36e~aTB OCTpOH ~H XpOHlIqeCKOlI ~erH~paTa~H, KOTOpLIe ~O~*HEI BK~IOqaTB e~e~HeBHyIO perUCTpa~IO HOTpe6~eHH~ *~KOCTH ~ pery~HpHOe B3Be~HBaHHeKaK M~HuMyM pa3 B He,~eJIIO [NIH, 1990] ~n qame, qTo Mo~eT rIoTpebosaTBc~ ,~JI~ Me~KHX ~BOTHEIX, HaUpUMep rpLI3yHOB. Oco60e BHUMaHHe ~O~HO y~e~HTBCH HOTpe6~eHUIO *HBOTHEIMU COOTBeTCTByIO~e C6a~aHCHpOBaHHOrO KOpMa [NYAS, 1988i, rIocKo~BKy rIpu OrpaH0qeHHOM yHOTpe6~eHHU ~KOCTH MO*eT

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14 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL yMeHBmuTBc~ ero r~oe,~aeMocTB. Ilpu ATOM HeO6XO~HMO ~CHO~B3OBaTB MlIHlIMa3ILHO ~ODyCTHMBIe orpaHHHeHH~' H03Bo~Io~He OCTANE pe~eHH~ Dayton sa,~alIn. Ilpu rIpose,~eHnn aKcrIepuMeHTos, cs~saHHux c supaboTKon yC~OBH~X pe~eKCOB, peKOMeH~yeTCH HpH6eraTB He K orpaHHHeHHIo7 a K ~CHO~B3OBaHHIO HaH60~ee Hpe~HOUTHTe~BHOrO KOpMa H~H *~KOCTH B Ka~ecTse r~o~o~Te~BHoro r~o,~Kpe~eH~. Bor~pocm pery~uposaH~ r~nTaH~ HpH pa3Be~eHHU ~BOTH~X ~H B ~HH~eCKHX He~x paCCMaTpUBalOTCH B rig. 2. BETEPlIHAPHAII IlOMOIL\b H eO6XO~HM0 06eCHeHUTB RIO BeTep~HapHyIO HOMONYM, B TOM IlIC3Ie Dactyl KO BCeM ~BOTHEIM C RIO O~eHKH OX 3~0pOBB~ ~ COCTO~H~. Canaan, crone lIepe,~ UHCTHTyTOM B Venom, Aeon HpOrpaMMM ~ MaC~Ta6M lICC3Ie~OBaHHU C *HBOTH~MU oUpe~e~IoT pe~eHHe O HaHMe BeTep~Hapa' pa60TaIO~erO Ha HOTSHOT ~H HeHO~HOH CTaBKe ~H B KaHeCTBe KOHCy~BTaHTa. OCMOTPM BeTep~HapOM, pa60TaIO~HM Ha HeHO~HOH CTaBKe ~H B KaHeCTBe KOHCy3IBTaHTa, ~O~*HEI HpOBO~HTBCH C UHTepBa~aM~, OUpe~e~HeMBIMU Hy*~aMU HpOrpaMMBI. KOHKpeTHEIe 06~3aHHoCTH BeTep~Hapa paCCMaTpUBaIOTCH B ret. 3. Ilo BT~eCK~M, ryMaHHEIM ~ Hay~HEIM coo6pa~eH~M nHor~a TpebyeTc~ IplIMeHeHlIe Ce~aTHBHEIX HpeHapaTOB, aHa~BreT~KOB ~IH aHeCTeT~KOB (CM. r~p~. A). B o6~3aHHocTn ~e~amero seTep~Hapa (T.e. seTep~Hapa, nMe~omero cooTBeTcTByIo~He rIo~HoMolI~) BXO~nT rIpe~ocTas~eHHe Hay~HOMy rIepcoHa~y peKOMeH~a~n, HarIpaB~eHHEIx Ha co6~Io~eHHe ryMaHHEIX Tpe6oBaHHn ~, B TO ~e speM~, cosMecTuM~Ix c Hay~H~IMn 3a,~a~aMu. AWRs ~ PHS Policy rIpe~ocTaB~HIoT ~elIa~eMy BeTep~Hapy rIo~HoMolInH KoHTpo~HpoBaTB cooTseTcTsue ,~pyrux aCTIeKTOB CO~ep~aHH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaHH~ *HBOTHEIX, KOTOpLIe MOryT BK~IolIaTB BorIpocEI co~ep~aHH~ ~ rInTaHH~ *HBOTHEIX, CaHuTapHn, KOHTpO~H 300H030B ~ OrIaCHEIX MaTepHa~OB. KBAJIlld>llKAL\1111 11 IlO,1;rOTOBKA IIEPCOHAJIA AWRs ~ PHS Policy o6~3BIsaIoT HaylIHEIe ylIpe;KD;eHnH rIp~HuMaTs Ha pa60Ty H0 CO~ep~aHUIO ~ ~CHO~B30BaHUIO *HBOTHEIX ~, HMeIO~UX COOTBeTCTByIO~yIO KBa~HKa~HIO. KO~eCTBO ~ KBa~HKa~ nepcoHa~a, Tpeby~omeroc~,~ BBIHO~HeH~ ~ obecne~eHn~ HpOrpaMMBI H0 co~ep~aHn~o lI lICTIO3IB30BaHUIO ~BOTHEIX, 3aBUCHT OT HeCKO~BKHX ~aKTOpOB, B TOM Huc~e OT TlITIa lI pa3Mepa ylIpe*~eHH~, a~M~HUCTpaTHBHOH CTpyKTypLI ~H o6ecrIeHeH~ Ha~e~a~ero yxo~a 3a *HBOTHEIM~, XapaKTepUCT~K BUBapH~, KO3IlIIIeCTBa lI BlI~OB co~ep~a~nxcH B HeM *HBOTHEIX, a TaK*e OT THDa ~ ~ _ lICC3Ie~OBaHHU, ~CHEITaHHU ~ O Dy~eH~. IlepCOHaJI, pa60TaIO~HH C ~BOTHEIM~, ~O~eH HMeTB COOTBeTCTByIO~yIO HO~rOTOBKy (CM. Hp~. A: >); HO8TOMy y~pe~eHHe ~O~*HO o6ecHeHuTE ero o6y~eHHe C OTpLIBOM ~H 6e3 OTpLIBa OT pa60TEI, CTpeM~CB 06~erHUTB 8~eKTHBHyIO pea~3a~HIo HpOrpaMMBI pa60T ~ Hp~H~HOB ryMaHHOrO CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaHH~ *HBOTHEIX. B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT 06~aCTH pa60T OT HepCOHa~a MO*eT IOTpe60BaTBCH 3HaHHe ~pyrUX~HC~HH, HaUpUMep, pa3Be~eH~ ~BOTHEIX, a~M~HUCTpaTHBHEIX BOUpOCOB, Me~HHEI ~ HaTO~OrHU ~a60paTOpHEIX ~BOTHEIX, rUrHeHEI Tpy~a ~ TeXH~KH 6e30HaCHoCTH, HOBe~eH~ *HBOTHEIX,

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ILPABBJ1A ~ 06~3AHHOC~HA~HL~PE~EHBB 15 ret ~ ,~pyrux acres, Heo6xo,~uM~x ,~ obecr~e~eHn~ KCHepUMeHTa~BH~X ~CC~e~OBaHHH. ~~H HO~rOTOBKH TeXH~KoB-~a60paHToB Cy~eCTByeT MHOrO pax Bo3Mo*HocTen. Bo MHorux mTaTax nMe~oTc~ Ko~e~ c aKKpe~nToBaHHuMn riporpaMMaMn rio BeTep~HapHon TexHo~ornn [AVMA, 1995~; B 60~B~HHCTBe CJIylIaeB OHlI paCCIIlITaHLI Ha ~ByX~eTHHU KypC 06y~eHH~, HO OKOHUaHHU KOTOpOrO BM0yCKH~K HO~y~aeT VENOM O HeHO~HOM BECALM 06pa30BaHHU B o6~acTn ecTecTseHHux HayK, a B HeKOTOp~X coax Ha ~eTupex~eTHnn Kypc 06y~eHUSI, HO OKOH~aHHU KOTOpOrO BM0yCKH~K HO~y~aeT VENOM 6aKa~aBpa ecTecTseHH~Ix HayK. KpoMe Toro, AMep~KaHcKa~ accounaun~ r~o HayKe o 0paTOpH~X *HBOTH~X (American Association for Laboratory Animal Sci- ence - AALAS) opraHnsyeT Kypcm c lIpe,~OCTaB~eHHeM,~OMOB TeXH~KOB ~ TeXHO~OrOB ,D~ pa60TM C ~a60paTOpH~MU ~BOTH~MU 6es rIony~eH~ Hay~Hon CTeHeHH. HaKOHe~, Cy~eCTByIOT KOMMepHeCKHe MaTepua~m ~H CaMOCTOSITe~EHOrO oGy~eHn~ (npH~. B). HepcoHa~' paboTa~omun c *lIBOTHEIM~, TaK*e ~O~*eH pery~HpHO yHaCTBOBaTB B MepOUpH~TH~X HO HeUpep~BHOMy 06yUeHUIO, HMeIO~UX OTHO~eHHe K ero o6~saHHocT~M. C~e~yeT HOO~p~TB yHaCTHe COTpy~H~KOB B MeCTHEIX ~ Ha~HOHa~BHEIX KOH+epeHL~X AALAS ~ ,~pyrux rIpO+eCCuOHaJI~H~IX opraHnsaL~. Ilo,~roTosKa rIo MecTy paboT~I ,~o~*Ha 6~ITB cocTasHon ~acTBIo pa60~nx 06SI3aHHOCTeH TeXH~KOB ~ ~OHO~H~TBCH OpraHH3yeMBIMU y~pe*~eHHeM ,~nCKyCCu~Mn ~ r~porpaMMaMn 06y~eHn~, a TaK*e n3y~eHneM ~nTepaTyp~I, HMeIO~eH OTHO~eHHe K UX pa60Te ~ B - y ~BOTHEIX, C KOTOpLIM OHU pa60TaIOT [Kreger, 1995~. Koop,~nHaTop~I rIporpaMM oGylIeHn~ MoryT o6pamaT~c~ 3a HOMO~BIO B ~H+OpMa~HOHHEIU ~eHTp 3a~HTEI *HBOTHEIX (Animal Welfare Information Center - AWIC) ~ ILAR [NRC, 1991~. ~eHHEIM ~OHO~HeHHeM K 6~6~0TeKe CHe~Ha~HCTOB HO ~a60paTOpHEIM *HBOTHEIM ~B~HeTCH <> KaHa~CKOrO COBeTa HO yXo~y 3a *HBOTHEIMU [CCAC, 1993] ~ IpaBlIJIa, lIplIHSITEIe B HeKOTOpLIX ~pyrux cTpaHax (CM. Hp~. ~. tIccJIe~oBaTeJIU, TeXHlIIIeCKlIlI lIepCOHaJI, lIpaKTlIKaHTEI ~ BpeMeHHEIe COTpy~H~K~, ocy~ecTs~q~o~He aHecTe3~Io' x~pypr~ecKne orIepaLlHn ~ ~pyrne aKcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIe MaHurIymR~7 ~O~HEI 6BITB cooTBeTcTByIo~HM o6pa3oM rIo~roToB~eHEI (rIyTeM o6y~eH~ ~n 6~aro~apH orIBITy pa6oTEI) K BBIrIo~HeHnIo rIo'~o6HEIx rIpo~e~yp ryMaHHEIM ~ Hay~HO o6ocHoBaHHEIM crIoco6oM. rilrilEHA TPY,1;A lI bE30IIACHOCTb IIEPCOHAJIA IlporpaMMa rIo rurneHe Tpy~a ~ 6e3orIacHocTH rIepcoHa~a ~o~*Ha 6BITE ~ - ~ COCTaBHOn lIacTBIo oo~en rIpOrpaMMBI co~ep~aHH~ ~ ncrIo~B3oBaHH~ ~BOTHEIX [CDC, NIH, 1993; CFR, 1984 a,b,c; PHS Policyi. TaKa~ rIporpaMMa ~O~*Ha cooTBeTcTBoBaTB ~e~epa~BHEIM, rIp~H~TEIM IIITaTOM ~ MeCTHEIM lIpaBlIJIaM lI aK~eHTHpoBaTB BHUMaHHe Ha o6ecneHeHnn 6e3oHacHEIx ~ HeHaHOCH~nX Bpe~ 3~0pOBBIO pa6olI~x MeCT. KoHKpeTHEIe rIpOrpaMMBI 3aBucHT OT 06~eKTa, lICC3Ie~OBaTe~BCKOH ~e~Te~BHOCTH, CHe~HeCKHX OHaCHEIX Bo3~encTBHn ~ BH~OB *HBOTHEIX. Ily6~nKa~n Ha~HoHa~BHoro Hay~HO- ncc~e,~osaTe~cKoro CoBeTa <<~urneHa Tpy,~a ~ 6e3or~acHocT~ r~epcoHa~a r~pu co~ep~aHHn ~ ncrIoJIB3oBaHHn aKcrIepuMeHTaJIBHEIx *HBOTHEIX>> [NRC, B rIelIaTH] CO~ep*nT peKOMeH~aLlHn ~ CrInCOK JInTepaTypLI ~JI~ pa3pa6oTKH pea~3aLlHn TaKOn a++eKTHBHOn ~ BCeCTOpOHHen rIpOrpaMMBI (CM. TaK*e rIp~.

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16 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ A). 3~eKTHBHaH HpOrpaMMa Hy~aeTCH B C~BHOH HO~ep*Ke CO CTOpOHM a,~M~HucTpaL~n ylIpe;K,D;eHn~ ~ ssauMo,~encTsun pas~Hux era OT~e~OB, B TOM Miscue 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHoro (rIpe,~cTas~qeMoro ncc~e,~osaTe~eM), oT,~e~os IO CO~ep~aHUIO ~ ~CHO~B30BaHUIO *HBOTHEIX (Hpe~CTaB~eMOrO BeTep~HapOM IACUC), KOHTpOJIIO OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI, OXpaHEI Tpy~a ~ TeXH~KH 6esorIacHocTu, a TaK*e a,~M~HucTpaTusH~Ix c~y*6 (HarIpuMep, oT,~e~a Ka,~pos, ~HHaHCOBOrO oT~e~a ~ ~KC~yaTa~HOHHOH C~y*6BI). O~HaKO OHepaTHBHEIe ~ rIosce'~HesHEIe o6HsaHHocTn rIo o6ecrIeHeHnIo 6esorIacHocTn pa60Hnx MecT so3~ara~0Tc~ Ha pyKOBO~HTe~eH ~abopaTopun H~n BUBapH~ (HanpuMep, OTBeTCTBeHHOrO lICTIO3IHlITe3ISI 3KCTIeplIMeHTa, 3ase,~yIomero BlIBaplIeM ~IlI BeTep~Hapa) ~ 3aBUCSIT OT co6~Io~eH~ HpaB~ TeXH~KH 6e3oHacHocTH BCeMU COTpy~H~KaMH. 14~eHTHtp~Ka~R OBaCHblX BO3~e~CTBMM ~ O~eHKa CTeHeHM p~CKa COTPY~H~K~, OCY~eCTB~HIO~He ~ 06eCrIeHUBaIO~He rIoMomB rIpH BBIHO~HeHHU ~KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX ~CC~e~OBaHHU C ~CHO~B30BaHHeM OHaCHEIX 6~0~0rHHeCKHX, X~MHHeCKHX H~H +~3~HeCKHX areHTOB (B TOM Huc~e HoHH3HpyI0~en ~ HenoHH3HpyI0~en pa,~Ha~), ~O~*HEI 06~a~aTE ~OCTaTO~HOH KBa~HC ,nKaunen ~H onpe~e~eHn~ CTeHeHU OHaCHOCTH TaKHX nCC~e,~OBaHHn ~ BBI6opa a,~eKBaTHEIX Cpe,~CTB 3a~nTEI. Lte~B 3~eKTHBHOn HpOrpaMMBI H0 rurneHe Tpy~a ~ TeXH~Ke 6e3onacHocTnCHn~eHne pucKa' CBH3aHHOrO C 3KCrIePUMeHTa~BHEIM ~CrIO~B30BaHHeM *HBOTHEIX, ~0 rIPHeM~eMOrO YPOBHH. TaK*e ~O~HEI 6BITB ~eHTH~HPOBaHEI ~ OUeHeHEI rIOTeHLIHa~BHO OTIaCHEIe ~aKTOPLI, TaKHe KaK BO3MO*HOCTB {IO~Y~eH~ YKYCOB ~BOTHEIX, X~M~eCKHe MOIO~He CPe~CTBa, a1~ePreHEI ~ 300HO3BI, CBH3aHHEIe C ~BOTHEIMU ~H HeH36e*HEIe rIpH Pa60Te C HUMH. CrIeUHa~HCTEI rIO OXPaHe Tpy~a ~ TeXH~Ke 6e3onacHocTu' HMeIO~He CHe~Ha~BHyIO HO~rOTOBKy no COOTBeTCTByIO~HM ~HC~HHaM, ~O~*HEI Hp~HUMaTB yHaCTHe B O~eHKe CTeHeHU pUCKa, CBSI3aHHOrO C OHaCHOH ~e~Te~BHOCTBIO ~ B pa3pa60TKe rIpoLle'~yp' HarIpaBJIeHHEIX Ha ero yMeHBIIIeHHe. MacIIITa6 ~ ypoBeHB y~acT~ pcoHa3Ia B lIporpaMMe lIO rlIrlIeHe Tpy~a ~ TeXH~Ke 6e3oHacHocTH ~O~*HEI OCHOBBIBaTBCH Ha CTeHeHU pUCKa, CBH3aHHOrO C ~CHO~B3yeMBIMU ~BOTHEIMU lI MaTepua~aMu; Ha lIHTeHCIIBHOCTlI, lIpO~O~HTe~BHOCTH ~ HaCTOTe B03HlIKHOBeHlISI TaKOlI OlIaCHOlI CIITya~; Ha CTeHeHU HyBCTBUTe~BHOCTH r~epcoHa~a ~ Ha UH~OpMa~H O HpO~eCCHOHa~EHEIX 3abo~esaHn~x ~ TpaBMaTH3Me Ha '~aHHoM pa6oHeM MecTe [Clark, 1 993l . 06y~eH~e nepcoHa~a Ilo,~sepra~omunc~ plICKy rIepCOHaJI ,~OJI*eH pacrIoJIaraT~ IIeTKlIM OTInCaHHeM {IPOLle~YP' HeO6XO~HMBIX {IPH BBIHOJIHeHHU CBOUX pa60lInx 06~3aHHOCTeH, OCO3HaBaTB CBH3aHHYIO C 3THM OrIaCHOCTB ~ YMeTB rIP~HUMaTB HeO6XO~HMBIe MepLI 6e3onacHocTu. IlepcoHa~o~*eH 6BITB HO~rOTOB~eH B COOTBeTCTBHU CO CTeHeHBIO PUCKa, CBSI3aHHOrO C KOHKpeTHEIM pabo~uM MeCTOM, H0 C~e~yIO~HM BOUpOCaM: 300HO3BI, 6e30rIaCHOCTB rIpH Pa60Te C X~M~eCK~MU Be~eCTBaM~, OrIaCHOCTB HpH M~KpO6~0~0rHHeCKHX ~ ~3~ecKnx B03~eUCTBH~X (B~IOHaH o6~y~eHne a~eprnn), HeO6BI~HEIe yC~OBH~ H~H areHTEI, KOTOpLIe MOryT ~B~HTBCH COCTaBHOn lIacTBIo 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIx rIpoLle'~yp (BK~IolIaH ncrIo~B3osaHHe *HBOTHEIX, {IO~YIIeHHEIX MeTO~aMU reHHOH UH*eHePHU, ~ IIe~OBelIeCKHX

OCR for page 9
ILPABBJ1A ~ 06~3AHHOC~HA~HL~PE~EHBB 17 TKaHeH y ~BOTH~X C OC~a6~eHH~M HMMyHUTeTOM), ~HKBH~a~ pax OTXO~OB, Tpe60BaH~ WAHOO rurneHM ~ ~pyrne acneKTu (HanpuMep, oco6me MepM Hpe~OCTOpO*HOCTH HpH 6epeMeHHocTu, sabo~esaH~x ~n HOH~eHHOM lIMMyHlITeTe). Jl~qHa~ r~r~eHa Bce COTpy~H~KH 06~3aHM CO6~10~aTB HpaBH~a THOR rUrHeHM. YIIpe*~eHHe PONCHO CHa6*aTB COTpy~H~KOB o~e*~on, upuro~Hon ~~ ~CHO~B3OBaHH~ B BuBapHn ~ ~a6opaTopH~x7 rue HpOBO~HTCH pa60Ta C *HBOTH~M~, ~ o6ecrIeUnsaTB ee OHnCTKy. Bo MHorux c~yHa~x MO*HO HO~B3OBaTBCH KOMMepHeCK~MU HpaHe~H~MH; O~HaKO ~~H obes3apa*nsa eke; KOTOpaH MO*eT rIo~sepraTBcH OrIaCHuM BOs~enCTB~M, Heo6xo~HMo r~p~HuMaTB cooTseTcTsy~omne Mepu. B HeKoTop~x cuTyaun~x c~e,~yeT rIpuMeH~TB rIepHaTKn' Mackay, rO~OBHMe y60pu, xa~aTM' KoM6nHe3oHM ~ Fax O~HOPa3OBOrO rIO~B3OBaH~. COTPY~H~KH ~O~*HM MITE PYKH ~ MeH~TB o'~e;K'D;y rIo Mepe HeO6XO~HMOCTH ~~H co6~Io~eHH~ HpaB~ THOR rUrHeHM. Ilpe~MeTM BepXHen eke; B KOTOP~X COTPY~H~KH Pa60TaJOT B {IOMe~eH~X, r~e HaXO~HTCH ~BOTHMe, He~B3H HOCHTB sa Hpe~e~aMn BuBap~. COTPY~H~KH He ~O~*HM eCTB, HUTB, KypUTB ~H HO~B30BaTBCH KOCMeT~KOH B HOMe~eH~X, r,~e Haxo,~Tc~ ~soTH~Ie. Pa60~e noMemeH~, upOue,~ypbI ~ MOH~TOp~Hr OMe~eH~, Heo6xo,~uMme,~ obecr~e~eH~ Tpe60BaHHU rurneHm Tpy,~a TeXH~KH 6esor~acHocTu, CBSI3aHHMe C HpOrpaMMaMU co~ep~aHn~ ~ ~CHO~B3OBaHH~ *HBOTH~X, MOryT 6MTB CaMMMU pa3H~MH. ~OCKO~BKy CO6~10~eHHe HpaB~ ~HOH rUrHeHM ~B~HeTCH 06~3aTe~BH~M, HeO6XO~HMO 06eCHeHUTB yC~OBH~ ~H BMHO~HeHH~ BTOrO Tpe60BaHHH. ~H BTOH ~e~n HeO6XO~HMO HMeTB MOe~HMe HOMe~eHH~ ~ ~ymesue. ~OMe~eHH~, o60py,~osaHne ~ rIpoue,~ypu ~O~*HM 6uTB cupoeKTuposaHu, no~o6paHm ~ pa3pa60TaHM TaK, HTo6M 06eCHeHUTB a~eKBaTHMe C TOUKH 3peH~ BprOHOM~KH orIepaL~n, KOTOpLIe yMeHB~aIOT B03MO*HOCTB HO~y~eHH~ ~3~eCKHX TpaBM IepCOHaJIOM (HaTIplIMep, lIplI lIO~H~THU TH*e~OrO 060py~0BaHH~ H~H ~BOTH~X ~H BMHO~HeHHU MOHOTOHH~X ~BH*eHHH). B ~e~x 6e3onacHocTn 060py~0BaHHe HeO6XO~HMO CO~ep~aTB ~O~*H~M 06pa30M ~ pery~HpHO IpOBepSITB. Bu60p COOTBeTCTByIO~UX CHCTeM CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTH~X Tpe6yeT IpOC JeCCHOHa~BHEIX 3HaHHU ~ OHEITa ~ 3aBUCHT OT XapaKTepa B03MO*HEIX OlIaCHEIX B03~eUCTBHU, THDa ~CHO~B3yeMBIX *HBOTHEIX ~ HpOTOKO~a ~KCHepUMeHTOB. 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX ~BOTHEIX C~e~yeT pa3Me~aTB TaK~M 06pa30M, HT06BI HMeTB B03MO*HOCTB KOHTpO~HpOBaTB ~ y~a~HTB HOTeH~Ha~BHO KOHTaMlIHlIpOBaHHEIe HH~eBBIe HpO~yKTEI, HO~CTH~, ~eKa~H ~ MO~y. Heo6xo,~uMo lIpe~yCMOTpeTB HOMe~eHH~, obopy~osaHne ~ HpO~e~ypLI ~H rIpaB~ILHOH ~HKBH~a~H MaTepua~a' ncn0~3yeMoro ~H no~cT~a. Heo6xo,~uMo lICTIOJIB30BaTB Ha~e*HEIe MeTO~BI ~H onpe~e~eHn B03~eUCTBH~ HOTeH~Ha~BHO OHaCHEIX 6no~orn~ecKnx, X~MHHeCKHX ~3ulIeCKnX areHTOB TaM, r,~e cymecTsyeT sepo~THocT~ rIpeB~IIIIeHn rIpe,~e~BHo ,~orIycTuM~Ix yposHen so3,~encTs~ [CFR, 1 984b] .

OCR for page 9
18 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ ~KCHep~MeHTb! Ha ~BOTHblX, COUp~eHHble C p~CKOM Ilpu su60pe KOHKpeTH~X Mep 6e30TIaCHOCTH lIpH rIpose,~eHnn ~KCHepUMeHTOB Ha ~BOTH~X, CBH3aHH~X C OHaCH~MU B03~eUCTB~M~, oco60e BHUMaHHe HeO6XO~HMO y~e~HTB HpO~e~ypaM CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTH~X, XpaHeHlIIO ~ yHHUTO*eHUIO pa3~HHEIX Be~eCTB, ~03HpOBKe ~ BBe~eHUIO HpeHapaTOB, 06pa~eHUIO C *~K~MU Cpe~aMU ~ TKaH~MU OpraHH3Ma, y~a~eHUIO OTXO~OB ~ TpyHOB *HBOTHEIX, a TaK*e 3amuTe nepcoHa~a. H eO6XO~HMO ~CHO~B30BaTB 6e30HaCHoe 060py~0BaHHe B COHeTaHHU C HpaB~BHoH aKC~yaTa~HeH ~ cooTBeTcTByIo~HMU MepaMU 6e3oHacHocTH. B o6~eM' 6e3orIacHocTB orIpe'~e~HeTcH rIo'~roToB~eHHEIM rIepcoHa~oM' KOTOpLIn Hey~OHHO C06~IO,~aeT rIpas~a TeXH~KH 6e30TIaCHOCTH. y~pe;K'D;eHHe ,~O~*HO HMeTB rIncBMeHHo 3a~nKCHpOBaHHEIe nHCTpyK~n, KacaIomnec~ lIpOBe~eHH~ 3KCHepUMeHTOB C ~CHO~B30BaHHeM OHaCHEIX 6no~or~ecKnx, X~M~eCKHX ~ ~3~ecKnx areHTOB. Heo6xo,~uMo pa3pa60TaTB MexaHH3M KOHTpOJI~ (HarIpuMep, ylIpe'~nTB KOMuCCHIO rIo TeXH~Ke 6e30TIaCHOCTH) c y~aCTHeM ~U, 3HaKOMBIX C BOUpOCaMU O~eHKH OHaCHOCTH ~ o6ecrIeHeH~ 6e3orIacHocTH. IIOCKO~BKY ncrIo~B3oBaHHe *HBOTHEIX B TaKHX lICCJIe~OBaHH~X Tpe6yeT CHe~Ha~BHOrO paCCMOTpeHH~, TO HpO~e~ypLI ~ lIOM eILl eHHSI, lIp e~~Ha3HalI eHHEIe ,~JISI UX lIp OB e,~ eHHSI, ,~ OJI*HEI lIp OlITlI 3KCHepTH3y B OTHO~eHHU COOTBeTCTB~ HpaB~aM 6e30HaCHoCTH. HeO6XO~HMO O~Ha~BHO Hp~H~TB HpOrpaMMBI HO 06eCHeHeHUIO 6e30HaCHoCTH, HpH3BaHHEIe O~eHUTB CTeHeHB pUCKa, BBIpa60TaTB MepLI Hpe~OCTOpO*HOCTH ,~JI~ ero peryJI~pOBaHH~, rapaHTHpOBaTB ,~OJI*HEIU ypOBeHB HO~rOTOBKH rIepcoHa~a ~ ero B~a,~eH~ cooTBeTcTByIo~HMn HaBBIKaMn ~ rapaHTHpoBaTB COOTBeTCTBUe y~pe*,~eHn~ yC~OBUSIM 6e3orIacHoro HpOBe~eHH~ Hay~HEIX ~CC~e~OBaHHH. H eO6XO~HMO 06eCHeHUTB TeXH~eCKyIO HOMO~B ~H KOHTpO~H lI rapaHTlIlI CO6JIIO~eH~ Tpe60BaHHU 6e30HaCHoCTH B ~aHHOM y~pe~eHHH. B rIy6~nKaunn <<~no~or~ecKa~ 6e3orIacHocTB B M~KpO6~0~0r~eCKHX ~ 6noMe,~unHcKnx ~a60paTop~x>> [CDC, NIH, 1993i, a TaK*e B MaTepHa~ax HaunoHa~BHoro Hay~Ho-ncc~e,~osaTe~BcKoro coBeTa [NRC, B HeHaTH] HpUBO~HTCH peKOMeH~a~H HO MeTO~aM ~ HpO~e~ypaM, 6e30HaCHoMy 060py~oBaHUIo ~ XapaKTepUCT~KaM HOMe~eHHU ~H pa60TEI C OHaCHEIMU 6no~or~ecK~Mn areHTaMn ~ MaTepua~aMu. Jla60paTopun, r,~e ncr~0~3y~0Tc~ HelI3BeCTHEIe H0 CTeHeHU pUCKa MaTepHa~BI, ~O~HEI KOHCy~BTHpOBaTBCH CO cTIe~Ha~HcTaMU H3 ~eHTpa HO KOHTpO~IO ~ HpO~aKT~Ke 3a6o~eBaHHU (Center for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC) B OTHO~eHHU B03MO*HOH OHaCHOCTH ~ Me~HHCKOrO Ha6~IO~eH~. ~H 3a~HTEI HepCOHa~a, pa60TaIO~erO C *HBOTHEIM~, 3KcrIepuMeHTaTopos, ,~pyrux ~u, Haxo,~nxc~ B BUBapHU, Hy6~HK~, ~BOTHEIX ~ OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI OT B03~eUCTB~ OHaCHEIX 6~0~0r~eCKHX, XlIMlIIIeCKlIX lI ~3~HeCKHX areHTOB, ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B 3KCHepUMeHTaX Ha *HBOTHEIX, HeO6XO~HMO HMeTB CHe~Ha~BHEIe HOMe~eHH~ ~ 6e30HaCHoe 060py~0BaHHe. ~OMe~eH~, Hpe~Ha3HaHeHHEIe ~ pa60TEI C ~BOTHEIMU HpH ~CHO~B30BaHHU OHaCHEIX areHTOB, ~O~*HEI 6BITB OT~e~eHEI OT ~pyrux rIOMe~eHHn, r,~e co'~ep~aTcH *HBOTHEIe, BcrIoMoraTe~BHEIx rIOMe~eHHn nccJIe'~oBaTeJIBcKHx ~ KJInHulIecKHx JIa6opaTopHH7 a TaK*e 60JIBHHUHEIX IO3IlIK3IlIHlIIIeCKlIX OT~e~eHHH; TaKHe HOMe~eHH~ ~O~*HEI HMeTB HeTKOe o6o3HalIeHHe7 a ~OCTyD B HUX pa3pe~eH TO~BKO OUpe~e~eHHOMy KpyLy ~. IlplIIIeM lIpOeKTlIpOBaHlIe lI CTpOlITeJIBCTBO TaKHX HOMe~eHHU ~O~*HEI

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ILPABBJ1A ~ 06~3AHHOC~HA~HL~PE~EHBB 19 Hpe~yCMaTpUBaTB y~O6CTBO SIX ybopKu ~ co~ep~aH~ MeXaH~eCKHX CHCTeM. paB~BHO KOHTpO~HpyeMOe ~ ~CHO~B3yeMoe noMemeHne c ~ByXKOp~OpHOH n 6apBepHon CHCTeMOH SIB~SIeTCSI 8~eKTHBH~M Cpe~CTBOM yMeHB~eH~ TIePeKPeCTHOrO SaPa~eH~. CTOKH B r~o~y'~o~*HM 6MTB r~ocTo~HHo Sa~HTM ~KOCTBIO ~H 6MTB Ha~e*HO H3O~HPOBaHM KaK~M-~60 ~PYrUM CI1OCO60M. CH~OHM ~O~*HM 6MTB 060PY~OBaHM MeXaHH3MOM aBTOMaT~eCKOH SaP~KH H {IO=eP*aHH~ B HUX ~O~*HOrO YPOBH~ *~KOCTH. orIacHMe MaTepHa~o~*HM ocTaBaTBcH BHyTpH aKcrIepuMeHTa~BHon 30HM. KHTP~B 3a rIOTOKaMn Bo3~yxa (HarIpuMep' rlyTeM rIpuMeHeHH~ 6Ho~ornHecKH 6e3orIacHux 60KCoB), rIo3Bo~Io~n CBeCTH '~o M~HuMyMa y~eTy~HBaHHe 3arpH3HHIo~nx rIpuMecen' ~B~HeTCH OCHOBHuM 6apBepoM rIpH pa6oTe C orIacHuMn areHTaMn ~ BCKpuTHn 3aPa~eHH~X~BOTH~X [CDC, 1995; Kruse et al. 7 1991 ] . crIe~Ha~EHMe ycTponcTBa B rIoMe~eHHn' TaKne KaK ~Io3~, OTPHLIaTeJILHOe ~aBJIeHHe BO3~YXa, BO3~YIIIHMe ~UJIETPM ~ ~Y6JI~PY]O~ee MexaH~ecKoe o6opy'~osaHHe c aBTOMaT~eCK~M rIepeK~IoHeHHeM' ~B~IOTCH BTOPHUHuMn 6aPBePaMH' {IPe~Ha3HaHeHHuMn ~JIH {IPe~YTIPe*~eHH~ c~y~anHoro BM6poca orIacHux MaTepHa~oB 3a rIpe,~e~M BuBap~ ~ Bo3~encTB~ Ha oKpy~alo~ylo cpe,~y. B03~eUCTBUe OTpa60TaHH~X UHra~HOHH~X aHeCTeT~KOB ~O~*HO 6MTB orpaH~eHo. 3To 06~Ho ,~ocTuraeTc~ ~CHO~B30BaHHeM pa3~Hux MeTO~OB y,~a~eHH~ OTpa60TaHH~X ra30B. B c~yHae rIpuMeHeH~ 3~Hpa 6e3orIacHocTE rIepcoHa~a o6ecrIeHuBaeTcH rIpaB~EHuM c~e~~oBaHHeM Ha~~rIncHM~ a TaK*e ncrIo~B3oBaHHeM o6opy'~oBaHH~ ~ MeTO,~OB, rIo3Bo~Io~nx CBeCTH '~o MlIHlIMyMa plICK B3pLIBa 3Toro ra3a. ttH~MBM~ya~bHaR 3am~Ta IlpH HeO6XO~HMOCTH y~pe~eHHe ~O~*HO 06eCHeHUTB COTpy~H~KOB 060py~0BaHHeM ~ Cpe~CTBaMU UH~HBH~ya~BHOH 3a~HTM ~ Hp~H~TB ~pyrne MepM 6e30HaCHoCTH. COTPY~H~K~, OCy~eCTB~HIO~He yXo~ 3a *HBOTH~M~, ~O~HM HOCHTB Hpe~ocTaB~HeM~o y~pe~eHHeM 3a~nTH~o o~e~y, oGysB ~n 6ax~M ~ HepHaTKH. IlpH 3TOM 3a~HTHyIO o~e~y Hy*Ho MeH~TB no Mepe Heo6xo,~uMocTu. Ec~n 3TO ~e~eCoo6pa3Ho' COTpy~H~KH ~O~*HM Hp~HUMaTB ,~yIII, rIOK~a~ rIOMemeH~, r,~e co,~ep~aTc~ 3KCrIepuMeHTa~H~Ie *nsoTH~Ie, BBIHO~HRIOTCH 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIe HpO~e~ypLI ~H rOTOB~TCH HpeHapaTEI ~H BBe,~eH~ ~BOTHEIM. 3a~HTHyIo o'~e;K'D;y ~ ,~pyrne cpe'~cTsa 3amuTEI He~B3H HOCHTE 3a rIpe,~e~aMn pa60Hen 30HEI, r,~e Haxo'~HTcH orIacHEIe MaTepHa~BI, ~n BHe BuBapHH. COTPY,~H~K~, KOTOpLIe MOryT rIo'~BepraTBcH Bo3~encTBuIo orIacHEIx areHTOB, ,~O~*HEI 6BITB o6ecrIeHeHEI cooTBeTcTByIo~HMn Cpe,~CTBaMn UH~HBH~YaJIBHOH 3a~HTEI [CFR, 1984C]. HaTIPUMeP, COTPY~H~KOB, pa60TaIO~UX c HpUMaTaM~, HeO6XO~HMO obecne~nTB TaK~MU Cpe~CTBaMU 3a~nTEI, KaK rIeplIaTK~, HapyKaBH~K~, MaCKH ~ ~nTKH ,~JI~ JInLla. B rIoMe~eHH~x c BBICOK~M ypOBHeM myMa Heo6xo'~HMo rIpe'~ocTaBuTB COTpy,~H~KaM Cpe,~CTBa 3a~nTEI opraHa cJIyxa. COTPY,~H~KOB, pa6oTaIo~nx B rIOMe~eH~X, r,~e OHn MOryT rIo'~BepraTBcH Bo3~encTBuIo 3apa~eHHEIx IIaCTHLl B Bo3~yxe ~n rIapax' c~e'~yeT o6ecrIeHuTB cooTBeTcTByIo~HMn pecrInpaTopaMn [CFR, 1984C].

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20 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL Me~MHCKOe Ha6~o~eH~e ~ HpO{pH~aKT~Ka sabo~esaH~ nepcoHa~a IlpH pa3pa6oTKe ~ peat rIporpaMMM Me'~nHcKoro Ha6~Io,~e ~ HpO~aKT~KH Sa60~eBaHHU HepCOHa~a HeO6XO~HMO HO~HTB UH~OpMa~HIO y CrIeLlHaJI~CTOB, HarIpuMep y spalIen ~n cpe,~Hero Me~HHCKOrO nepcoHa~a' crIeUna~Hpylo~nxcH B 06~aCTH rUrHeHM Tpy~a ~ HpO~eCCHOHa~EH~X Sa60~eBaHHH. ~pH BTOM HeO6XO~HMO yHUT~BaTB Tpe60BaHH KoH~eHLIna~BHocTH ~,~pyrne Me~HHCKHe ~ IOpH~HHeCKHe aCHeKTEI B KOHTeKCTe COOTBeTCTByIO~UX ~e~epa~BHEIX, Hp~H~TEIX ~TaTOM ~ MeCTHEIX 3aKOHOB. Ilepe,~ HarIpaBJIeHHeM Ha pa6oTy oT'~eJIBHEIx COTpy,~H~KOB peKOMeH,~yeTCH O3HaKOMUTBCH C UX ~CTOp~MU 60~e3HU ~H O~eHKH pUCKa, KOTOpOMy OHU MOryT HO~BeprHyTBCH. TaK*e peKOMeH~yeTCH HpOBO~HTB pery~HpHEIe Me~HHCKHe OCMOTpLI ~, OTHOCH~UXCH K pa3~HHEIM rpyHDaM pUCKa. CJIe,~yeT yTBep~HTB COOTBeTCTByIO~H rpa~nK HMMyHH3a~. Ba*Ho HpOBeCTH HMMyHH3a~HIO pa60TaIO~UX C ~BOTHEIMU COTpy~H~KOB HpOTHB CTo~6H~Ka. KpoMe Toro, CJIe,~yeT rIpeWIO~TE JI~LlaM, rIo,~sepra~omuMc~ plICKy 3apa~eH~ H~H BO3~eUCTBH~ B~pyCOB 6e~eHCTBa H~H reHaTHTa B, HpOUTH ripe~BapuTe~Hy~o nMMyHnsaun~O. Ec~n n~aHupy~OTC~ 3KCnepuMeHT~I c UH~eK~HOHHEIMU Sa60~eBaHH~M~, HpOTHB KOTOpLIX Cy~eCTByIOT 3~eKTHBHEIe BaK~HHEI, peKOMeH~yeTCH HpOBeCTH BaK~HHa~HIO nepcoHa~a. KOHKpeTHEIe peKOMeH~a~H MO*HO HaUTH B Hy6~HKa~H <<~HO~OrHHeCKaH 6e30HaCHOCTB B M~KpO6~0~0rHHeCKHX ~ 6~0Me~HHCKHX ~a60paTopH~X>> [CDC, NIH, 1993~. B3HTHe CEIBOpOTKH ~O HpHeMa Ha pa60Ty ~H ~O HaHa~a pa60TEI C *HBOTHEIMU peKOMeH~yeTCH TO~BKO B OCO6BIX CHTya~X, OUpe~e~HeMBIX CHe~Ha~HCTaMU B 06~aCTH rUrHeHEI Tpy~a ~ TeXH~KH 6esonacHocTn [NRC, B HeHaTHi. B TaKHX CHTya~X HeO6XO~HMO pe~HTB BOlIpOCEI, CBH3aHHEIe C H~eHTH~HKa~HeH, BBI~B~eHHeM ~CTO~H~Ka, cTa6~BHocTBIo ~ yC~OB~Mn XpaHeH~ 6HorIpo6. IIOMUMO 3TOrO, HeO6XO~HMO y6e~HTBCH B TOM, HTO ~e~n, B KOTOpLIX 6y~yT ~CHO~B30BaTBCH B3HTEIe HpO6BI CEIBOpOTK~, He HpOTHBOpeHaT COOTBeTCTByIO~HM Hp~H~TEIM ~TaTOM 3aKOHaM COr~aCyIOTCH C ~e~epa~BHEIMU HpaB~aMU H0 OXpaHe ~, ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B ncc~e~osaHn~x (~e~epa~H~In perucTp 56(117): 28002-28032, 18 HIOH~ 1991 r.) [Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Federal Register 56(117): 28002-28032, June 18, 1991)~. COCTaBHOlI IIaCTBIO HpOrpaMMBI Me~HHCKOrO Ha6~IO~eHH HpO~aKT~KH 3a60~eBaHHU HepCOHa~a ~B~HeTCH KOHTpO~B 300H030B [CDC, NIH, 1993; Fox et al., 1984; NRC, B lIelIaTlI]. COTPY~H~KH ~O~*HEI HO~yHUTB lIHCTpyKLl~H UH~OpMnpOBaTB upe'~cTasuTeJIen a,~M~HUCTpaLl~H O lIOTeH~Ha~BHOM ~n pea~BHOM CTO~KHOBeHHU C ~CTOqH~KOM UH~eK~H ~ rIo'~o3peBaeMon yrpo3e 3,~0pOBBI0 ~n 3a6o~eBaHHH. Heo6xo'~HMo ycTaHoBuTB qeTKlIe lIpO~e~ypLI perUCTpa~H ~I06BIX HeCqaCTHEIX C~yqAeB, yKyCOB, ~apaHUH ~ a~epraqecKnx peaKunn [NRC, B rIeqaTHi. ~O~e3HU, Hepe~aBaeMBIe qe~OBeKy OT ~pyrux HpuMaToB7 MoryT rIpe'~cTaB~HTB cepBe3HyIo orIacHocTB. IIO3TOMY pa6oTaIo~He c HuMn TeXH~qeCKne COTpy,~H~K~, K~nHuLluCTEI, ncc~e'~oBaTe~' aCrInpaHTEI ~OKTOpaHTEI, TeXH~KH-~a60paHTEI, KOHCy~BTaHTEI, peMOHTHEIe pa60que, COTpy,~H~KH oT'~eJIa OXpaHEI ~ JIIo6BIe ,~pyrne JInLla, KoHTaKTHpyIo~He C rIpuMaTaMn ~n BBIrIO~HRIO~He ~I06BIe B~BI pa60T B 3oHe ux pa3Me~eH~' ~O~*HEI pery~HpHO HpOXO~HTB HpOBepKy Ha Ty6epKy~e3. Yq~TEIBaH

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BPABB~ ~ 06~3~HOC~HL~ ~PE~EHBB 21 BO3MO*HOCTE BO3~eUCTBH~ B~pyCa Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (paHee Ha3MBaB~HCH Herpe~irus simiae), coda, pa6oTalo~He C MaKaKaMH7 ~O~HM HMeTE ACTS ~ HOSTS UHCTp~H B OTHO~eHHU 06pa~eH~ B CTaH~H HeOT~O*HOH HOMO~H HpH yKycax n~n uapar~nHax [Holmes et al.,l995~. Heo6xo,~uMo paspaboTaT~ rIpoL~e,~ypy o6ecrIelIeH~ Me'~HLl~HcKon rIOMO~H rIplI yKycax ~ L~aparInHax. JIlITEPATYPA AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association). 1995. Accredited programs in veteri- nary technology. Pp. 236-240 in 1995 AVMA Membership Directory and Resource Manual, 44th ed. Schaumburg, Ill.: AVMA. Bryant, J. M. 1980. Vest and tethering system to accommodate catheters and a temperature monitor for nonhuman primates. Lab. Anim. Sci. 30~4, Part D: 706-708. Byrd, L. D. 1979. A tethering system for direct measurement of cardiovascular function in the caged baboon. Am. J. Physiol. 236: H775-H779. CCAC (Canadian Council on Animal Care) 1993. Guide to the Care and Use of Experi- mental Animals. Vol. 1, 2nd ed. E. D. Olfert, B. M. Cross, and A. A. McWilliam, eds. Ontario, Canada: Canadian Council on Animal Care, 211 pp. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1993. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 3rd ed. HHS Publi- cation No. (CDC) 93-8395. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1995. Primary Containment for Biohazards: Selection, Installation and Use of Bio- logical Safety Cabinets. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1984a. Title 10; Part 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Federal Register. CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1984b. Title 29; Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards; Subpart G. Occupational Health and Environmental Control, and Subpart Z. Toxic and Hazardous Substances. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Fed- eral Register. CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1984c. Title 29; Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards; Subpart I, Personal Protective Equipment. Washington, D. C.: Of- fice of the Federal Register. CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1985. Title 9 (Animal and Animal Products). Sub- chapter A (Animal Welfare). Washington, D. C.: Office of the Federal Register. Clark, J. M. 1993. Planning for safety: Biological and chemical hazards. Lab. Anim. 22:33- 38. Fox, J. G., C. E. Newcomer, and H. Rozmiarek. 1984. Selected zoonoses and other health hazards. Pp. 614-648 in Laboratory Animal Medicine. J. G. Fox, B. J. Cohen, and F. M. Loew, eds. New York: Academic Press. Grandin, T. 1991. Livestock behavior and the design of livestock handling facilities. Pp. 96-125 in Handbook of Facilities Planning. Vol. 2. Laboratory Animal Facilities. New York: Van Nostrand. 422 pp. Holmes, G. P., L. E. Chapman, J. A. Stewart, S. E. Strauss, J. K. Hilliard, D. S. Daven- port, and the B Virus Working Group. 1995. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of B-virus infections in exposed persons. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 421-439. IRAC (Interagency Research Animal Committee). 1985. U. S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training. Federal Register. May 20, 1985. Washington, D. C.: Office of Science and Technol- ogy Policy. Kreger, M. D. 1995. Training Materials for animal Facility Personnel: AWIC Quick Bibli- ography Series., 95-08. Beltsville, Md.: National Agricultural Library. Kruse, R. H., W. H. Puckett, and J. H. Richardson. 1991. Biological safety cabinetry. Clin.

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22 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL Micro. Reviews 4: 207-241. McNamee, G. A., Jr., R. W. Wannemacher, Jr., R. E. Dinterman, H. Rozmiarek, and R. D. Montrey. 1984. A surgical procedure and tethering system for chronic blood sam- pling, infusion, and temperature monitoring in caged nonhuman primates. Lab. Anim. Sci. 34(3): 303-307. Morton, W. R., G. H. Knitter, P. M. Smith, T. G. Susor, and K. Schmitt. 1987. Alterna- tives to chronic restraint of nonhuman primates. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191~10~: 1282-1286. NIH (National Institutes of Health).1990. Guidelines for Diet Control in Behavioral Study. Bethesda, Md.: Animal Research Advisory Committee, NIH. NRC (National Research Council). 1990. Important laboratory animal resources: selec- tion criteria and funding mechanisms for their preservation. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Preservation of Laboratory Animal Resources. ILAR News 32~4~: A1-A32. NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 152 pp. NRC (National Research Council). In press. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Re- sources Committee on Occupational Safety and Health in Research Animal Facili- ties. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press. NYAS (New York Academy of Sciences). 1988. Interdisciplinary Principles and Guide- lines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing and Education. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. PHS (Public Health Service). 1996. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. 28 pp. [PL 99-158, Health Research Extension Act, 1985] Reinhardt, V. 1991. Training adult male rhesus monkeys to actively cooperate during in- homecage venipuncture. Anim. Technol. 42~1~: 11-17. Reinhardt, V. 1995. Restraint methods of laboratory non-human primates: a critical re- view. Anim. Welf. 4: 221-238. Van Sluyters, R. C. and M. D. Oberdorfer, eds. 1991. Preparation and Maintenance of Higher Mammals During Neuroscience Experiments. Report of National Institutes of Health Workshop. NIH No.91-3207. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health. Wakeley, H., J. Dudek, and J. Kruckeberg. 1974. A method for preparing and maintaining rhesus monkeys with chronic venous catheters. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 6: 329- 331.