collaborate effectively on specific items.” He called for more experiments in collaboration, some trial-and-error, to learn the best ways of doing it.

William Joyner of the Semiconductor Research Corporation said that he was under the impression that STARC in its previous incarnation would support university research at several Japanese universities. Now it has moved primarily toward training designers for system-on-a-chip design. He asked whether another organization had stepped in to continue funding the projects that used to be funded by STARC. Toyoki Takemoto of STARC said that the organization continues to be funded by industry to do collaborative research with universities but that more assistance was needed for education, especially curriculum reform.

An Expertise Gap

Dr. Moore recalled the need for more technical graduates in the United States and asked whether such a huge supply-and-demand gap existed in Japan as well. Dr. Masuhara said that the total number of students graduating from electrical engineering programs had not fallen in Japan, but he said that several years ago a study of expertise needed by industry revealed a large gap. In the field of designing VLSI chips company demand was four times larger than the number of students, a ratio that has not improved and is probably increasing. He said that was the reason Dr. Takemoto had mentioned the need for improved university education, particularly for the design of the silicon chip system.

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