tent with nutritionally adequate and health-promoting diets for diverse populations.
Fats are mixtures of fatty acids and all fats contain some SFA. To meet the AMDR for total fat (20–35 percent of energy for adults and 25–35 percent of energy for children ages 4–18 years), some SFA will be present in diets. The question then becomes how much SFA will be present in an achievable health-promoting diet. For example, using menu modeling, diets can be planned that have 3 to 5 percent of calories from SFA (IOM, 2002a; Kris-Etherton et al., 2000). These menu-modeling estimates fall within the recommendations of a report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) (2002) of less than 7 percent of calories that were developed for a Therapeutic Lifestyle Change diet.
Similarly, diets can be planned that provide less than 1 percent of calories from TFA provided that the only sources of TFA are naturally occurring (i.e., in meats, poultry, and dairy products). A recent study that used data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals reported that the average intake of TFA was 2.6 percent of energy, of which approximately 25 to 26 percent was from naturally occurring sources (Allison et al., 1999a). A TFA-free diet is not possible if animal-based food is consumed.
For SFA and TFA the committee’s challenge was to recommend the best manner in which to use the scientific information in the macronutrient report that would lead to a useful % DV. The committee recommends that SFA and TFA amounts be listed on separate lines, but that one % DV be included in the Nutrient Facts box for these two nutrients together. The committee recognizes that SFA and TFA are chemically distinct and acknowledges that the macronutrient report identified research that demonstrated physiological effects that differed among the fatty acids (IOM, 2002a). However both SFA and TFA raise total and LDL cholesterol levels and therefore are potential contributors to CHD risk. Since consumer research has shown that the % DV is a helpful tool for comparing different food products (FDA, 1993c; NIN, 1999) that could be optimized further (Levy et al., 2000), the committee recommends that the % DV be included for both SFA and TFA. By listing SFA and TFA and their gram amounts on separate lines and by providing a combined % DV for them, the consumer can be further educated about the unique differences between these fatty acids yet recognize that neither is desirable in terms of CHD risk. As stated