Selected Illustrative Calculations Using a Population-Weighted Approach

The tables included in this appendix are not recommended values for either the U.S. or the Canadian population. They were developed using the formulas and methodology described in Chapter 5 to illustrate how a population-weighted approach could be applied to generating Daily Values. The development of actual numerical values would necessitate careful discussion and decisions regarding the selection of the best representative numbers to use for each variable in the formulas. In addition, decisions regarding such factors as numerical rounding and certain aspects of the calculations would need to be made. The population base chosen for these examples is indicated within each table. For details of other variables see the methodological description in Chapter 5.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
B
Selected Illustrative Calculations Using a Population-Weighted Approach
The tables included in this appendix are not recommended values for either the U.S. or the Canadian population. They were developed using the formulas and methodology described in Chapter 5 to illustrate how a population-weighted approach could be applied to generating Daily Values. The development of actual numerical values would necessitate careful discussion and decisions regarding the selection of the best representative numbers to use for each variable in the formulas. In addition, decisions regarding such factors as numerical rounding and certain aspects of the calculations would need to be made. The population base chosen for these examples is indicated within each table. For details of other variables see the methodological description in Chapter 5.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
TABLE B-1 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for Persons 4 Years of Age and Older Using 2005 U.S. Population Figures and of the Highest EAR for Each Nutrient (Nonweighted)
Nutrienta
Median Weighted EAR
Percent Within 20%b
Percent Within 30%c
Highest EARd
Percent Within 20%e
Percent Within 30%f
Vitamin A (μg RAE)
529
54
72
630
51
71
Vitamin C (mg)
63
65
79
75
60
80
Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol)
12
83
91
12
84
91
Thiamin (mg)
0.9
80
90
1.0
78
89
Riboflavin (mg)
1.0
73
88
1.1
67
87
Niacin (mg)
11
70
86
12
71
86
Vitamin B6 (mg)
1.1
69
83
1.4
51
77
Folate (μg DFE)
314
84
92
330
84
91
Vitamin B12 (μg)
2.0
83
91
2.0
84
91
Copper (μg)
684
84
92
700
84
91
Iodine (μg)
93
85
95
95
85
94
Iron (mg)
6.1
59
77
8.1
39
64
Magnesium (mg)
286
60
79
350
53
75
Molybdenum (μg)
33
84
92
34
84
91
Phosphorus (mg)
588
75
81
1,055
14
15
Selenium (μg)
44
84
92
45
85
92
Zinc (mg)
7.5
61
79
9.4
48
75
NOTE: Population subgroup proportions for this table were computed using the U.S. Census Bureau middle series of the national population projections (Population Projections Program, 2000). The source data, which give the age distribution for each age and gender, were aggregated in concordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes age and gender categories.
aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents.
bEstimated percentage of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR.
cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR.
dExcludes EARs for pregnant and lactating women.
eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR.
fEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
TABLE B-2 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for Persons 4 Years of Age and Older Using 2006 Canadian Population Figures and of the Highest EAR for Each Nutrient (Nonweighted)
Nutrienta
Median Weighted EAR
Percent Within 20%b
Percent Within 30%c
Highest EARd
Percent Within 20%e
Percent Within 30%f
Vitamin A (μg RAE)
533
55
73
630
52
72
Vitamin C (mg)
64
67
82
75
61
82
Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol)
12
85
92
12
85
92
Thiamin (mg)
0.9
81
92
1.0
80
90
Riboflavin (mg)
1.0
75
90
1.1
68
88
Niacin (mg)
11
72
87
12
72
87
Vitamin B6 (mg)
1.1
70
85
1.4
53
79
Folate (μg DFE)
315
86
93
330
85
92
Vitamin B12 (μg)
2.0
85
92
2.0
85
92
Copper (μg)
686
86
93
700
86
93
Iodine (μg)
93
86
96
95
86
95
Iron (mg)
6.1
61
78
8.1
38
63
Magnesium (mg)
288
62
81
350
54
77
Molybdenum (μg)
33
85
93
34
86
93
Phosphorus (mg)
587
77
83
1,055
13
14
Selenium (μg)
44
86
93
45
86
93
Zinc (mg)
7.5
62
80
9.4
49
76
NOTE: Population subgroup proportions for this table were computed using the Statistics Canada national population projections (Statistics Canada, 2003). The source data are aggregated; group definitions differ slightly from the EAR guidelines.
aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents.
bEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR.
cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR.
dExcludes EARs for pregnant and lactating women.
eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR.
fEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
TABLE B-3 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Adequate Intakes (AIs) Based on U.S. Census Bureau Data from 2001 and 2005
Nutrient
Toddlersa
General Populationb
Pregnant Womenc
Lactating Womend
Biotin (μg)
8
28
30
35
Calcium (mg)
500
1,091
1,011
1,011
Choline (mg)
200
460
450
550
Chromium (μg)
11
27
30
45
Fluoride (mg)
0.7
3
3
3
Linoleic Acid (g)
7
13
13
13
α-Linoleic Acid (g)
0.7
1.3
1.4
1.3
Manganese (mg)
1.2
2.0
2.0
2.6
Pantothenic acid (mg)
2.0
5
6
7
Vitamin D (μg)
5
7
5
5
Vitamin K (μg)
30
95
89
89
aAIs for toddlers ages 1–3 y in the United States (IOM, 2002a). No weighting was done for this group.
bBased on U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the general population of the United States in 2005 ages 4 y and above (Population Projections Program, 2000).
cBased on U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the population of pregnant women in the United States in 2001 (Population Projections Program, 2000).
dIn the absence of specific data on the ages of lactating women, these values are based on National Vital Statistics System estimates of the population of pregnant women in the United States in 2001 (Ventura et al., 2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
TABLE B-4 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) for the General Population 4 Years of Age and Older
Range (% of energy)
Macronutrient
Low
Average
High
Fata
21
28
35
Linoleic acid
5.0
7.5
10.0
α-Linolenic acid
0.6
0.9
1.2
Carbohydrateb
45
55
65
aThe AMDR for total fat is comprised of population-weighted values that were computed based on U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. population in 2005 (Population Projections Program, 2000).
bNo weighting was done for this group.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
TABLE B-5 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and of the Highest EAR for Nutrients for Pregnant Women in the United States
Nutrienta
Median Weighted EAR
Percent Within 20%b
Percent Within 30%c
Highest EAR
Percent Within 20%d
Percent Within 30%e
Vitamin A (μg RAE)
549
68
87
550
68
87
Vitamin C (mg)
70
95
99.7
70
95
99.7
Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol)
12
95
99.7
12
95
99.7
Thiamin (mg)
1.2
95
99.7
1.2
95
99.7
Riboflavin (mg)
1.2
95
99.7
1.2
95
99.7
Niacin (mg)
14
82
95
14
82
95
Vitamin B6 (mg)
1.6
95
100
1.6
95
100
Folate (μg DFE)
520
95
99.7
520
95
99.7
Vitamin B12 (μg)
2.2
95
99.7
2.2
95
99.7
Copper (μg)
799
95
99.7
800
95
99.7
Iodine (μg)
160
95
99.7
160
95
99.7
Iron (mg)
22
95
99.7
23
94
99.6
Magnesium (mg)
295
94
99
335
81
98
Molybdenum (μg)
40
95
99.7
40
95
99.7
Phosphorus (mg)
583
92
96
1,055
3.6
4.1
Selenium (μg)
49
95
99.7
49
95
99.7
Zinc (mg)
9.5
95
99.6
10.5
88
99
NOTE: Computations are based on 2001 estimates (Ventura et al., 2003) of the number of pregnant women comprised of three age groups: 18 y, 19–30 y, 31–50 y.
aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents.
bEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR.
cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR.
dEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR.
eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification
TABLE B-6 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and of Highest EAR for Nutrients for Lactating Women in the United States
Nutrienta
Median Weighted EAR
Percent Within 20%b
Percent Within 30%c
Highest EAR
Percent Within 20%d
Percent Within 30%e
Vitamin A (μg RAE)
899
68
87
900
68
87
Vitamin C (mg)
100
95
99.7
100
95
99.7
Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol)
16
95
99.7
16
95
99.7
Thiamin (mg)
1.2
95
99.7
1.2
95
99.7
Riboflavin (mg)
1.3
95
99.7
1.3
95
99.7
Niacin (mg)
13
82
95
13
82
95
Vitamin B6 (mg)
1.7
95
100
1.7
95
100
Folate (μg DFE)
450
95
99.7
450
95
99.7
Vitamin B12 (μg)
2.4
95
99.7
2.4
95
99.7
Copper (μg)
999
95
99.7
1,000
95
99.7
Iodine (μg)
209
95
99.7
209
95
99.7
Iron (mg)
6.5
95
99.7
7.0
92
99
Magnesium (mg)
260
94
99
300
77
97
Molybdenum (μg)
36
95
99.7
36
95
99.7
Phosphorus (mg)
583
92
96
1,055
3.6
4.1
Selenium (μg)
59
95
99.7
59
95
99.7
Zinc (mg)
10.4
95
99.7
10.9
94
99.6
NOTE: Computations are based on approximation. Proportion of lactating women for each age group was assumed to be the same as the proportion of pregnant women (proportion of births stratified by mother’s age in three age groups: 18 y, 19–30 y, 31–50 y) using data from Ventura and colleagues (2003).
aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents.
bEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR.
cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR.
dEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR.
eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.