to know total nutrient intake in the diet relative to the UL, exposure estimates analogous to those for conventional foods need to be developed for dietary supplements.

Modifications for Special Purposes

GUIDING PRINCIPLE 16. Where discretionary fortification is scientifically justified for special-use products, the intended use of the targeted food should be the standard against which the nutrient content is assessed.

The committee’s discussion of food marketed for special purposes focused on three types: those specially formulated for targeted populations at risk, meal replacements, and food designed as alternative sources of nutrients. In the United States some small children require relatively high amounts of nutrients that are inadequate in their diets. In this situation foods are formulated to ameliorate the nutrient inadequacy. For example, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children has used cereals highly fortified with iron as a cornerstone of its efforts to decrease anemia among at-risk children. These special cases may require the use of higher amounts of discretionary fortification than might be suitable for more general-purpose food products.

Meal replacements are single foods—in bar, powdered mixes for reconstitution, or ready-to-drink form—that are intended to replace one or more meals or to serve as a sole source of nourishment. These products are marketed to or “represented for use” by a variety of individuals, such as those seeking a convenient meal or snack, those trying to manage their weight, and those at nutritional risk due to involuntary weight loss or recovery from illness or surgery.

In the United States FDA does not regulate the nutrient composition of meal replacements, but how a product is represented for use plays an important role in determining appropriate fortification goals for these products. FDA’s current general fortification policy (FDA, 1980; 21 C.F.R. 104.20) states that nutrients must be added to food in proportion to caloric content. FDA recognizes that this policy may not be appropriate if a food is represented for use as a substitute for one made to resemble a traditional food. For example, a product represented to be used in a weight-reduction program is more appropriately fortified to replace the vitamins and minerals normally provided by a traditional meal that contains more calories.

In Canada “special purpose foods,” which include meal replacements and nutritional supplements, are handled separately from

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