B
Selected Illustrative Calculations Using a Population-Weighted Approach

The tables included in this appendix are not recommended values for either the U.S. or the Canadian population. They were developed using the formulas and methodology described in Chapter 5 to illustrate how a population-weighted approach could be applied to generating Daily Values. The development of actual numerical values would necessitate careful discussion and decisions regarding the selection of the best representative numbers to use for each variable in the formulas. In addition, decisions regarding such factors as numerical rounding and certain aspects of the calculations would need to be made. The population base chosen for these examples is indicated within each table. For details of other variables see the methodological description in Chapter 5.



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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification B Selected Illustrative Calculations Using a Population-Weighted Approach The tables included in this appendix are not recommended values for either the U.S. or the Canadian population. They were developed using the formulas and methodology described in Chapter 5 to illustrate how a population-weighted approach could be applied to generating Daily Values. The development of actual numerical values would necessitate careful discussion and decisions regarding the selection of the best representative numbers to use for each variable in the formulas. In addition, decisions regarding such factors as numerical rounding and certain aspects of the calculations would need to be made. The population base chosen for these examples is indicated within each table. For details of other variables see the methodological description in Chapter 5.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE B-1 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for Persons 4 Years of Age and Older Using 2005 U.S. Population Figures and of the Highest EAR for Each Nutrient (Nonweighted) Nutrienta Median Weighted EAR Percent Within 20%b Percent Within 30%c Highest EARd Percent Within 20%e Percent Within 30%f Vitamin A (μg RAE) 529 54 72 630 51 71 Vitamin C (mg) 63 65 79 75 60 80 Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol) 12 83 91 12 84 91 Thiamin (mg) 0.9 80 90 1.0 78 89 Riboflavin (mg) 1.0 73 88 1.1 67 87 Niacin (mg) 11 70 86 12 71 86 Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.1 69 83 1.4 51 77 Folate (μg DFE) 314 84 92 330 84 91 Vitamin B12 (μg) 2.0 83 91 2.0 84 91 Copper (μg) 684 84 92 700 84 91 Iodine (μg) 93 85 95 95 85 94 Iron (mg) 6.1 59 77 8.1 39 64 Magnesium (mg) 286 60 79 350 53 75 Molybdenum (μg) 33 84 92 34 84 91 Phosphorus (mg) 588 75 81 1,055 14 15 Selenium (μg) 44 84 92 45 85 92 Zinc (mg) 7.5 61 79 9.4 48 75 NOTE: Population subgroup proportions for this table were computed using the U.S. Census Bureau middle series of the national population projections (Population Projections Program, 2000). The source data, which give the age distribution for each age and gender, were aggregated in concordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes age and gender categories. aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents. bEstimated percentage of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR. cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR. dExcludes EARs for pregnant and lactating women. eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR. fEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE B-2 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for Persons 4 Years of Age and Older Using 2006 Canadian Population Figures and of the Highest EAR for Each Nutrient (Nonweighted) Nutrienta Median Weighted EAR Percent Within 20%b Percent Within 30%c Highest EARd Percent Within 20%e Percent Within 30%f Vitamin A (μg RAE) 533 55 73 630 52 72 Vitamin C (mg) 64 67 82 75 61 82 Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol) 12 85 92 12 85 92 Thiamin (mg) 0.9 81 92 1.0 80 90 Riboflavin (mg) 1.0 75 90 1.1 68 88 Niacin (mg) 11 72 87 12 72 87 Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.1 70 85 1.4 53 79 Folate (μg DFE) 315 86 93 330 85 92 Vitamin B12 (μg) 2.0 85 92 2.0 85 92 Copper (μg) 686 86 93 700 86 93 Iodine (μg) 93 86 96 95 86 95 Iron (mg) 6.1 61 78 8.1 38 63 Magnesium (mg) 288 62 81 350 54 77 Molybdenum (μg) 33 85 93 34 86 93 Phosphorus (mg) 587 77 83 1,055 13 14 Selenium (μg) 44 86 93 45 86 93 Zinc (mg) 7.5 62 80 9.4 49 76 NOTE: Population subgroup proportions for this table were computed using the Statistics Canada national population projections (Statistics Canada, 2003). The source data are aggregated; group definitions differ slightly from the EAR guidelines. aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents. bEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR. cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR. dExcludes EARs for pregnant and lactating women. eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR. fEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE B-3 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Adequate Intakes (AIs) Based on U.S. Census Bureau Data from 2001 and 2005 Nutrient Toddlersa General Populationb Pregnant Womenc Lactating Womend Biotin (μg) 8 28 30 35 Calcium (mg) 500 1,091 1,011 1,011 Choline (mg) 200 460 450 550 Chromium (μg) 11 27 30 45 Fluoride (mg) 0.7 3 3 3 Linoleic Acid (g) 7 13 13 13 α-Linoleic Acid (g) 0.7 1.3 1.4 1.3 Manganese (mg) 1.2 2.0 2.0 2.6 Pantothenic acid (mg) 2.0 5 6 7 Vitamin D (μg) 5 7 5 5 Vitamin K (μg) 30 95 89 89 aAIs for toddlers ages 1–3 y in the United States (IOM, 2002a). No weighting was done for this group. bBased on U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the general population of the United States in 2005 ages 4 y and above (Population Projections Program, 2000). cBased on U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the population of pregnant women in the United States in 2001 (Population Projections Program, 2000). dIn the absence of specific data on the ages of lactating women, these values are based on National Vital Statistics System estimates of the population of pregnant women in the United States in 2001 (Ventura et al., 2003).

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE B-4 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) for the General Population 4 Years of Age and Older   Range (% of energy) Macronutrient Low Average High Fata 21 28 35 Linoleic acid 5.0 7.5 10.0 α-Linolenic acid 0.6 0.9 1.2 Carbohydrateb 45 55 65 aThe AMDR for total fat is comprised of population-weighted values that were computed based on U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the U.S. population in 2005 (Population Projections Program, 2000). bNo weighting was done for this group.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE B-5 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and of the Highest EAR for Nutrients for Pregnant Women in the United States Nutrienta Median Weighted EAR Percent Within 20%b Percent Within 30%c Highest EAR Percent Within 20%d Percent Within 30%e Vitamin A (μg RAE) 549 68 87 550 68 87 Vitamin C (mg) 70 95 99.7 70 95 99.7 Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol) 12 95 99.7 12 95 99.7 Thiamin (mg) 1.2 95 99.7 1.2 95 99.7 Riboflavin (mg) 1.2 95 99.7 1.2 95 99.7 Niacin (mg) 14 82 95 14 82 95 Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.6 95 100 1.6 95 100 Folate (μg DFE) 520 95 99.7 520 95 99.7 Vitamin B12 (μg) 2.2 95 99.7 2.2 95 99.7 Copper (μg) 799 95 99.7 800 95 99.7 Iodine (μg) 160 95 99.7 160 95 99.7 Iron (mg) 22 95 99.7 23 94 99.6 Magnesium (mg) 295 94 99 335 81 98 Molybdenum (μg) 40 95 99.7 40 95 99.7 Phosphorus (mg) 583 92 96 1,055 3.6 4.1 Selenium (μg) 49 95 99.7 49 95 99.7 Zinc (mg) 9.5 95 99.6 10.5 88 99 NOTE: Computations are based on 2001 estimates (Ventura et al., 2003) of the number of pregnant women comprised of three age groups: 18 y, 19–30 y, 31–50 y. aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents. bEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR. cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR. dEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR. eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.

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Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification TABLE B-6 Illustrative Calculations of Population-Weighted Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and of Highest EAR for Nutrients for Lactating Women in the United States Nutrienta Median Weighted EAR Percent Within 20%b Percent Within 30%c Highest EAR Percent Within 20%d Percent Within 30%e Vitamin A (μg RAE) 899 68 87 900 68 87 Vitamin C (mg) 100 95 99.7 100 95 99.7 Vitamin E (mg α-tocopherol) 16 95 99.7 16 95 99.7 Thiamin (mg) 1.2 95 99.7 1.2 95 99.7 Riboflavin (mg) 1.3 95 99.7 1.3 95 99.7 Niacin (mg) 13 82 95 13 82 95 Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.7 95 100 1.7 95 100 Folate (μg DFE) 450 95 99.7 450 95 99.7 Vitamin B12 (μg) 2.4 95 99.7 2.4 95 99.7 Copper (μg) 999 95 99.7 1,000 95 99.7 Iodine (μg) 209 95 99.7 209 95 99.7 Iron (mg) 6.5 95 99.7 7.0 92 99 Magnesium (mg) 260 94 99 300 77 97 Molybdenum (μg) 36 95 99.7 36 95 99.7 Phosphorus (mg) 583 92 96 1,055 3.6 4.1 Selenium (μg) 59 95 99.7 59 95 99.7 Zinc (mg) 10.4 95 99.7 10.9 94 99.6 NOTE: Computations are based on approximation. Proportion of lactating women for each age group was assumed to be the same as the proportion of pregnant women (proportion of births stratified by mother’s age in three age groups: 18 y, 19–30 y, 31–50 y) using data from Ventura and colleagues (2003). aRAE = retinol activity equivalents, DFE = dietary folate equivalents. bEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the population-weighted EAR. cEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the population-weighted EAR. dEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 20% of the highest EAR. eEstimated proportion of the population with a requirement within 30% of the highest EAR.